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Value Orientation

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Value Orientation Value Orientation Presentation Transcript

  • SOCIOLOGICAL SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES
    Shared by large demographic segments of the society; societal contextual focus.
    Examples:
    - gender orientation;
    - value orientation;
    - small group & collective behavioral phenomena;
    - race and ethnic orientation
  • Column I Column 2 Column 3
    ADD COLUMN SCORE TOTALS PG. 1 SUBTOTAL = 50 PTS.THEN PG. TWO COLUMN SUBTOTAL= 50 PTS; THEN ADD TOGETHER 3 COLUMNS SUBTOTALSCOLUMN1 +COLUMN2 + COLUMN2 = 100 PTS.
    Example: Scoring Procedure
    C O L U M N S U B T O T A L S: 7pts. 6 pts. 37pts = 50
  • Value Orientation Typology
    The degree to which our life-style choices depend upon societal influences, primary/secondary group influences and/or our own particular individuated pursuits and self-interest.
  • Fundamental value differences are said to exist between those of different generational groups. Understanding these values assist us with addressing such matters as why conflicts arise in the learning environment and other social settings (i.e., work groups). Organizational development scholar, Dr. Morris Massey, embarked on an investigation about the acquisition of and basis for value orientation perspectives. He carried this further through development of a paradigm for bridging those value orientation differences that do exist within the context of various social settings.
  • Morris Massey
    Morris Massey (born 1939) is a producer of trainingvideos. His undergraduate and M.B.A. degrees are from the University of Texas, Austin, and his Ph.D. in business is from Louisiana State University. During the late 1960s through the 1970s, as an Associate Dean and Professor of Marketing, at the University of Colorado at Boulder, he received four awards for teaching excellence.
    Citation source: Wikpedia
  • Life Style Questionnaire Results
    • Each of the columns scores represent a particular value orientation dimension:
    Column 1 = Formalistic;
    Column 2 = Sociocentric;
    Column 3 = Personalistic
    • The distribution of the scores across the three columns represent your value orientation category
  • COLUMN I: Formalistic Value Orientation Dimension
    Life style Criteria:
    Antecedent of Action
    Form of Control/Info.
    Object of Responsibility
    Desired End
    To be Avoided
    Material Goods
    Use of Experience
    Basis for Growth
    Self Relative to Others
    Interpersonal Relations
    Time Perspective
    Formalistic Perspective
    Direction from Authority
    Rules, reward & punishment
    Superordinate Powers
    Compliance
    Deviation from Authority
    Compete for Means of Control
    Validate External Order
    Following the Established Order
    Member of Hierarchy
    Structure Orientation
    Future
  • Column II: SociocentricValue Orientation Dimension
    Life style Criteria:
    Antecedent of Action
    Form of Control/Info.
    Object of Responsibility
    Desired End
    To be Avoided
    Material Goods
    Use of Experience
    Basis for Growth
    Self Relative to Others
    Interpersonal Relations
    Time Perspective
    Sociocentric Perspective
    Discussion/Agreement
    Interpersonal Commitments What “we” think & feel
    Peers, colleague & self
    Consensus & agreement
    Failure to reach agreement
    Collaborate for means of control
    Share for agreement & growth
    Interaction
    Peer group member
    Group oriented
    Future
  • Column III: PersonalisticValue Orientation Dimension
    Life style Criteria:
    Antecedent of Action
    Form of Control/Info.
    Object of Responsibility
    Desired End
    To be Avoided
    Material Goods
    Use of Experience
    Basis for Growth
    Self Relative to Others
    Interpersonal Relations
    Time Perspective
    Personalistic Perspective
    Direction from within
    Action congruent with sense of self ; What “I” think & feel
    Self
    Actualization of individual
    Not being one’s self
    Take for granted
    Define Self
    Acting on awareness of self
    Separate Individual
    Individual oriented
    Present
  • What generations/value orientations types are represented in today?
    TraditionalistsBoomers' parents. These are the Traditionalists, War Babies or Veterans, who are now older than 55.
    Baby BoomersThe Baby Boomers make up the largest percentage of the population today according to U.S. Census statistics. Boomers consist of people currently between the ages of 37-55 (born between 1947-1965).
  • How about our younger generations?
    Generation Xers
    > The Generation Xers are people
    in the 25-36 age group
    > (born between 1966-1977).
