Aug6 chords

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Aug6 chords

  1. 1. Augmented Sixth Chords Creating Stress in Music and Music Students since 1783
  2. 2. They are EASY! Don’t worry. <ul><li>They function as pre-dominants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>So they will ALWAYS go to V. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They are like a iv6 chord with a raised root </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I know that’s confusing, but it can help sometimes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are 3 types: Italian, French, German </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fr and Ger are variations on the Italian. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Italian Sixth Chord <ul><li>Basic structure of an Augmented Sixth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn this very well, otherwise all of your augmented sixth chords will have problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Made of…. An Augmented Sixth, with an added third. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t double any of the pitches in the augmented sixth. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Building the Italian 6th <ul><li>Find scale degree 5. </li></ul><ul><li>Take the note a half-step above 5 (b6). Put this in the bass. </li></ul><ul><li>Take the note a half-step below 5 (#4). Put this in an upper voice. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These make your aug 6th. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Place a diatonic third above the bass. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You’ll also need to double this if writing in 4 voices. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Building an Italian 6th <ul><li>Find Scale Degree 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Take a half-step above 5 and put in bass </li></ul><ul><li>Take a half-step below 5 and put in upper voice </li></ul><ul><li>Add diatonic third above bass and double it. </li></ul>
  6. 6. THAT’S IT!!!
  7. 7. Just like any other chord, the bass is the only voice that has to be specific. All other pitches can be in any order in the upper voices.
  8. 8. Build an It6 in f# minor <ul><li>Scale Degree 5 = ?? </li></ul><ul><li>1/2 step above 5 = ?? Put this in bass </li></ul><ul><li>1/2 step below 5 = ?? Put this in an upper voice </li></ul><ul><li>Third above bass = ?? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Double this somewhere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Your chord spelled out is = ?? ?? ?? ?? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Check Your Work <ul><li>Scale Degree 5 = C# </li></ul><ul><li>1/2 step above 5 = D Put this in bass </li></ul><ul><li>1/2 step below 5 = B#(not C) Put this in an upper voice </li></ul><ul><li>Third above bass = F# </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Double this somewhere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Your chord spelled out is = D F# B# F# </li></ul><ul><ul><li>D should be first, but the other pitches can be in a different order. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Check your Work <ul><li>Scale Degree 5 = C# </li></ul><ul><li>1/2 step above = D (put in bass) </li></ul><ul><li>1/2 step below = B#(!!) (put in upper voice) </li></ul><ul><li>Third above bass = F# (double this) </li></ul>
  11. 11. How did you do? Let’s try another
  12. 12. It6 in Bb Major <ul><li>Scale Degree 5 = ?? </li></ul><ul><li>1/2 step above 5 = ?? Put this in bass </li></ul><ul><li>1/2 step below 5 = ?? Put this in upper voice </li></ul><ul><li>Third above bass = ?? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Double this somewhere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Your chord spelled out is = ?? ?? ?? ?? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Check yourself <ul><li>Scale Degree 5 = F </li></ul><ul><li>1/2 step above 5 = Gb Put this in bass </li></ul><ul><li>1/2 step below 5 = E Put this in upper voice </li></ul><ul><li>Third above bass = Bb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Double this somewhere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Your chord spelled out is = Gb E Bb Bb </li></ul>
  14. 14. Check Yourself <ul><li>Scale Degree 5 = F </li></ul><ul><li>1/2 step above = Gb (put in bass) </li></ul><ul><li>1/2 step below = E (put in upper voice) </li></ul><ul><li>Third above bass = Bb (double in upper voice) </li></ul>
  15. 15. This is pretty easy, isn’t it?
  16. 16. Remember… <ul><li>Every chord needs an augmented sixth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a diminished third </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not written enharmonically, but on lines or spaces that actually make it a sixth (see ex. In f# minor where you needed a b#) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Never double the pitches of the augmented sixth. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Resolution of the Italian Sixth <ul><li>The Augmented Sixth resolves outward, going to a doubled Scale Degree 5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>That’s why we took a half-step above and below 5. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The third above the bass has to fill out the rest of the chord. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be careful that these don’t go to the same pitches, because you’ll have parallel octaves </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Resolving D F# B# F# (It6 in f#) <ul><li>The D and B# form the aug6. They both go to C# (5 in f#). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We still need a G# and an E# to fill out our V chord (remember, Aug6th chords ALWAYS go to V). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First F# can go to G#; second to E# </li></ul><ul><li>That’s our V chord </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C# G# C# E# </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Resolving an Italian 6th <ul><li>The Aug 6 resolves outward to S.D. 5 </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid parallel 8vas, the doubled note must resolve to 2 different pitches (one up a step, one down a step) </li></ul><ul><li>Watch that you don’t have more than an 8va between voices (esp. on the doubled third above the bass) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Got it? We’ll do more examples in class
