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Directed Opportunism
A Summary of the Art of Action for the
Sydney Limited WIP Society
Jason Yip
@jchyip
j.c.yip@computer....
THE PROBLEM IS EXECUTION
Does your org have these problems?
“We know what we want to do but
we are unable to do it.”
“We have many things happening
but we’re not sure if they’re the right
things.”
“We’ve done many things but we’re
not sure that they’re effective.”
THE CAUSE IS ORGANISATIONAL
FRICTION
“The very business of getting an organisation
made up of individuals, no matter how
disciplined, to pursue a collective go...
A lot of things cause friction
Friction creates gaps
Our plans are imperfect because we
lack knowledge
OutcomePlan
What we actually know What we’d like to know
Knowledge Gap
Our actions don’t match our plans
because it’s so difficult to align
everyone who needs to act
PlanAction
What people actu...
The effects of our actions may not
be what we want because the
environment is non-linear and
unpredictable
OutcomeAction
W...
THE SOLUTION IS DIRECTED
OPPORTUNISM
The usual (and wrong) response
Specifying too much detail
creates confusion when the
situation demands one thing while
the instructions say another
The right response
In plain English...
1. Decide what really matters
2. Get the message across
3. Give people space and support
STRATEGY AS INTENT TO ADDRESS
THE KNOWLEDGE GAP
“Rather than a plan, a strategy is a
framework for decision making. It is an
original choice about direction, which
enable...
“A strategy enables people to reflect on
activity and provides rationale for deciding
what to do next.”
Stephen Bungay
Good strategy is realistic and
coherent
Strategy versus leadership
Leadership is a moral activity involving
relating to people and generating emotional
commitment...
“Even if our destination is unclear, we need
some sense of the end-state to be achieved
which gives our current actions a
...
Strategy is not “what are the
components of the problem?” but
“what is the core of the problem?”
BRIEFING AND BACK-BRIEFING TO
ADDRESS THE ALIGNMENT GAP
The purpose of briefing is to enable
people to act independently
Instructions should contain all, but
also only, what people cannot
determine for themselves to achieve
a particular purpose
As long as higher intention is made
clear, individual initiative can be
relied on to adjust actions according
to the situa...
The more alignment you have, the
more autonomy you can grant
Intent vs Autonomy
Express intent in terms of what to achieve
and why
Grant autonomy in terms of what to do and
how to rea...
Elements of a briefing
1. An account of the situation
2. A short statement of overall intent
3. Extrapolation of specific ...
1. Account of the situation
Essential features of the situation which are
relevant to the action to be taken
● State of kn...
2. Short statement of overall intent
What we need to achieve now and why. The
main effort.
The Spice Girls directive...
“So tell me what you want, what you
really, really want”
3. Extrapolation of specific tasks
implied by the intent
Responsibilities, themes, and priorities for the
next level of th...
4. Any further guidance about
boundaries
● Constraints
● Future decisions to be taken
● Anti-goals (“whatever you do, don’...
Translating intent
FREEDOM TO ADJUST ACTION TO
ADDRESS THE EFFECTS GAP
Freedom of action in organisations
is mostly determined by structure
and policy
Structure only works if it
encompasses appropriate decision
rights and responsibilities
Can the person or group with the
best knowledge and expertise in any
given area act in a timely manner
without asking for ...
Specifying boundaries is like marking out a
minefield. If mines are known or rumoured to
exist but are unmarked, people wi...
When boundaries are unclear most
people will not explore, but rather
keep their head down and play it
safe. Stepping over ...
“...people’s convictions tend to
correlate with their interests. Their
interests are largely determined by
the structure a...
“The more objectives someone has,
the harder it is for them to focus on
what really matters and the more
their freedom of ...
“Dispensing money and medals is
part of corporate body language. It
reveals what is really valued,
whatever people say.”
S...
The ultimate judgement of
performance should be about the
fulfillment of intent
SUMMARY
Summary
● We are finite beings with limited knowledge
and independent wills
● The business environment is unpredictable
an...
Summary (cont.)
● Within the constraints of our limited
knowledge we should strive to identify the
essentials of a situati...
Summary (cont.)
● Everyone must have the skills and resources
to do what is needed and the space to take
independent decis...
Summary (cont.)
● People will only show the level of initiative
required if they believe the organisation will
support them
Directed Opportunism
Images
● https://flic.kr/p/6ZwuPm
● https://flic.kr/p/m4tfVT
● https://flic.kr/p/4jkjyF
● https://flic.kr/p/bD7Rn
Directed Opportunism: A summary of The Art of Action for the Sydney Limited WIP Society
Directed Opportunism: A summary of The Art of Action for the Sydney Limited WIP Society
Directed Opportunism: A summary of The Art of Action for the Sydney Limited WIP Society
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Directed Opportunism: A summary of The Art of Action for the Sydney Limited WIP Society

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A summary of the Art of Action for the Sydney Limited WIP Society. How to create aligned, autonomous action to achieve a collective goal.

