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  • 1. Brain Rules Circling Planning a Story Reading and Discussing a Story TPRS and Grading
  • 2.  
  • 3.  
  • 4.  
  • 5.  
  • 6.  
  • 7.  
  • 8.  
  • 9. Make every minute COUNT!!!
  • 10. Fluency and TPRS® We focus on FLUENCY
  • 11. In order to successfully teach fluency the teacher must:
    • Focus on the details of a story
    • Not focus on the language
  • 12. TPRS® is a method of second-language teaching that uses highly-interactive stories to provide comprehensible input and create an atmosphere of immersion in the classroom. What is TPRS®?
  • 13. Key 1: Comprehensible Use words students know Speak slowly
  • 14. Key 2: Repetition Repetitive questions Continually start over Add details Multiple locations Multiple characters
  • 15. Recycle the Story
    • at any point, stop, go back, and review the story
    • re-circle the recycled parts
    • continue story when you get back to where you left off
  • 16. Key 3: Interest Surprise details “ Playing the game” Personalization Positive exaggeration
  • 17. Teach to the Eyes !
    • teach STUDENTS not curriculum
    • look in individual student’s eyes when teaching
    • hold students accountable
    • always check for understanding
  • 18. Story Retells
    • Have students frequently retell the story to their partners
    • after the story ends
    • have superstar retell story to class
    • Limit the time to two or three minutes
  • 19. Shelter Vocabulary Limit vocabulary to a few hundred words per year
  • 20. Don’t shelter grammar Use whatever grammar is necessary to express meaning.
  • 21.
    • Use lessons each day to practice structure.
    • Structure is the key to fluency.
    Teaching fluency…
  • 22. Data - Teacher
  • 23. Data - Teacher
  • 24. Brain Rules Circling Planning a Story Reading and Discussing a Story TPRS and Grading
  • 25. Brain Rules
  • 26. Brain Processing Model E N V I R O N M E N T HEARING LONG-TERM STORAGE SMELL SIGHT TOUCH TASTE PERCEPTUAL REGISTER OUT OUT OUT Sousa, David A.. How the Brain Learns . Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press, 2006. SHORT TERM MEMORY WORKING MEMORY
  • 27. Rule #1:
    • We don’t pay attention to boring things .
  • 28. Rule #2: We have 30 seconds to repeat something before it is forgotten.
  • 29. Rule #3: Students must pay attention in order to learn. Medina, John. Brain Rules . Seattle: Pear Press, 2008. pp. 76, 79.
  • 30. How do we get them to pay attention?
    • “ The novel stimuli – the unusual, the unpredictable, or distinctive are powerful ways to harness attention.”
  • 31. Emotions get our attention.
  • 32. People usually forget 90% of what they learn in a class within 30 days.
  • 33. Rule #4 Most of what we learn is visual.
    • Dramatize the story
    • Props
  • 34. dramatize the story
  • 35. use props
    • wigs & hats
    • cardboard cutouts
    • funny noses
    • funny glasses
    • stuffed animals
    • toys
  • 36. Rule 5: The initial learning is important.
  • 37. One could increase the life span of a memory simply by repeating the information in timed intervals.
  • 38. Rule 6: There are two types of memories
  • 39. 1. Non-declarative These are things learned by feel such as riding a bike, playing the piano, or jumping rope. These memories are not in our conscious awareness. 2. Declarative memories “ The shirt is blue” “ Jupiter is a planet.”
  • 40. Two Types of Memories
    • Learning about language is declarative.
    • Learning to speak a language is non-declarative.
  • 41. Information is remembered best when it is elaborate, meaningful, and contextual. Medina, John. Brain Rules . Seattle: Pear Press, 2008. p. 100.
  • 42. In TPRS®, we add as many details as we can.
  • 43. Each detail increases the chance that the students will remember.
