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CASE STUDY – INDIAN BASIN UTILITY INTERCONNECTION   <ul><li>JAN.  2002 </li></ul>
INDIAN BASIN GAS PLANT <ul><li>Marathon Oil Co. Gas Processing Plant </li></ul><ul><li>Five Synchronous Generators Totalin...
INTERCONNECTION BENEFITS <ul><li>Utility Provides a Source Instantaneous Energy when needed, Increasing Plant Electrical R...
CASE STUDY CONTENT <ul><li>Utility Interconnection and Interconnection Protection and Control </li></ul><ul><li>Directiona...
PLANT ELECTRICAL SYSTEM LAYOUT
UTILITY SOURCE AND POINT OF COMMON COUPLING (PCC) <ul><li>PCC resides at the low side of the 12470 – 480vac 1000 kva trans...
INTERCONNECTION EQUIPMENT <ul><li>PCC resides at the low side of the 12470 – 480vac 1000 kva transformer </li></ul><ul><li...
GAS TURBINE GENERATION AND CRITICAL PLANT LOADS  <ul><li>Three 800Kw 0.8 Power Factor Generators Feed the Plant 480 V Bus ...
DIESEL GENERATION and 4160 V SYSTEM
DIESEL GENERATION and 4160 V PLANT LOADS  <ul><li>Two 540Kw 0.8 Power Factor Generators Feed the Plant 4160 V System </li>...
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM TIE EQUIPMENT <ul><li>480 – 4160 V 1500 kva Transformer Connects the 480 V and 4160 V Systems  </li></ul...
UTILITY SOURCE TRANSFORMER CONNECTION <ul><li>Utility Advantages of the Ground Wye High Side Configuration </li></ul><ul><...
UTILITY SOURCE TRANSFORMER CONNECTION <ul><li>Plant Advantages of Grounded Wye High Side Configuration </li></ul><ul><ul><...
DISTRIBUTION CIRCUIT ARRESTOR OVER VOLTAGE
UTILITY INTERCONNECTION PROTECTION <ul><li>The SEL-351 Multifunction Microprocessor Relay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection...
VOLTAGE PROTECTION ELEMENTS <ul><li>Single Level Over Voltage and Under Voltage Protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under vol...
FREQUENCY PROTECTION ELEMENTS <ul><li>Single Level Definite Time Over and Under Frequency Protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
ISLANDING PROTECTION ELEMENT <ul><li>Load Encroachment Element </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detects load flow to the utility via ...
LOAD ENCROACHMENT ELEMENT
RECOMMENDED ENHANCEMENTS <ul><li>Inadvertent Energization of the Utility Distribution System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Program...
UTILITY VOLTAGE NORMAL
UTILTIY FREQUENCY NORMAL
CLOSE CIRCUIT CONTROL
PROTECTION SYSTEM MONITORING <ul><li>Utilize Loss of Potential Indication to Operate Protection System Abnormal Alarm Cont...
PLANT DISTRIBUTION 480-4160V TIE PROTECTION <ul><li>SEL-351 Multi-Function Microprocessor Relay </li></ul><ul><li>Provide ...
FAST LOW SET PROTECTION <ul><li>Definite Time Directional Negative Sequence Element </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operates for unb...
BALANCED FAULT PROTECTION <ul><li>Set Above Load and Motor Starting Inrush </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High set non-directional ...
ADVANTAGES OF TIE PROTECTION SYSTEM <ul><li>Closed Tie Continuity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For unbalanced disturbances on the...
RECOMMENDED ENHANCEMENTS TO TIE PROTECTION <ul><li>Use SEL-351 check synch element as an additional layer for out of synch...
PROTECTION QUALITY MEASUREMENTS <ul><li>Sequential Event Reports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time tagged protection system eleme...
EVENT ANALYSIS <ul><li>Event Reports Capture System Disturbances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide greater detail with pre and...
EVENT REPORT WAVEFROM GRAPHIICS
PHASOR PLOT GRAPHICS
DISPLAY MESSAGING <ul><li>Protection System Display Messaging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add descriptive text into rotating dis...
CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>Multi-functional Microprocessor Relays are Well Suited for Interconnection Protection </li></ul><ul><l...
