Theories Of Instructional Design


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  • Theories Of Instructional Design

    1. 1. Theories of Instructional Design Psychological Foundations, Learning Environments & Learning Motivation Jordan Carswell February 9, 2008 Assignment 2 INST 5131
    2. 2. Philosophical Foundations Many psychological theories have contributed to the field of instructional design. Underlying them all, however, is the belief that instruction will lead to learning. (Reiser and Dempsey, 2007)
    3. 3. Cognitive Information Processing Mind as Computer The central hypothesis of  cognitive science is that thinking can best be understood in terms of representational structures in the mind and computational procedures that operate on those structures. (Stanford University, 2007, para. 9) (Reiser and Dempsey, 2007)
    4. 4. Constructivism The Learning Sciences onstructivism is a philosophy of Grounded in the cognitive  learning founded on the premise sciences that, by reflecting on our experiences, we construct our Learner as active agent,  responsible for creating own understanding of the world understanding we live in. Each of us generates our own “rules” and “mental Design Research models,” which we use to make sense of our experiences. Formative experiments  Learning, therefore, is simply the process of adjusting our mental Learning takes place within  models to accommodate new the context of research experiences. (Funderstanding, 2001, para. 1) (Reiser and Dempsey, 2007)
    5. 5. Situational Learning The activity in which knowledge is Learning as Participation developed and deployed, it is now argued, is not separable from or ancillary to learning and cognition. (Brown, 1989, p. 32) Defining Characteristics Learning takes place within a  community of practice Knowledge is gained in the  process of participating in the activities of the community (Reiser and Dempsey, 2007) (Wenger, 1998, as cited in Reiser and Dempsey 2007)
    6. 6. Connectivism Defining Characteristics onnectivism is the integration Diversity of opinions  of principles explored by chaos, network, and Connecting nodes of information  complexity and self- Learning can reside anywhere  organization theories. Connections must be nurtured  Recognition of connections  earning is a process that occurs within nebulous Staying current with information  environments of shifting core Individual decision-making  elements – not entirely under the control of the individual. (Siemens, 2004, paras. 25-27)
    7. 7. Personal Foundations earning takes place in diverse settings. No one theory holds true for all situations. herefore, good design is agnostic, analyzing each unique problem and finding the appropriate solution whatever the source.
    8. 8. Learning Environments Whether in a lecture hall, on the job, or from a home computer, learning is shaped by place. The learning environment is a key component of any theory of instructional design.
    9. 9. Cognitive Apprenticeship earning Environment tudents observe the practices of experts as they learn to perform tasks on their own n ancient times, teaching and learning were accomplished through bstract tasks are presented apprenticeship: We taught our in a real-life context children how to speak, grow crops, craft cabinets, or tailor clothes by ask’s processes are visible showing them how and by helping to all learners them do it. (Collins, 1991) (Collins, 1991, para. 1) asks are varied to encourage
    10. 10. Communities of Practice Key Attributes  The Domain Shared competence ommunities of practice are and identity groups of people who share n The Community a concern or a passion for Share activities and information something they do and learn n The Practice how to do it better as they Shared experiences and resources interact regularly. n.d., para. 3) (Wenger, (Wenger, n.d.)
    11. 11. Personal Learning Environments What constitutes a PLE? LEs aren’t an entity, structural object Learner constructed or software program in the sense of  environment a learning management system. Iterative, constantly open to  revision and growth ssentially, they are a collection of Mash-ups of web-based tools–  not one size fits all tools, brought together under the conceptual notion of openness, interoperability, and learner control. (Siemens, 2007, para. 2)
    12. 12. iCamp iCamp is a research and development project funded by the European Commission under the IST (Information Society Technology) programme of FP6. The project aims at creating an infrastructure for collaboration and networking across systems, countries, and  Facilitators and learners in a disciplines in Higher Education. single virtual environment Comprised of a collection of Pedagogically it is based on constructivist open source software tools learning theories that puts more emphasis on self-organised learning, social networking, and Social constructivist approach the changing roles of educators. (iCamp, n.d., para. 1) (iCamp, n.d.) learn more:
    13. 13. Technology Enabled Active Learning Learning Problem assachusetts Institute Physics students were not of Technology Project engaged in the lecture hall environment ecture and hands-on lab (MIT, 2006) experiments combined Initial Results lassroom redesigned for group interaction Students significantly improved their understanding of physics in the TEAL environment edia-rich software for simulation and visualization (Dori and Belcher, (MIT, 2006) 2005) echnology-based
    14. 14. Personal Observations n Visibility… n Modeling… As a web design Teaching faculty and staff instructor, I noticed that how to use a new the quality of my students’ technology, I first show mastery of a task them how to do an activity improved when they were and then sit with them as able to observe the work they repeat the activity on of their classmates.” their own.”