  • 44. What we remember after 24 hours… HEAR 5% READ 10% AUDIO-VISUAL 20% DEMONSTRATE 30% DISCUSS 50% DO 75% EXPLAIN / APPLY 90% Sousa, David A.. How the Brain Learns . Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press, 2006.
  • 45. Personalization
    • Learning is best with “real world experiences.”
  • 46. Brain Rules Circling Planning a Story Reading and Discussing a Story TPRS and Grading
  • 47. Make a statement .
    • Students respond
    • Expression of interest -- “OOOHHH”
    • Something bad =
    • “ Oh NO, Oh No”
  • 48. Ask a question where the students know the answer.
    • Students answer the question with a choral response.
  • 49. Students can respond in 3 ways
    • Strong Response
    • Weak Response
    • Silence
  • 50. Problems
    • Students didn’t understand
    • Students weren’t focused on the procedures or weren’t engaged.
  • 51. Solution
    • You must be aware of weak responses.
    • You must be sure they understand.
    • Do it again until the students respond correctly.
  • 52. Ask a question where the students don’t know the answer.
    • 1. Students guess.
    • 2. Students guess in the target language.
    • 3. They also guess with proper nouns.
  • 53. Brain Rules Circling Planning a Story Reading and Discussing a Story TPRS and Grading
  • 54.
    • Es (it) gab (gave) ein Mädchen
    • There was a girl
    • Sie war She was
    • Was?
    • What?
    •  
    • Wer?
    • Who?
  • 55.
    • Es gab ein Mädchen There was a girl
    • Sie war She was
    • kein not one
    • oder or
    • und and
    • nicht
    • not
    • ein Hühnchen
    • A chicken
    • Was?
    • What?
    •  
    • Wer?
    • Who?
    • Wo?
    • Where?
  • 56.
    • Es gab ein Mädchen There was a girl
    • Sie war She was
    • Sie hatte
    • She had
    • kein
    • not one
    • oder or
    • und and
    • nicht
    • not
    • Was?
    • What?
    •  
    • Wer?
    • Who?
    • Wo?
    • Where?
    •  
    • Warum?
    • Why
    • Wie?
    • How
  • 57.        
    • Es gab ein Mädchen There was a girl   Sie war She was
    • Sie wollte zwei Nasen haben She wanted to have 2 noses   Sie ist nach …….. gegangen She went to   Sie hatte She had
    • kein not one   mit with   oder or   und and
    • Was?
    • What?
    •  
    • Wer?
    • Who?
    • Wo?
    • Where?
    •  
    • Warum?
    • Why
    • Wie?
    • How
  • 58. Circling
  • 59. Circling: the heart of TPRS®
  • 60. Circling the art of asking repetitive questions
    • start with a statement statement should include structure
    • ask yes/no question where answer is YES repeat answer: “yes, ...”
    • ask either/or question repeat answer: “that’s correct, ...”
    • ask yes/no question where answer is NO repeat answer: “no, ...” restate correct statement
    • ask question-word question For beginners point to the question word.
    • Verify the detail.
  • 61. Circling
    • Positive statement
    • ? with a yes answer
    • Either / or questions
    • ? with a no answer
    • Restate the negative and restate the positive
    • Who?
    • What? Where? When? How? Why? How much?, etc…
    • Positive statement
  • 62. Read the questions in order and wait for response. Step 1
  • 63. Circling
    • Positive statement
    • ? with a yes answer
    • Either / or questions
    • ? with a no answer
    • Restate the negative and restate the positive
    • Who?
    • What? Where? When? How? Why? How much?, etc…
    • Positive statement
  • 64. Repeat the correct answer. Step 2
  • 65. Circling
    • Positive statement
    • ? with a yes answer
    • Either / or questions
    • ? with a no answer
    • Restate the negative and restate the positive
    • Who?
