Sex And Gender, Chapter 11

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Sex, Gender and Stress, incl, type A, type B, type A/B personality typology

Sex, Gender and Stress, incl, type A, type B, type A/B personality typology

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  • Calls for three levels of largely physiological reactions to stressors. In the alarm reaction, resources are quickly mobilized as the sympathetic division of the ANS springs into action. If the stressor remains, the organism enters a defensive resistance stage. Following prolonged exposure to a stressor, the energy necessary for adaptive resistance may become depleted in a stage of exhaustion.
  • There are individual differences in how people respond to stress. 1. Being able to see difficulties as opportunity for change and growth, not as a threat to status. 2. Being in charge of what is happening and believing that one is master of his or her fate. 3. Being engaged and involved in life and its circumstances, not just watching life go by on the sidelines.
  • Females will often call out to their friends and family members in times of stress. In sum, some responses to stress are more effective or adaptive than others.
  • It is now realized that there are other sources of aggression. Anxiety–the anxiety that results from stress can become so discomforting and maladaptive to lead a psychologist to say that a person is suffering from a psychological disorder.
  • That is, when one’s goal-directed behaviors are continually blocked or thwarted, one should consider bringing about a relatively permanent change in those behaviors, or consider changing one’s goals altogether.

Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 11 Sex and Gender
  • 2. Chapter Outline
    • Sex: The Biological Dimension
    • Gender: The Cultural Dimension
    • Gender Stratification in Historical and Contemporary Perspective
    • Gender and Socialization
  • 3. Chapter Outline
    • Contemporary Gender Inequality
    • Perspectives on Gender Stratification
    • Gender Issues in the Future
  • 4. Sex
    • Sex refers to the biological differences between females and males.
    • At birth, infants are distinguished by primary sex characteristics : the genitalia used in the reproductive process.
  • 5. Gender
    • Gender refers to culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males found in the meanings associated with “femininity” and “masculinity.”
    • Gender is used as a means to divide up work, allocate resources, and distribute power.
  • 6. Gender
    • Gender role refers to attitudes, behavior, and activities that are defined as appropriate for each sex.
    • In U.S. society, males are expected to demonstrate aggressiveness whereas females are expected to be passive and nurturing.
    • Gender identity is a person’s perception of the self as female or male.
  • 7.  
  • 8. Gender Socialization
    • The aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of being female or male in a specific group or society.
    • Important in influencing our beliefs about acceptable behaviors for males and females.
  • 9. Sharpening Your Focus
    • How do functionalist, conflict, and feminist perspectives on gender stratification differ?
    • How do a society’s resources and economic structure influence gender stratification?
    • What are the primary agents of gender socialization?
    • How does the contemporary workplace reflect gender stratification?
  • 10. Hunting and Gathering Society Economic Characteristics Hunting game, gathering roots and berries Control of Surplus None Inheritance None Control over Procreation None Women’s Status Relative Equality
  • 11. Horticultural and Pastoral Economic Characteristics Planting crops, domestication of animals for food Control of Surplus Men begin to control societies Inheritance Shared—patrilineal and matrilineal Control over Procreation Increasingly by men Women’s Status Decreasing in move to pastoralism
  • 12. Industrial Economic Characteristics Mechanized production of goods Control of Surplus Men who own means of production Inheritance Bilateral Control over Procreation Men—but less so in later stages Women’s Status Low
  • 13. Agrarian Economic Characteristics Labor-intensive farming Control of Surplus Men who own land or herds Inheritance Patrilineal Control over Procreation Men—to ensure legitimacy of heirs Women’s Status Low
  • 14. Postindustrial Economic Characteristics Information and service economy Control of Surplus Corporate shareholders and high-tech entrepreneurs Inheritance Bilateral Control over Procreation Mixed Women’s Status Varies by class, race, and age
  • 15. Schools and Gender Socialization
    • Teachers provide messages about gender through classroom assignments and informal interactions with students.
    • Teachers may unintentionally show favoritism toward one gender over the other, this is called, gender bias .
  • 16. Sexual Orientation
    • Refers to preference for emotional–sexual relationships with:
      • The opposite sex - heterosexuality
      • The same sex - homosexuality
      • Both sexes - bisexuality
  • 17. Identifying Sexuality
    • In a study of sexuality in the mid-1990s, researchers established three criteria for identifying people as homosexual or bisexual:
      • Sexual attraction to one’s own gender.