    Nexters or Generation Y
    > age 7-24
    > (born between 1978 and 1995).
    > These are the cyber kids; grew up
    with the Internet, and speed and
    access to information
  • Caveat
    One’s particular value orientation can potentially be fundamentally altered sometime during the person’s life-timeby an emergent “significant” emotional event.
    A Significant Emotional Event is an experience (or experiences) that creates a “overwhelming emotional turmoil” which lead to the reshaping of our value orientation perspective. That emotional source could be a positively perceived experience (i.e., being a lottery winner) or it could be an initially overwhelming negative experience (i.e., assuming responsibility for the care of a parent, while raising one’s own children) .
    An event often becomes a Significant Emotional Event if it is deemed by the person as an intense experience. In other words, something traumatic which creates great emotional upheaval, necessitating the alteration of one’s overall value orientation perspective.
    Citation: http://adriantannock.com
    In other words, the phrase coined by W.I. Thomas, “perceptions become real in their consequence(s)”, relate well to this notion of significant emotional events, as defined by the person , manifest resultant value orientation change
  • Traditionalists values are influenced by the experiences of their parents whose values go back to the 1800s. This generation experienced the Great Depression and World War II both of which shape how they view the world. Vast Majority of the Life-Style pts. Column 1, “Formalistic” 
  • Traditionalists Value - cont...
    Formality: Whether written or in oral communication a formal communication style is preferred. This generation values formal dress and organizational structures.
    Authority and institutional leadership: Traditionalists have a great deal of respect for authority.
    Social Order: Other generations may view this desire for social order and placement as bias, prejudice or even racism or sexism.
    Things: This group loves their stuff and they won't get rid of it. Some may call them pack rats but others would argue that they remember the depression days and going with out. You never know when you might need it.
  • Baby Boomer Profile
    Morris Massey calls this group the Nuagers.
    They did not go through economically hard times as their parents did,
    They experienced the good life - the Traditionalists wanted them to have the best and as a result, the "Me" decade arrived
    Life-Style Questionnaire Results:
    - majority of pts. 3rd, column, personalistic
  • Baby Boomers Value...
    Competition: Boomers value peer competition and can be see by others as being egocentric.
    Change: Boomers thrive for possibilities and constant change.
    Hard Work: Boomers started the "workaholic" trend. The difference between Traditionalists and Boomers is that Boomers value the hard work because they view it as necessary for moving to the next level of success while Traditionalists work hard because they feel that it is the right thing to do.
    Success: This generation is committed to climbing the ladder of success
  • What Boomers value - cont……
    Teamwork: This group embraces a team based approach to business-they are eager to get rid of the command and control style of their Traditionalist predecessors.
    Anti Rules and Regulations: They don't appreciate rules for the sake of having rules and they will challenge the system.
    Inclusion: This generation will accept people on an equal basis as long as they can perform to their standards.
    Will Fight For A Cause: While they don't like problems, if you give them a cause they will fight for it.
  • Generation Xers Profile
    Morris Massey refers to this group as the Syn-Tech generation.
    This generation is both economically conservative, remembering double-digit inflation and the stress that their parents faced during times of on and off unemployment.
    Unlike their predecessors, they will not rely on institutions for their long-term security.
    Life-Style Questionnaire Results
    - most pts. Col II & III, sociocentric, personalistic
  • Generation Xers Value...
    Entrepreneurial Spirit: Xers believe in investing in their own development rather than in their organization's. While others may see them as disloyal they are cautious about investing in relationships with employers because experience has shown that these relationships are not reliable. Cavalier as it may sound, one Xer told a Boomer that if you want loyalty get a dog.
    Loyalty: To an Xer, this may mean two-weeks notice.
    Independence and Creativity: Xers have clear goals and prefer managing their own time and solving their own problems rather than having them managed by a supervisor.
  • Generation Xers Value-cont. ...
    Information: They value access to information and love plenty of it.
    Feedback: This group needs continuous feedback and they use the feedback to adapt to new situations. This generation is flexible.
    Quality of Worklife: This generation works hard but they would rather find quicker more efficient ways of working so that they have time for fun. While Boomers are working hard to move up the ladder, Xers are working hard so that they can have more time to balance work and life responsibilities
  • Generation Y (Also Called Nexters) Profile
    If you think that Generation Xers were challenging for Traditionalists and Boomers to teach, just wait until Generation Y arrives.