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  1. 1. CASE STUDY – INDIAN BASIN UTILITY INTERCONNECTION <ul><li>JAN. 2002 </li></ul>
  2. 2. INDIAN BASIN GAS PLANT <ul><li>Marathon Oil Co. Gas Processing Plant </li></ul><ul><li>Five Synchronous Generators Totaling 3.48MVA </li></ul><ul><li>Gas Turbine and Diesel Driven Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>No Export Agreement with Utility </li></ul>
  3. 3. INTERCONNECTION BENEFITS <ul><li>Utility Provides a Source Instantaneous Energy when needed, Increasing Plant Electrical Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Operating Costs are Reduced by Using Fuels from Process </li></ul><ul><li>On-Site Generation can Maintain Critical Operations when Utility source is Unavailable, Creating Electrical Supply Redundancy </li></ul>
  4. 4. CASE STUDY CONTENT <ul><li>Utility Interconnection and Interconnection Protection and Control </li></ul><ul><li>Directional Overcurrent Protection Improves Plant Protection Selectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques used to Monitor Protection Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Logical Next Steps and Conclusions </li></ul>
  5. 5. PLANT ELECTRICAL SYSTEM LAYOUT
  6. 6. UTILITY SOURCE AND POINT OF COMMON COUPLING (PCC) <ul><li>PCC resides at the low side of the 12470 – 480vac 1000 kva transformer </li></ul><ul><li>1600 A, 480 V Circuit Breaker #352 Interconnect breaker </li></ul><ul><li>480 V Plant Bus Feeds Critical Plant Loads </li></ul>
  7. 7. INTERCONNECTION EQUIPMENT <ul><li>PCC resides at the low side of the 12470 – 480vac 1000 kva transformer </li></ul><ul><li>1600 A, 480 V Circuit Breaker #352 Interconnect breaker to Plant 480 V Bus </li></ul><ul><li>480 V Plant Bus Feeds Critical Plant Loads </li></ul>
  8. 8. GAS TURBINE GENERATION AND CRITICAL PLANT LOADS <ul><li>Three 800Kw 0.8 Power Factor Generators Feed the Plant 480 V Bus </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic Load and Var Controls </li></ul><ul><li>The Plant Electrical System is Predominantly High Resistance Grounded </li></ul><ul><li>480 V Plant Bus Feeds Critical Motor Control Centers, Process Loads and Building Loads </li></ul>
  9. 9. DIESEL GENERATION and 4160 V SYSTEM
  10. 10. DIESEL GENERATION and 4160 V PLANT LOADS <ul><li>Two 540Kw 0.8 Power Factor Generators Feed the Plant 4160 V System </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed Load and Voltage Regulations Controls </li></ul><ul><li>The 4160 V Plant Electrical System is Predominantly High Resistance Grounded </li></ul><ul><li>4160 V System Feeds Two Large Motors and Small Process Loads. </li></ul>
  11. 11. ELECTRICAL SYSTEM TIE EQUIPMENT <ul><li>480 – 4160 V 1500 kva Transformer Connects the 480 V and 4160 V Systems </li></ul><ul><li>1600 A, 480 V Circuit Breaker #552 Tie breaker </li></ul><ul><li>4160 V Plant Bus Feeds Large Motor Loads </li></ul>
  12. 12. UTILITY SOURCE TRANSFORMER CONNECTION <ul><li>Utility Advantages of the Ground Wye High Side Configuration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility distribution system remains solidly grounded even if plant generation feeds the distribution circuit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Utility Advantages of the Delta Low Side Configuration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zero Sequence Isolation, no ground fault contribution from plant generation </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. UTILITY SOURCE TRANSFORMER CONNECTION <ul><li>Plant Advantages of Grounded Wye High Side Configuration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant generation does cause utility distribution circuit arrestor damage during short periods of back feed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plant Advantages of Delta Low Side Configuration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zero sequence isolation, plant can operate with a High Resistance Grounded (HRG) system </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. DISTRIBUTION CIRCUIT ARRESTOR OVER VOLTAGE
  15. 15. UTILITY INTERCONNECTION PROTECTION <ul><li>The SEL-351 Multifunction Microprocessor Relay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection and control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Event and sequential event reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmable display messaging </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Failsafe Alarm Contact Provides System Status </li></ul>
  16. 16. VOLTAGE PROTECTION ELEMENTS <ul><li>Single Level Over Voltage and Under Voltage Protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under voltage protection set at 94% of nominal with 120 cycle delay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over voltage protection set at 132% of nominal with 120 cycle delay </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System Utilizes Open Delta Connected Potentials </li></ul>
  17. 17. FREQUENCY PROTECTION ELEMENTS <ul><li>Single Level Definite Time Over and Under Frequency Protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under frequency set at 59.25 Hz with five cycle delay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over frequency set at 60.25 Hz with five cycle delay </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Under Voltage Frequency Disable Set at 40 V </li></ul>
  18. 18. ISLANDING PROTECTION ELEMENT <ul><li>Load Encroachment Element </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Detects load flow to the utility via positive sequence impedance calculations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detects three-phase reverse power flow as small as 125 Kw </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reverse power time delay of four seconds allows plant generation control time to compensate after a load shed occurs </li></ul>