    • What? Where? When? How? Why? How much?, etc…
    • Positive statement
  • 66. Work on restating the negative (with a gesture), and restate the positive. Step 3
  • 67. Circling
    • Positive statement
    • ? with a yes answer
    • Either / or questions
    • ? with a no answer
    • Restate the negative and restate the positive
    • Who?
    • What? Where? When? How? Why? How much?, etc…
    • Positive statement
  • 68. Step 4
      • Random order
  • 69. Circling
    • Positive statement
    • ? with a yes answer
    • Either / or questions
    • ? with a no answer
    • Restate the negative and restate the positive
    • Who?
    • What? Where? When? How? Why? How much?, etc…
    • Positive statement
  • 70. Add a second statement at the top of the page. Step 5
      • Same structure with different subject and complement
      • Keep it simple like before
  • 71. Circling
    • Positive statement
    • ? with a yes answer
    • Either / or questions
    • ? with a no answer
    • Restate the negative and restate the positive
    • Who?
    • What? Where? When? How? Why? How much?, etc…
    • Positive statement
  • 72.
      • Ask 3-4 questions
      • Add a detail
      • Ask 3-4 questions
      • Add another detail
    Step 6
  • 73. Brain Rules Circling Planning a Story Reading and Discussing a Story TPRS and Grading
  • 74. Create a TPRS® Lesson Plan
  • 75. Every story has a problem!
  • 76. Variables Every story has variables. Use your variables to create surprise details. Surprise details are what make the stories interesting.
  • 77. Parallel characters are used to compare and contrast. They also make the story last much longer.
  • 78. Specificity go from the general to the specific general specific
  • 79. A Story has two parts
    • Background information
    • A problem
  • 80. Background information
    • Names, and places
    • Multiple characters
    • Doesn’t need to pertain to story
    • Practice any word or structure
    • Use for compare and contrast
    • Verify details with actors
  • 81. Problem has 3 parts
    • Introduce the problem by stating someone wants something.
    • Make an unsuccessful attempt to resolve the problem.
    • Resolve the problem.
  • 82.
    • Problem: A boy wants to buy a clean bird.
    • Sentences: __________________________________________________________________________________
    • In the first line, list a fact of the story, circle the variable or variables, and list the alternative variables. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
    Lesson Plan
  • 83.
    • Start with 2 or 3 structures
    • These are the structures you want to practice.
    • Should be basic, high frequency words.
    • Always translate the words of these structures.
  • 84.
    • Problem: A boy wants to buy a clean bird.
    • Sentences:
    • The boy needs to take out money.
    • The boy has to wash the bird. . ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
    Lesson Plan
  • 85. Read the story
    • There is a boy who wants to have a clean bird. He goes to the Wells Fargo Bank in Wells, Nevada . He wants to take out money because he wants to buy a bird. He takes out ten thousand and four dollars but he takes out one dollar and twenty cents extra because he also wants to buy some good food at the Wells Outback Steakhouse.
    • He goes to Yakima, Washington to buy the bird. He enters the Birds of the World store and sees a pretty bird named Ed . He buys him and takes him to his house in Dover, Delaware . When he arrives at his house he looks at the bird and sees that he is a dirty bird. He doesn’t like it. He has to wash the bird. He washes him with Joy Liquid Dishwashing Soap . After that Ed says:--I don’t like Joy Liquid Dishwashing Soap. I prefer Lemon Scent Dawn Liquid Dishwashing Soap .
    • The bird is not very happy but the boy is very happy because he has a clean bird.
  • 86. Read and plan the story
    • 1. Read the story to see the problem, the unsuccessful resolution of the problem and the solution of the problem.
    • 2. Look for variables that can be expanded and changed. Script out surprise details.
    • 3. Plan parallel characters.
    • 4. Plan surprise proper nouns.
  • 87. Lesson Plan
    • Problem: A boy wants to buy a clean bird.
    • Sentences: The boy needs to take out money. The boy has to wash the bird.