      • Sexual involvement with one or more persons of one’s own gender.
      • Self-identification as a gay, lesbian, or bisexual.
  • 18. GENDER ORIENTATION SCALE ___ col. 1 total Column I Column II ___ Col. 2 Total
  • 19. Gender Role Scale Scoring
    • Column 1 = Masculine;
    • Column 2 = Feminine
    • Subtract column 1 score from column 2 score;
    • Difference Score:
    • Column 1 Score - Column 2 Score = _____
    • Difference Score, small difference score
    • Signifies an Androgynous Gender Orientation
  • 20. Yet another Self-Assessment
  • 21. Type A or Type B Personality
    • Those with a majority of True responses indicative of a Type A personality;
    • Those answering most of the questions as false,
    • Indicative of a Type B personality;
    • Equal amount of True and False answered questions, Type A/Type B personality
  • 22.
    • www.benttreepress.com/products/Stu...Site.../GerowPPCH11.ppt
  • 23.
    • Type A Behavior Pattern
      • characterized by competitiveness, impatience, ambition, hostility, & a hard-driving approach to life is associated with increased risk of heart disease
    • Type B Behavior P attern
      • characterized by a patient, relaxed, easygoing approach to life, with little hurry or hostility only half as likely to develop heart disease
  • 24.
    • Stress is a complex set of reactions to real or perceived threats to one’s well being that motivates adaptation
    • Stressors – sources or stimuli for stress
  • 25.
    • Stress: our response to events that disturb, or threaten to disturb, our physical or psychological equilibrium
    • Stressors: external or internal events that challenge or threaten us
  • 26.
    • Major cataclysmic events
    • Personal major events
    • Minor stressful events, called hassles
    • Even positive events can tax body’s resources and cause stress.
      • negative events induce more stress than neutral or positive events.
  • 27.
    • Hans Selye - "a nonspecific result of
    • any demand on the body".
    • STRESSORS, DEEMED AS “POSITIVE” OR “NEGATIVE” EVENTS—appraisal process
    • Individual attributes : Response :
    • personality, physical stamina, Cognitive (our thinking; threat or challenge)
    • etc., degree of experience Emotional (feeling state , anger, hostility, elation)
    • with stressor, etc. Physical, ( high BP, stomach/head ache, energized)
    • An event/situation
    • not Stressful or
    • Stressful, then defined as a “stressor”
  • 28. Individual Attributes: Personality traits
  • 29. Hans Selye: Stress as a Set of Responses to Demands
    • General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS): Hans Selye ’ s stress model in which an event that threatens an organism ’ s well-being (a stressor) leads to a three-stage bodily response:
      • Stage 1: Alarm
      • Stage 2: Resistance
      • Stage 3: Exhaustion
  • 30.
    • TOO MUCH STRESS:
    • Demands exceed capacity.
    • A state which arises from an actual or
    • perceived demand-capability
    • imbalance in the organism's vital
    • adjustment and which is partially
    • manifested by a nonspecific response.
  • 31. Figure 11.6: Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome.
  • 32.
    • :
    Fight or Flight Perceived Threat X Return to Homeostasis Homeostasis Exhaustion
  • 33. Professor Lazarus’s concept of appraisal, which had its roots in the work of Magda Arnold, and before that, in Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics , eventually became a principal rationale for cognitive-behavior therapy, which became one of the major approaches to psychological treatment beginning in the 1970s.   Professor Lazarus also emphasized that the way people cope with stress is crucial in their physical, social, and psychological well-being. A basic premise of his was that stress and coping are reciprocals of each other. When coping is effective, stress is usually controlled; when coping is ineffective, stress mounts and can get out of control, leading to physiological disturbance, subjective distress, and impaired social functioning.   In 1984, in collaboration with Susan Folkman (who had obtained her doctorate as his student), Professor Lazarus published Stress, Appraisal and Coping , which became the most widely read and cited academic book in this field. He published a sequel to it in 1999, entitled Stress and Emotion: A New Synthesis. There, he made a case for stress as being part of the broader area of emotion, and made a case for the use of narratives or prototypical stories as an approach to the emotions. Professor Lazarus also stressed the importance of daily hassles as a source of stress, arguing that such hassles typically cause more human suffering than major life events.