    Generation Y represents people who have grown up during the high tech revolution. They have never known a world without high speed video games, speed dial and ATMs.
    The secret to motivating this group is to provide systematic and frequent feedback - as it happens.
    Life-Style Questionnaire Results:
    - relatively equal weighting across all 3 columns (formalistic, sociocentric and personalistic) 
  • Generation Y Values...
    Positive Reinforcement: Members of this cyber generation value positive reinforcement at accelerated rates compared to older generations.
    Autonomy: This group wants more input into how they are learning and the independence to do it.
    Positive Attitudes: This group grew up during tranquil times and as a result have a very optimistic outlook on life in general.
  • Generation Y Values –cont. ...
    Diversity: This group grew up with more diversity than their predecessors and if not exposed to it in their community then they were introduced diverse people and cultures through the media.
    Money: This group is used to making and spending money.
    Technology: Technology is valued and is used as a tool for multi-tasking.
  • Managing the Generational Mix How do we keep a generationally diverse group of learners motivated
    The first step to making the generational diversity work is to understand what motivates members of different generations;
    and to institute teaching techniques that are flexible enough to meet their needs.
  • Managing the Generational Mix
    Traditionalists are found with Boomers and Boomers with Generation Xers.
    Trends toward later retirements mean that traditionalists are still happy working and learning
    and Generation Xers are quickly moving into positions of power and influence where they are supervising and educating members of older generations.
  • Supportive Behaviors & Tips For Communicating With Baby Boomers...
    Boomers are the "show me" generation, so your body language is important when communicating.
    Speak in an open, direct style but avoid controlling language.
    Answer questions thoroughly and expect to be pressed for the details.
    Present options to demonstrate flexibility in your thinking.
  • Supportive Behaviors and Tips For Communicating with Traditionalists...
    By nature Traditionalists are private, the "silent generation".  Don't expect members of this generation to share their thoughts immediately.
    For the Traditionalist an educator's word is his/her bond, so it's important to focus on words rather than body language or inferences.
    Face to face or written communication is preferred.
    Don't waste their time, or let them feel as though their time is being wasted
  • Supportive Behaviors & Tips for Communicating With Generation X...
    Use e-mail as a primary communication tool.
    Talk in short sound bites to keep their attention.
    Ask them for their feedback and provide them with regular feedback.
    Share information with them on a regular basis and strive to keep them in the loop.
    Use an informal communication style.
  • Supportive Behaviors & Tips for Communicating With Generation Y...
    Use action words and challenge them at every opportunity.
    They will resent it if you talk down to them.
    They prefer e-mail communication.
    Seek their feedback constantly and provide them with regular feedback.
    Use humor and create a fun learning environment. Don't take yourself too seriously.
    Encourage them to take risks and break the rules so that they can explore new ways of learning.
  • Socialization A Life-Course Process
    Each time we experience a change in status (becoming a college student or getting married), we learn a new set of rules, roles, and relationships.
    Before we achieve a new status, we often participate in anticipatory socialization, the process by which knowledge and skills are learned for future roles.
  • At what age do you believe our Value Orientations become concretized? Each of the following stages described below are accompanied by a crisis that involves transitions in social relationships
    Hint:
  • A DO L E S CE N CE ?
    Theorists, including Freud, to Erik Erickson and Harry Levinson
    maintain that the most pivotal period in our life is the adolescent period, whereby the quest for self-identity occurs
    - peer vs. familial influence;
    - schools play an increasing role
  • Conventional Level of Moral Development
    According to Lawrence Kohlberg, during the conventional level of moral development, people are most concerned with how they are perceived by their peers.
  • Intimacy vs. Isolation
    One of Erik H. Erikson’s stages of development is a period of intimacy versus isolation, which covers courtship and early family life.
    The college years are often a time when young people seek to establish permanent relationships.
  • Peer Groups
    A group of people who are linked by common interests, equal social position, and age.
    Peer groups contribute to our sense of “belonging” and our feelings of self-worth.
    They provide children with an opportunity for successful adaptation to situations such as gaining access to ongoing play, protecting shared activities.
  • Resocialization
    Learning a new set of attitudes, values, and behaviors.