    15. 15. Learner I’d rather be kayaking… Motivation Human performance technology recognizes three influences on performance which must be addressed in successful instructional design. Of these, motivation is critical as it plays a decisive role in whether a learner chooses to choose a goal or pursue an activity. (Reiser and Dempsey, 2007)
    16. 16. ARCS Model Design Process Recognize elements of  human motivation Analyze and determine  motivational requirements Identify instruction that will  stimulate motivation Apply and evaluate plan  (Keller, 2006)
    17. 17. Self-Efficacy Learners’ motivations and Reciprocal Determinism  actions are based more on what they believe to be true than what is actually true Learners’ beliefs about their  abilities often outweigh knowledge, skill, or experience in determining success Success can be predicted  based on what learners believe themselves capable of achieving (Adapted from Pajares, 2002) (Pajares, 2002)
    18. 18. Attribution Theory Internal Attribution uccess is variously attributed Success is determined by personal  ability and effort to internal factors within one’s External Attribution control or external factors outside one’s control. Success is determined by outside  factors, i.e. task, environment, or others earner’s interpretations are (Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology, 2001) based on self-perceptions and a desire to maintain(Vockell, n.d.) a positive self-image.
    19. 19. Goal-setting Theory Focused on the uncovering the  key properties of a goal Self-efficacy Specificity and difficulty level  Goal effects on the individual,  group and organization Learning vs. performance goals  Assigned Goal Performance Mediators and moderators of goal  effects Goals as mediators  Goal source (self, assigned, Personal Goal  group) (Locke and Latham, 2002, p. 714) (Adapted from Locke and Latham, 2002, p. 709)
    20. 20. References Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1988). Situated Cognition and the Culture of Learning.  Ft. Belvoir: Defense Technical Information Center. Brown, J. S. (n.d.). New Learning Environments for the 21st Century. Retrieved February 4,  2009 from: Collins, A. (1991). Cognitive Apprenticeship: Making Things Visible. American Educator: The  Professional Journal of the American Federation of Teachers. 15 (3), 6-11,38-46. Dori, Y. J., & Belcher, J. (2005). How Does Technology-Enabled Active Learning Affect  Undergraduate Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism Concepts? JOURNAL OF THE LEARNING SCIENCES. 14 (2), 243-279.
    21. 21. Funderstanding (2001). Constructivism. Retrieved February 2, 2009 from:  Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology (2001). Attribution theory. Retrieved February 4, 2009 from  iCamp (n.d.). Crossing the border to the future of education. Retrieved February 3, 2009 from:  Keller, John (2006). What are the elements of learner motivation? Retrieved February 4, 2009  from: Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a Practically Useful Theory of Goal Setting and  Task Motivation. American Psychologist. 57 (9), 705-17. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2006). Technology Enabled Active Learning (TEAL).  Retrieved February 4, 2009 from:
    22. 22. Pajares (2002). Overview of social cognitive theory and of self-efficacy. Retreived February 4,  2009 from Reiser, R.A. & Dempsey, J.V. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology  (2nd Edition). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall. Siemens, George (2004). Connectivism: a learning theory for the digital age. Retrieved February 3,  2009 from: Siemens, George (2007). PLEs – I Acronym, Therefore I Exist. Retrieved February 4, 2009 from:  Vockell, Edward (n.d.). Attribution Theory. Retrieved February 4, 2009 from:  Edpsy5/edpsy5_attribution.htm Wenger, E. (n.d.). Communities of practice. Retrieved February 4, 2009 from: 
    23. 23. Reiser, R.A. & Dempsey, J.V. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology  (2nd Edition). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Merrill Prentice Hall. Siemens, George (2004). Connectivism: a learning theory for the digital age. Retrieved  February 3, 2009 from: Siemens, George (2007). PLEs – I Acronym, Therefore I Exist. Retrieved February 4, 2009 from:  Vockell, Edward (n.d.). Attribution Theory. Retrieved February 4, 2009 from:  Wenger, E. (n.d.). Communities of practice. Retrieved February 4, 2009 from: 