  • 34. Cognitive Appraisal
    • Richard Lazarus (early researcher) Cognitive appraisal is essential in defining whether a situation is a threat, how big a threat it is, and what resources you have to deal with the threat.
  • 35. While responding, you build your mental framework.
    • You exercise your will to accept or reject information (corpus callosum).
      • Accepted information is amplified.
      • Rejected information will disappear.
    • You must feel something is true to believe it. Emotions (limbic system) tells you what is real, true, and important.
  • 36. Cognitive Appraisal
    • Lazarus identified two cognitive appraisal stages: (notice fear vs. faith)
      • Primary appraisal: initial evaluation of situation; ass ess what is happening, whether it is threatening, and whether you should take some action in response to the threat
      • Secondary appraisal: assess whether you have ability to cope with stressor. The more competent you perceive yourself to be, the less stress you experience.
  • 37. Cognitive Appraisal
      • Lazarus’s model conceives of the person as an active participant in evaluating and responding to stressors.
        • Problem-focused coping: a strategy aimed at reducing stress by overcoming the source of the problem
        • Emotion-focused coping: efforts to manage your emotional reactions to stressors rather than trying to change the stressors themselves
  • 38. P redictability and Control Can Moderate the Stress Response
    • Whether an event becomes a harmful stressor is often determined by:
      • It ’ s predictability
        • If you know that a stressor is coming but are uncertain when it will occur, you experience greater stress.
      • Factors related to control over it; e.g., having faith
  • 39. Predictability and Control Can Moderate the Stress Response
    • If you believe that you have some control over a stressor, you usually feel less stressed .
    • When you doubt your ability to control a stressor, you are more likely to use emotion-focused coping.
    • Locus of control: the degree to which you expect that outcomes in your life depend on your own actions rather than the environment.
    • Repeated failure at trying to eliminate stressors can lead to a feeling of learned helplessness.
  • 40.
    • Hardy personalities – people who seem generally resistant to the negative aspects of stress. Related to:
      • Challenge
      • Control
      • Commitment
  • 41.
    • Gender differences:
      • Males likely to show a “fight-or-flight” reaction
      • Females tend to exhibit “tend-and-befriend” reactions
  • 42.
    • Procrastination
      • Form of fixation – simply not doing something to remove the stressor
    • Aggression
      • Frustration-aggression hypothesis – claims that aggression was always caused by frustration
    • Anxiety – general feeling of tension, apprehension and dread that involves predictable physiological changes
    • Substance Abuse, as Dr. Phil says, engagin in social trespassing (extra-marital affairs), etc .
  • 43.
    • Professor Lazarus’s concept of appraisal, which had its roots in the work of Magda Arnold, and before that, in Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics , eventually became a principal rationale for cognitive-behavior therapy, which became one of the major approaches to psychological treatment beginning in the 1970s.
    •  
    • Professor Lazarus also emphasized that the way people cope with stress is crucial in their physical, social, and psychological well-being. A basic premise of his was that stress and coping are reciprocals of each other. When coping is effective, stress is usually controlled; when coping is ineffective, stress mounts and can get out of control, leading to physiological disturbance, subjective distress, and impaired social functioning.
    •  
    • In 1984, in collaboration with Susan Folkman (who had obtained her doctorate as his student), Professor Lazarus published Stress, Appraisal and Coping , which became the most widely read and cited academic book in this field. He published a sequel to it in 1999, entitled Stress and Emotion: A New Synthesis. There, he made a case for stress as being part of the broader area of emotion, and made a case for the use of narratives or prototypical stories as an approach to the emotions. Professor Lazarus also stressed the importance of daily hassles as a source of stress, arguing that such hassles typically cause more human suffering than major life events.
  • 44.
    • Remove or negate the stressor
    • Reappraise the situation
    • Inoculate against future stressors
    • Take your time with important decisions
  • 45.
    • Seek social support to rethink the supposed
    • threat;
    • Cognitive Reprogramming;
  • 46.  