  21. 21. French Sixth <ul><li>Starts with the Italian Sixth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aug6th </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third above the Bass </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In a French sixth, though, you DON’T double the third above the bass. </li></ul><ul><li>In a French sixth, put one third and one fourth above the bass. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Italian/French chord in C <ul><li>Left, Italian 6th Chord </li></ul><ul><li>Right, French 6th Chord </li></ul><ul><li>Notice the Alto, the 3rd above the bass is change to a 4th above the bass. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Go Back to the examples <ul><li>Italian Chord in f# was: D F# B# F# </li></ul><ul><li>French Chord is: ?? ?? ?? ?? </li></ul><ul><li>Italian Chord in Bb was: Gb E Bb Bb </li></ul><ul><li>French Chord is: ?? ?? ?? ?? </li></ul>
  24. 24. Answers <ul><li>Italian Chord in f# was: D F# B# F# </li></ul><ul><li>French Chord is: D F# B# G# </li></ul><ul><li>Italian Chord in Bb was: Gb E Bb Bb </li></ul><ul><li>French Chord is: Gb E C Bb </li></ul><ul><li>The upper notes can be in different order. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Answers <ul><li>From left to right: </li></ul><ul><li>Italian 6th in f#, French 6th in f# </li></ul><ul><li>Italian 6th in Bb, French 6th in Bb </li></ul>
  26. 26. Resolution of French Sixth <ul><li>Same as Italian. It’s a predominant. </li></ul><ul><li>The Fourth above the bass (the pitch that makes the chord French) is tied over to the following V chord. </li></ul><ul><li>The Third above the bass fills out the rest of the Harmony. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Example <ul><li>In f#, French Sixth is: D F# B# G# </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The following V would be: ?? ?? ?? ?? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In Bb, French Sixth is: Gb E A Bb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The following V would be: ?? ?? ?? ?? </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Answer <ul><li>In f#, French Sixth is: D F# B# G# </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The following V would be: C# E# C# G# </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In Bb, French Sixth is: Gb E A Bb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The following V would be: F F A C </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This is easier than Italian, because you don’t even have a choice to make. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Resolving French Chords <ul><li>Left, resolution of a French chord in f# </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Notice the resolution to V, not v </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember to tie the “French” note </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Right, resolution of French chord in Bb </li></ul>
  30. 30. One Last Chord
  31. 31. German Sixth <ul><li>Start with Italian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aug 6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third above bass </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This time, add a PERFECT 5th above the bass to make the German Chord. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Try It Out <ul><li>Italian Chord in f# was: D F# B# F# </li></ul><ul><li>German Chord is: ?? ?? ?? ?? </li></ul><ul><li>Italian Chord in Bb was: Gb E Bb Bb </li></ul><ul><li>German Chord is: ?? ?? ?? ?? </li></ul>
  33. 33. Answer <ul><li>Italian Chord in f# was: D F# B# F# </li></ul><ul><li>French Chord is: D F# B# A </li></ul><ul><li>Italian Chord in Bb was: Gb E Bb Bb </li></ul><ul><li>French Chord is: Gb E Bb Db </li></ul><ul><li>Always a PERFECT 5th above the bass. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Answer <ul><li>Italian/German chord in f# </li></ul><ul><li>Italian/German chord in Bb </li></ul>
  35. 35. Resolution of the German Chord <ul><li>Different than the others </li></ul><ul><li>The perfect 5th above the bass means you might get parallels </li></ul><ul><li>The augmented sixth resolves in the normal way. </li></ul><ul><li>The “German” pitch must resolve with a suspension </li></ul><ul><li>Either a 6-5 or a 6/4-5/3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cadential 6/4 resolution is MUCH more common. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. We’ll get much more practice with these in class. This presentation is just an introduction so we’re all on the same page.
  37. 37. Having trouble remembering which names go with which interval above the bass?
  38. 38. Think of a Map of Europe <ul><li>Italy is in the South. Add a Third above the Bass. </li></ul><ul><li>France is the next country north (up). Add a Fourth above the Bass. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany is the next country north. Add a 5th above the Bass. </li></ul><ul><li>3, 4, 5, going northward. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Spelling Review <ul><li>Form the Aug 6 </li></ul><ul><li>Italian </li></ul><ul><li>French </li></ul><ul><li>German </li></ul><ul><li>Half step above and below S.D. 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Aug 6, doubled third above bass. </li></ul><ul><li>Aug 6, third and 4th above bass (diatonic) </li></ul><ul><li>Aug6, diatonic third and perfect fifth above bass. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Resolution Review <ul><li>All </li></ul><ul><li>Italian </li></ul><ul><li>French </li></ul><ul><li>German </li></ul><ul><li>Aug 6 resolves out to doubled S.D. 5 </li></ul><ul><li>One third goes to 3rd of V, other to 5th of V </li></ul><ul><li>“ French” note ties, 3rd of Aug6 goes to 5th of V </li></ul><ul><li>Resolve with a 6/4- 5/3 suspension </li></ul>
  41. 41. Please proceed to the online quiz followed by the practice homework set. These both need to be completed before the first lecture about this topic.

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