    Resocialization is voluntary when we assume a new status of our own free will.
  • Rite of Passage
    An important rite of passage for many Latinas is the quinceañera—a celebration of their 15th birthday and their passage into womanhood.
  • Involuntary Resocialization
    Occurs against a person’s wishes and generally takes place within a total institution.
    Military boot camps, jails, concentration camps, and some mental hospitals are total institutions.
  • Resocialization and the Military
    People in military training are resocialized through extensive, grueling military drills and maneuvers.
  • Returning back to our Analysis of Value Orientation,
    drawing upon the Life Style Questionnaire, Your Scores
  • Traditionalists values are influenced by the experiences of their parents whose values go back to the 1800s. This generation experienced the Great Depression and World War II both of which shape how they view the world. If the Vast Majority of the Life-Style pts. Column 1, “Formalistic”, you are identified as having a predominately “Traditional” Value Perspective 
  • Traditionalists Value...
    Privacy: Traditionalists are the private, silent generation. Don't expect members of this generation to share their inner thoughts.
    Hard Work: They believe in paying their dues and become irritated when they perceive others are wasting their time. Members of this generation often feel that their career identifies who they are.
    Trust: A traditionalist's word is his/her bond.
  • Traditionalists Value - cont...
    Formality: Whether written or in oral communication a formal communication style is preferred. This generation values formal dress and organizational structures.
    Authority and institutional leadership: Traditionalists have a great deal of respect for authority.
    Social Order: Other generations may view this desire for social order and placement as bias, prejudice or even racism or sexism.
    Things: This group loves their stuff and they won't get rid of it. Some may call them pack rats but others would argue that they remember the depression days and going with out. You never know when you might need it.
  • Baby Boomer Profile
    Morris Massey calls this group the Nuagers.
    They did not go through economically hard times as their parents did,
    They experienced the good life - the Traditionalists wanted them to have the best and as a result, the "Me" decade arrived;
    Life-Style Questionnaire Results:
    - if the vast of your points fall under 3rd column “personalistic”, then you possess a baby boomer value perspective
    - this is where my value perspective is found
  • Baby Boomers Value...
    Competition:Boomers value peer competition and can be see by others as being egocentric.
    Change:Boomers thrive for possibilities and constant change.
    Hard Work:Boomers started the "workaholic" trend. The difference between Traditionalists and Boomers is that Boomers value the hard work because they view it as necessary for moving to the next level of success while Traditionalists work hard because they feel that it is the right thing to do.
    Success:This generation is committed to climbing the ladder of success
  • What Boomers value - cont……
    Teamwork: This group embraces a team based approach to business-they are eager to get rid of the command and control style of their Traditionalist predecessors.
    Anti Rules and Regulations:They don't appreciate rules for the sake of having rules and they will challenge the system.
    Inclusion:This generation will accept people on an equal basis as long as they can perform to their standards.
    Will Fight For A Cause: While they don't like problems, if you give them a cause they will fight for it.
  • Generation XersProfile
    Morris Massey refers to this group as the Syn-Tech generation.
    This generation is both economically conservative, remembering double-digit inflation and the stress that their parents faced during times of on and off unemployment.
    Unlike their predecessors, they will not rely on institutions for their long-term security.
    Life-Style Questionnaire Results
    - If most of your pots fall under Col II & III, sociocentric & personalistic, respectively, you then
    -possess a Generation Xervalue orientation
  • Generation XersValue...
    Entrepreneurial Spirit: Xers believe in investing in their own development rather than in their organization's. While others may see them as disloyal they are cautious about investing in relationships with employers because experience has shown that these relationships are not reliable. Cavalier as it may sound, one Xer told a Boomer that if you want loyalty get a dog.
    Loyalty: To an Xer, this may mean two-weeks notice.
    Independence and Creativity: Xers have clear goals and prefer managing their own time and solving their own problems rather than having them managed by a supervisor.
  • Generation XersValue-cont. ...
    Information: They value access to information and love plenty of it.
    Feedback: This group needs continuous feedback and they use the feedback to adapt to new situations. This generation is flexible.
    Quality of Worklife: This generation works hard but they would rather find quicker more efficient ways of working so that they have time for fun. While Boomers are working hard to move up the ladder, Xers are working hard so that they can have more time to balance work and life responsibilities
  • Generation Y (Also Called Nexters) Profile
    If you think that Generation Xers were challenging for Traditionalists and Boomers to teach, just wait until Generation Y arrives.