    • The boy - What don’t we know about him? Name? Where he lives? How old is he? Favorite music? What is in his bedroom? Who are his friends? Why does he want a bird?
    • Wells Fargo Bank in Wells, Nevada - List alternative variables. Where else did he go to get the money? When? Be as specific as possible. Add other details about how he went.
    • ten thousand and four dollars - Add more information about the amount of money. Why did he need a ten thousand dollar bird? How much do birds cost? How much is a cheap bird? Where do you buy a cheap bird? Where do you buy an expensive bird?
    • one dollar and twenty cents extra - What does he do with the extra money?
  • 88. Lesson Plan
    • Problem: A boy wants to buy a clean bird.
    • Sentences: The boy needs to take out money. The boy has to wash the bird.
    • Wells Outback Steakhouse - This detail is related to the extra money.
    • Yakima, Washington - Add details. Why go to Yakima? How? How long?
    • Birds of the World - Add details. What do they sell in the store?
    • Ed - It is unexpected to use people’s names with animals.
    • Dover, Delaware - Why does he go to Dover? How does he go? How long does it take?
    • Joy Liquid Dishwashing Soap - Why does he wash the bird with dish soap? Where did he buy it?
    • Lemon Scent Dawn Liquid Dishwashing Soap - Why does the bird prefer this soap?
  • 89. Brain Rules Circling Planning a Story Reading and Discussing a Story TPRS and Grading
  • 90.
    • x. This person will be the most experienced TPRS person in the group. Announce the three procedures.
    • A. Make a statement and have students say, “Ohhhhhhh”.
    • B. Ask a question where they know the answer and have them answer in the target language.
    • C. Ask them a question where they don’t know the answer and have them answer
  • 91.
    • a. in target language (Spanish because it is a Spanish story
    • b. Proper nouns
    • c. surprise me
    • (If you don’t surprise me, I will surprise you.)
  • 92. Person number 1– Monday Background information
    • Background information: Introduce the first character—add details about him/her by asking questions.
    • Name, where s/he was (be as specific as possible – name of state, city, place (proper noun?).
    • Choose a student actor.
    • Verify the details with that actor and with the class.
  • 93. Person number 2– Monday Background information
    • Review information about the first character by asking questions and then add another character. Add more information about the character. Verify the details with both characters and with the class.
  • 94. Tuesday Introduce a problem
    • Review the background information by asking questions.
    • Your main focus is on character one. You can add more information about him/her.
    • Add a problem where the character needs or wants something.
    • Verify the details with your student actor and the class.
  • 95. Tuesday - Unsuccessful attempt to solve the problem
    • Have the character go someplace to make an unsuccessful attempt to solve the problem.
    • Use dialogue. Talk to the class and tell the class what each character says.
    • Create a reason why the actor doesn’t get what he/she wants.
  • 96. Tuesday - Solve the problem
    • Have the character go to another place and solve the problem.
    • Use dialogue. Talk to the class when adding dialogue. It is your story therefore the actors don’t know what they are going to say.
    • The story is over when the problem is solved.
  • 97. Brain Rules Circling Planning a Story Reading and Discussing a Story TPRS and Grading
  • 98. Person number 1– Wednesday Extended reading - Background information
    • Background information: Introduce the first character—add details about him/her.
    • This person is playing the role of the main character in the extended reading. Add information about the character. Add his/her name, where s/he was (be as specific as possible – name of state, city, place (proper noun?).
    • Choose a student actor. Verify the details with that actor and with the class.
    • Verify the details with that actor and with the class.
  • 99. Person number 2 Wednesday Extended reading - Background information
    • Review information about the first character by asking questions and then add another character.
    • Add more information about both characters.
    • Verify the details with both characters and with the class.
  • 100. Person 3 – Extended reading Thursday
    • Review the details from the story yesterday. Read the first paragraph. Translate with the class.
    • Ask facts about the paragraph. Point out errors in the story. (It says she has a cat but she really has a duck.)