Published in: Leadership & Management

Transcript of "Directed Opportunism: A summary of The Art of Action for the Sydney Limited WIP Society"

  1. 1. Directed Opportunism A Summary of the Art of Action for the Sydney Limited WIP Society Jason Yip @jchyip j.c.yip@computer.org http://jchyip.blogspot.com
  2. 2. THE PROBLEM IS EXECUTION
  3. 3. Does your org have these problems?
  4. 4. “We know what we want to do but we are unable to do it.”
  5. 5. “We have many things happening but we’re not sure if they’re the right things.”
  6. 6. “We’ve done many things but we’re not sure that they’re effective.”
  7. 7. THE CAUSE IS ORGANISATIONAL FRICTION
  8. 8. “The very business of getting an organisation made up of individuals, no matter how disciplined, to pursue a collective goal produces friction just as surely as applying the brakes of a car.” -- Stephen Bungay
  9. 9. A lot of things cause friction
  10. 10. Friction creates gaps
  11. 11. Our plans are imperfect because we lack knowledge OutcomePlan What we actually know What we’d like to know Knowledge Gap
  12. 12. Our actions don’t match our plans because it’s so difficult to align everyone who needs to act PlanAction What people actually do What we want people to do Alignment Gap
  13. 13. The effects of our actions may not be what we want because the environment is non-linear and unpredictable OutcomeAction What we actually achieve What we hope to achieve Effects Gap
  14. 14. THE SOLUTION IS DIRECTED OPPORTUNISM
  15. 15. The usual (and wrong) response
  16. 16. Specifying too much detail creates confusion when the situation demands one thing while the instructions say another
  17. 17. The right response
  18. 18. In plain English... 1. Decide what really matters 2. Get the message across 3. Give people space and support
  19. 19. STRATEGY AS INTENT TO ADDRESS THE KNOWLEDGE GAP
  20. 20. “Rather than a plan, a strategy is a framework for decision making. It is an original choice about direction, which enables subsequent choices about action.” Stephen Bungay
  21. 21. “A strategy enables people to reflect on activity and provides rationale for deciding what to do next.” Stephen Bungay
  22. 22. Good strategy is realistic and coherent
  23. 23. Strategy versus leadership Leadership is a moral activity involving relating to people and generating emotional commitment Strategy is an intellectual activity involving discerning facts and applying rationality
  24. 24. “Even if our destination is unclear, we need some sense of the end-state to be achieved which gives our current actions a purpose…even if the current situation is volatile, we need to decide what to do next in order to get into a better position than we are in the present.” Stephen Bungay
  25. 25. Strategy is not “what are the components of the problem?” but “what is the core of the problem?”
  26. 26. BRIEFING AND BACK-BRIEFING TO ADDRESS THE ALIGNMENT GAP
  27. 27. The purpose of briefing is to enable people to act independently
  28. 28. Instructions should contain all, but also only, what people cannot determine for themselves to achieve a particular purpose
  29. 29. As long as higher intention is made clear, individual initiative can be relied on to adjust actions according to the situation
  30. 30. The more alignment you have, the more autonomy you can grant
  31. 31. Intent vs Autonomy Express intent in terms of what to achieve and why Grant autonomy in terms of what to do and how to realise the intent
  32. 32. Elements of a briefing 1. An account of the situation 2. A short statement of overall intent 3. Extrapolation of specific tasks implied by the intent 4. Any further guidance about boundaries
  33. 33. 1. Account of the situation Essential features of the situation which are relevant to the action to be taken ● State of knowledge: what is known, what is probable but uncertain, what is unknown but could be relevant ● What are the implications for what the organisation has to do ● End-state, if this is distant
  34. 34. 2. Short statement of overall intent What we need to achieve now and why. The main effort. The Spice Girls directive...
  35. 35. “So tell me what you want, what you really, really want”
  36. 36. 3. Extrapolation of specific tasks implied by the intent Responsibilities, themes, and priorities for the next level of the organisation.
  37. 37. 4. Any further guidance about boundaries ● Constraints ● Future decisions to be taken ● Anti-goals (“whatever you do, don’t allow this to happen”)
  38. 38. Translating intent
  39. 39. FREEDOM TO ADJUST ACTION TO ADDRESS THE EFFECTS GAP
  40. 40. Freedom of action in organisations is mostly determined by structure and policy
  41. 41. Structure only works if it encompasses appropriate decision rights and responsibilities
  42. 42. Can the person or group with the best knowledge and expertise in any given area act in a timely manner without asking for permission?
  43. 43. Specifying boundaries is like marking out a minefield. If mines are known or rumoured to exist but are unmarked, people will not advance.
  44. 44. When boundaries are unclear most people will not explore, but rather keep their head down and play it safe. Stepping over invisible boundaries invites punishment.
  45. 45. “...people’s convictions tend to correlate with their interests. Their interests are largely determined by the structure and the compensation system.” Stephen Bungay
  46. 46. “The more objectives someone has, the harder it is for them to focus on what really matters and the more their freedom of action is constrained.” Stephen Bungay
  47. 47. “Dispensing money and medals is part of corporate body language. It reveals what is really valued, whatever people say.” Stephen Bungay
  48. 48. The ultimate judgement of performance should be about the fulfillment of intent
  49. 49. SUMMARY
  50. 50. Summary ● We are finite beings with limited knowledge and independent wills ● The business environment is unpredictable and uncertain, so we should expect the unexpected and should not plan beyond circumstances we can foresee
  51. 51. Summary (cont.) ● Within the constraints of our limited knowledge we should strive to identify the essentials of a situation and make choices about what it is most important to achieve ● To allow people to take effective action, we must make sure they understand what they are to achieve and why
  52. 52. Summary (cont.) ● Everyone must have the skills and resources to do what is needed and the space to take independent decisions and actions when the unexpected occurs, as it will ● As the situation changes, everyone should be expected to adapt their actions according to their best judgment in order to achieve the intended outcomes
  53. 53. Summary (cont.) ● People will only show the level of initiative required if they believe the organisation will support them
  54. 54. Directed Opportunism
  55. 55. Images ● https://flic.kr/p/6ZwuPm ● https://flic.kr/p/m4tfVT ● https://flic.kr/p/4jkjyF ● https://flic.kr/p/bD7Rn
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