    Generation Y represents people who have grown up during the high tech revolution. They have never known a world without high speed video games, speed dial and ATMs.
    The secret to motivating this group is to provide systematic and frequent feedback - as it happens.
    Life-Style Questionnaire Results:
    - if your scores are relatively equally weighted across all 3 columns (formalistic, sociocentric and personalistic)
    - then you possess a Generation Y value orientation 
  • Generation Y Values...
    Positive Reinforcement: Members of this cyber generation value positive reinforcement at accelerated rates compared to older generations.
    Autonomy: This group wants more input into how they are learning and the independence to do it.
    Positive Attitudes: This group grew up during tranquil times and as a result have a very optimistic outlook on life in general.
  • Generation Y Values –cont. ...
    Diversity: This group grew up with more diversity than their predecessors and if not exposed to it in their community then they were introduced diverse people and cultures through the media.
    Money: This group is used to making and spending money.
    Technology:Technology is valued and is used as a tool for multi-tasking.
  • Managing the Generational Mix How do we keep a generationally diverse group of learners motivated
    The first step to making the generational diversity work is to understand what motivates members of different generations;
    and to institute teaching techniques that are flexible enough to meet their needs.
  • Managing the Generational Mix
    Traditionalists are found with Boomers and Boomers with Generation Xers.
    Trends toward later retirements mean that traditionalists are still happy working and learning
    and Generation Xersare quickly moving into positions of power and influence where they are supervising and educating members of older generations.
  • Supportive Behaviors and Tips For Communicating with Traditionalists...
    By nature Traditionalists are private, the "silent generation".  Don't expect members of this generation to share their thoughts immediately.
    For the Traditionalist an educator's word is his/her bond, so it's important to focus on words rather than body language or inferences.
    Face to face or written communication is preferred.
    Don't waste their time, or let them feel as though their time is being wasted
  • Supportive Behaviors & Tips For Communicating With Baby Boomers...
    Boomers are the "show me" generation, so your body language is important when communicating.
    Speak in an open, direct style but avoid controlling language.
    Answer questions thoroughly and expect to be pressed for the details.
    Present options to demonstrate flexibility in your thinking.
  • Supportive Behaviors & Tips for Communicating With Generation X...
    Use email as a primary communication tool.
    Talk in short sound bites to keep their attention.
    Ask them for their feedback and provide them with regular feedback.
    Share information with them on a regular basis and strive to keep them in the loop.
    Use an informal communication style.
  • Supportive Behaviors & Tips for Communicating With Generation Y...
    Use action words and challenge them at every opportunity.
    They will resent it if you talk down to them.
    They prefer e-mail communication.
    Seek their feedback constantly and provide them with regular feedback.
    Use humor and create a fun learning environment. Don't take yourself too seriously.
    Encourage them to take risks and break the rules so that they can explore new ways of learning.
  • Wall Street Journal
    SEPTEMBER 12, 2009
    The Children of 9/11 Grow Up
    College students talk about how the attack shaped their lives
    .
    By PEGGY NOONAN
    It is eight years since 9/11, and here is an unexpected stage of grief: fear that the ache will go away. I don't suppose it ever will, but grieving has gradations, and "horror" becomes "absorbed sadness." Life moves on, and wants to move on, which is painful for those who will not forget and cannot be comforted. Part of the spookiness of life, part of its power to disorient us, is not only that people die, that they slip below the waves, but that the waves close above them so quickly, the sea so quickly looks the same.
  • I've been thinking about those who were children on 9/11, not little ones who were shielded but those who were 10 and 12, old enough to understand that something dreadful had happened but young enough still to be in childhood. A young man who was 14 the day of the attacks told me recently that there's an unspoken taboo among the young people of New York: They don't talk about it, ever. They don't want to say, "Oh boo hoo, it was awful." They don't want to dwell. They shrug it off when it comes up. They change the subject.
    This week, in a conversation with college students at an eastern university, I brought it up. Seven students politely shared some of their memories. I invited them to tell me more the next morning, and was surprised when six of the seven showed up. This is what I learned:
    They've been marked by 9/11 more than they know. It was their first moment of historical consciousness. Before that day, they didn't know what history was; after that day, they knew they were in it.