    • Add a parallel character and add facts about that character. Compare and contrast with the book character. Ask the class about both characters.
    • Verify the details with your student actors.
  • 101. Person 4 – Extended reading Thursday
    • Review the details .
    • Read the second paragraph. Translate with the class.
    • Ask facts about the paragraph. Point out errors in the story. (It says she has a cat but she really has a duck.)
    • Add additional facts about the story.
    • Verify the details with your student actors.
  • 102. Person 5 – Extended reading Thursday
    • Review the details from the story. Read the third paragraph. Translate with the class. Ask facts about the paragraph. Point out errors in the story. (It says she has a cat but she really has a duck.) Continue to add more information about your parallel character. Compare and contrast the new character with the character in the story. Ask the class about both characters. Verify the details with your student actors.
  • 103. Brain Rules Circling Planning a Story Reading and Discussing a Story TPRS and Grading
  • 104. Brain Rules Circling Planning a Story Reading and Discussing a Story TPRS and Grading
  • 105.  
  • 106.
    • Teacher reads a sentence.
    • Class chorally translates the sentence.
    • Translate one paragraph at a time.
    • Students write in words they don’t know.
    Step 1
  • 107.
    • Ask background information.
    • Let students guess details about the reading and parallel characters. Verify details with your actors.
    • Add lots of surprise details and proper nouns.
    Step 2
  • 108.
    • You develop two stories.
    • The first story is your reading.
    • The second story is the story about your parallel student character.
    • Add details from the students’ culture.
    Step 3
  • 109.
    • Dramatize the story.
    • If there is time, dramatize the story about the parallel character.
    Step 4
  • 110.
    • Go back and translate the story.
    • Teacher reads a line and students chorally read aloud in English.
    • Read and translate the story.
    Step 5
  • 111. Pop-Up Grammar
    • highlight in reading BEFORE class
    • focus on the MEANING
    • pop-up often and frequently
    • compare and contrast
    • scaffold your questions
    • hold your superstars accountable
    • goal is to acquire over time, not immediately
  • 112. Brain Rules Circling Planning a Story Reading and Discussing a Story TPRS and Grading
  • 113.
    •  
    • Es gibt ein Mädchen. Das Mädchen heißt Heidi. Heidi möchte ein Zimmer haben. Sie hat kein Zimmer. Sie geht nach Dripping Springs, Texas. Es gibt ein Hotel. Das Hotel heißt “Die große Kuh Inn.”
    •  
    •  
    •  
  • 114.
    • Es gibt ein Zimmer im Hotel. Heidi möchte ein Zimmer im Hotel haben. Heidi geht in das Hotel. Sie geht in das Zimmer. Es gibt ein Problem mit dem Zimmer. Es gibt eine Kuh im Zimmer. Heidi möchte ein Zimmer mit einer Kuh. Es gibt ein Problem mit der Kuh. Die Kuh stinkt. Die Kuh heißt Susie Kuh. Susie Kuh stinkt. Susie möchte Kuh Right Guard haben.
  • 115.
    • Heidi geht nach Charles City, Iowa. Heidi möchte Kuyh Right Guard haben. Sie geht zu Kuh Mart. Sie geht in Kuh Mart. Es gibt einen Mann. Er hat Kuh Right Guard. Er gibt Kuh Right Guard zu Heidi. Sie hat Kuh Right Guard. Sie geht zum “Die große Kuh Inn.” Sie geht in das Zimmer. Susie Kuh ist im Zimmer. Susie Kuh stinkt. Heidi gibt Kuh Right Guard zu Susie Kuh. Susie Kuh hat Right Guard. Susie Kuh stinkt nicht.
  • 116.
    • Heidi hat ein Zimmer. Heidi hat eine Kuh. Die Kuh stinkt nicht. Es gibt kein Problem. Das Ende.