  19. 19. LOAD ENCROACHMENT ELEMENT
  20. 20. RECOMMENDED ENHANCEMENTS <ul><li>Inadvertent Energization of the Utility Distribution System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmable close interlock contact to prevent #352 interconnect breaker closing if distribution system is de-energized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use SEL-351 check synch element as an additional layer for out of synch close protection </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. UTILITY VOLTAGE NORMAL
  22. 22. UTILTIY FREQUENCY NORMAL
  23. 23. CLOSE CIRCUIT CONTROL
  24. 24. PROTECTION SYSTEM MONITORING <ul><li>Utilize Loss of Potential Indication to Operate Protection System Abnormal Alarm Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Control Protection Element Operation with Loss of Potential Status if Interconnection is Critical </li></ul>
  25. 25. PLANT DISTRIBUTION 480-4160V TIE PROTECTION <ul><li>SEL-351 Multi-Function Microprocessor Relay </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Fast Low Set Overcurrent Protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not sensitive to loading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure for disturbances on the utility feeder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Additional Overcurrent Protection for Balanced Fault Conditions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less sensitive and secure during motor starting operations on the 4160 vac system </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. FAST LOW SET PROTECTION <ul><li>Definite Time Directional Negative Sequence Element </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operates for unbalance faults on the 4160V system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two cycle definite time delay avoids tripping on negative sequence transients </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. BALANCED FAULT PROTECTION <ul><li>Set Above Load and Motor Starting Inrush </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High set non-directional definite time overcurrent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-directional extremely inverse time over current element </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This Combination Operates During Balanced Fault Conditions and is Secure During Motor Starting Inrush </li></ul>
  28. 28. ADVANTAGES OF TIE PROTECTION SYSTEM <ul><li>Closed Tie Continuity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For unbalanced disturbances on the utility distribution system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For motor starting operations on the 4160V system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fast Clearing of Unbalanced Faults on the 4160V System Minimizes Effects to the 480V Plant Bus </li></ul>
  29. 29. RECOMMENDED ENHANCEMENTS TO TIE PROTECTION <ul><li>Use SEL-351 check synch element as an additional layer for out of synch close protection </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize Loss of Potential Indication to Operate Protection System Abnormal Alarm Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Control Protection Element Operation with Loss of Potential Status </li></ul>
  30. 30. PROTECTION QUALITY MEASUREMENTS <ul><li>Sequential Event Reports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time tagged protection system element status report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unused levels of over current protection used for monitoring via sequential event reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unused levels of over current protection are not programmed for tripping </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. EVENT ANALYSIS <ul><li>Event Reports Capture System Disturbances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide greater detail with pre and post fault data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphical representations of voltage and current waveforms along with frequency magnitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection system element status time synchronized with voltage and current waveforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phasor plots of voltage current and sequence quantities </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. EVENT REPORT WAVEFROM GRAPHIICS
  33. 33. PHASOR PLOT GRAPHICS
  34. 34. DISPLAY MESSAGING <ul><li>Protection System Display Messaging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add descriptive text into rotating display based on protection element status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhances protection system targeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides additional information to operating personnel </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. CONCLUSIONS <ul><li>Multi-functional Microprocessor Relays are Well Suited for Interconnection Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Interconnection Protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over and Under Frequency Elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over and Under Voltage Elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Islanding Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close Interlock Control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitor Protection System Performance </li></ul>
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