    It was a life-splitting event. Before it they were carefree, after they were careful. A 20-year-old junior told me that after 9/11, "a backpack on a subway was no longer a backpack," and a crowded theater was "a source for concern." Every one of them used the word "bubble": the protected bubble of their childhood "popped." And all of them said they spent 9/11 and the days after glued to the television, watching over and over again the footage—the north tower being hit by the plane, the fireball. The video of 9/11 has firmly and ineradicably entered their brains. Which is to say their first visual memory of America, or their first media memory, was of its towers falling down
  • I'd never fully realized this: 9/11 was for America's kids exactly what Nov. 22, 1963, was for their parents and uncles and aunts. They were at school. Suddenly there were rumors in the hall and teachers speaking in hushed tones. You passed an open classroom and saw a teacher sobbing. Then the principal came on the public-address system and said something very bad had happened. Shocked parents began to pick kids up. Everyone went home and watched TV all day, and the next.
    Simon, a 20-year-old college junior, was a 12-year-old seventh-grader at a public school in Baltimore. He said: "It's first-period science, and the teacher next door, who was known to play jokes on other teachers, comes in completely stone-faced and says a plane has hit the World Trade Center, and no one believes him." Simon didn't know what to believe but remembered reading that in 1945 a plane had struck the Empire State Building, and "the building stayed up," so he didn't worry too much.
    "At lunch time the vice principal comes up and he explains that two planes had hit the World Trade Center and one had hit the Pentagon and the World Trade Center was gone, and I never—when you have your mouth agape it's never for anything important, but I remember having my mouth agape for a minute or two in complete and utter shock. I went to my art period and I remember my art teacher sitting there with her hands on her face just bawling, she was so frightened. My mom picked me up, and I remember walking with her, and I'm saying 'This is Pearl Harbor.'“
    Nine-eleven, he felt, changed everything for his generation. "It completely destroyed our sense of invincibility—maybe that's not the right word. I would say it made everything real to a 12-year-old. It showed the world could be a dangerous place when for my generation that was never the case. My generation had no Soviet Union, no war against fascism, we never had any threats. I was born when the Berlin Wall came down. It destroyed the sense of carefree innocence that we had."
    Juliette, also 20 and a junior, was in eighth grade in Great Falls, Va. "I think the kids were shocked," she said. "The major question was how could this happen, who would do that—like, how does something so crazy happen? What I had is a sense that it was going to be one of
  • those days of which 30 years down the road, people would ask me, What were you doing on that day, where were you on 9/11?—that my children would ask me. And so I set myself to remembering the details."
    I told her that it is interesting to me that no great art has yet come from 9/11. The reason may be that adults absorbed what had happened, and because we had absorbed it, we did not have to transmute it into art. Maybe when you are still absorbing, or cannot absorb, that's when art happens. Maybe your generation will do it, I said.
    She considered this. "There's always the odds that something much more horrible will happen that will really shake us out of our torpor, that will wake us up," she said.
    The attack was not only an American event. Robbie, an 18-year-old freshman, was 10 and in primary school in England. "We were near the end of school. There were murmurs from teachers about something happening. I remember going back home, and my mum had both televisions on with different news channels. I remember the tower and the pillar of smoke. The big pillar of smoke was very vivid to me, and my mother trying to explain the seriousness of it. I think 9/11 brought us bang slap into the 21st century. I remember when the millennium came people said 'new time, new world,' but 9/11 was the 'new time, new world.' I understood it was something big, something that changed the world."
  • Then he told me that after we had talked the previous evening, he'd had a dream. "I was back in my old school in England, and in front of me I could see the city of Bristol, nothing distinct, but big towers, big buildings. And I could see them crumbling and falling. There was a collective fear, not just from myself but amongst everyone in the dream. I remember calling in the dream my mum, and saying 'Are you safe, are you safe?' I think this perhaps shows that after 9/11 . . . as a small child you felt safe, but after 9/11, I don't think I personally will ever feel 100% safe. . . . I think the dream demonstrates—I think the dream contained my hidden feelings, my consciousness."
    He remembered after 9/11 those who rose up to fight terrorism. Even as a child he was moved by them. There are always in history so many such people, he said. It is always the great reason for hope.
    Printed in The Wall Street Journal, page A15