  • 117. Brain Rules Circling Planning a Story Reading and Discussing a Story TPRS and Grading
  • 118. The story gets more interesting with more specifics.
  • 119.
    • A boy wants a cat.
    • A boy from China wants a cat.
    • A boy from Hong Kong wants a cat.
    • Juanito Junior from the 3 rd street Burger King in Hong Kong wants a cat.
  • 120.
    • A cat that sings.
    • A cat that sings in Spanish.
    • A cat that sings La Cucaracha in Spanish.
    • A cat that sings La Cucaracha and dances the merengue.
  • 121.
    • Car
    • House
    • Animal
    • Violin
    • Book
  • 122.
    • Describe an event that tells why a detail is what it is.
    • For example, a boy has a book. (An event tells how he got the book.)
  • 123.
    • A boy has a ten thousand dollar bill.
    • A girl has a bike that talks.
  • 124. Brain Rules Circling Planning a Story Reading and Discussing a Story TPRS and Grading
  • 125.
    • TPRS ®
    • and
    • School
  • 126. Curriculum Map backwards plan Proficiency
  • 127. High-frequency vocabulary, structures, and culture
  • 128. Plan your stories (weekly lessons)
  • 129. A typical TPRS® week
  • 130. Monday
    • talk about weekend/ PQA practice with new structures
    • Establish background information and add parallel characters with surprise details.
  • 131. Tuesday
    • Start over and re-establish the background information from yesterday.
    • Introduce the problem.
    • Make an unsuccessful attempt to solve the problem
    • Solve the problem
    • If there is time, solve the problem with the parallel character
    • If there is time, do a partner retell
  • 132. Wednesday
    • Do the extended reading
    • Add background information to the story
    • Add a student as the parallel character
    • Add background information about the student
  • 133. Thursday
    • Review the details of the extended reading
    • Add more surprise details to both characters
    • Dramatize the rest of the story
    • Read and translate the rest of the story
    • If time, partner retell
  • 134. Friday
    • Timed writing
    • Read a discuss a novel
    • Develop background information and surprise details
    • Add one or more parallel characters
    • If time, read and dramatize to the end of the chapter
    • If time, do partner student retells.
  • 135. Tests
    • 50% of nine-weeks grade
    • Unannounced
    • Translation – Target language to English
    • Cumulative throughout the year
    • Test words they know
    • Most students get A’s or B’s on tests
    • If 80% don’t get 80% or higher, retest
  • 136. Non-Test Grades
    • 25% of nine-weeks grade
    • About a grade or two a week
    • Quizzes
    • Homework
      • Retell story to an adult
      • Write out story
      • Draw the story
      • Write a new ending to the story
  • 137. Timed writings
    • A homework grade.
    • Speed write
    • Students write for five minutes without
    • editing, or picking up their pen.
    • Relaxed write
    • Students write for ten minutes.
    • They can stop, edit and ask questions.
  • 138. Timed writings
    • Both are graded at a point a word. Accuracy is usually not graded on timed writings.
    • Develop class goals so students can write more words per minute as the year progresses.
  • 139. Participation
    • 25% of nine-weeks grade
    • Each student starts with 100 points.
    • Students are required to look engaged.
    • Looking engaged means: no sleeping, talking or writing.
    • Each infraction costs the student 5 pts.
    • When there is an infraction, teacher says the name of the student and “págame”.
  • 140. Págame Makeups
    • Student can make up two págames (10 pts.) by giving the teacher a nice card.
    • Student can make up two more págames by shaking the teacher’s hand.
  • 141. Págame Makeups
    • There is a maximum of one card and one
    • hand shake per nine weeks.
    • All other págames are made up with 100
    • word essays in the target language:
      • Essay can be copied but it must be in the student’s own handwriting.
      • Student can only write two 100-word essays per week.
  • 142. Brain Rules Circling Planning a Story Reading and Discussing a Story TPRS and Grading