  • 47. Hostile & Pessimistic Persons Are More Reactive to Stressors
    • Pessimistic explanatory style:
      • tendency to explain cause of negative uncontrollable events as one ’ s own stable personal qualities affecting all aspects of life
          • Associated with health problems and premature death
    • Optimistic explanatory style:
      • tendency to explain cause of uncontrollable negative events as temporary, external factors that do not affect other aspects of one ’ s life
          • Associated with good health and longevity
  • 48. Predictability and Control Can Moderate the Stress Response
    • If you believe that you have some control over a stressor, you usually feel less stressed .
    • When you doubt your ability to control a stressor, you are more likely to use emotion-focused coping.
    • Locus of control: the degree to which you expect that outcomes in your life depend on your own actions rather than the environment.
    • Repeated failure at trying to eliminate stressors can lead to a feeling of learned helplessness.
  • 49. These Patterns Can Be Redirected; counteracting certain prevailing personality traits that you possess which have contributed to your stress
    • Deal with old issues
    • Don’t deny emotions
    • Forgive
    • De-guilt (make amends; forgive yourself)
    • Question beliefs and assumptions
    • Talk with somebody you trust
  • 50. RELATED TO YOUR ESSAY QUESTION: Social Support Has Therapeutic Effects
    • People with more extensive social support networks are happier, have stronger immune systems, and live longer than those who are socially isolated.
  • 51. Social Support Has Therapeutic Effects
    • Common benefits of social support:
      • Provides increased knowledge about the stressor
        • Associating with others often provides information about how to understand and emotionally respond to stressful events.
      • Provides opportunities to simply express our feelings, which can lead to physical benefits
  • 52. Choose Your Thoughts
    • Don’t unnecessarily expose yourself to negative thinking
    • Don’t mindlessly take in information
    • Consciously decide what thoughts to accept or to reject
    • Consciously decide what thoughts to entertain
    • Be conscious of what you say (especially to yourself)
    • Assume the perspective of the other, appreciating their unique life experience, although, might be different than yourself
  • 53. Stress and Womens Health: Reduce Stress and Stay Healthy By Elizabeth Scott, M.S. , About.com Updated: May 12, 2009 About.com Health's Disease and Condition content is reviewed by the Medical Review Board Prev Next Avoid Unhealthy Coping Habits Women, too, are prone to dealing with stress in less-than-healthy ways, such as drinking to excess and smoking. And emotional eating among women is nothing new. Fortunately, women tend to have a great ability for introspection, so if you find yourself falling into unhealthy coping habits, examining the roots of your stress and changing your way of handling stress is a great idea for you. See these resources for more information on unhealthy coping habits, and find resources for a healthier lifestyle.
  • 54.                                                                                                Stress and Womens Health: Reduce Stress and Stay Healthy Social support is an important stress reliever for womens health.
  • 55. Balance and Learn To Say No                                                                                                However, without planning, prioritizing and paring down, commitments can take over every spare moment of time, leaving little or no time in a woman ’ s schedule for important and self-nurturing activities like ‘ down time ’ , exercise , friendships , and even sleep .
  • 56.
    • Taking Care of Your Body
    •                                                                                               
    • Women are often the caretakers of others. We care for men and children, friends and family, but
    • don ’ t always care for our own bodies. Because stress itself causes great physical damage, it ’ s
    • important for women to relieve stress in ways that nurture our bodies and souls.
    • Here are some stress relievers that are great for your body:
    • Exercise: Getting out and getting active has numerous health, beauty, and stress management
    • benefits, including a leaner body, greater energy levels, improved overall health, the opportunity to blow off steam, a change of scenery, and a catalyst to take your mind off of what ’ s stressing you, among other things. Read about the most effective types of exercise for stress relief .
    • Spa Treatments: Whether you ’ re going to a top spa or setting up a home spa experience,
    • pampering your body on the outside can melt away the stress that you ’ re feeling inside, and
    • leave you feeling more refreshed and beautiful afterwards. Read more about setting up a
    • spa at home , and make a habit of using it.
    • Healthy Eating: A healthy diet has more benefits than just making you thin; because a poor diet
    • can exacerbate stress levels , healthy eating can leave you with more energy, thinking more
    • clearly, and reacting in a more even-tempered way to stress. Learn more about
    • healthy eating when busy and stressed .
  • 57.
    • of 9
    • Prev Next
    • Get Enough Sleep
    •                                            
    • According to research and a poll on this site , too many of us don ’ t get adequate sleep,
    • and operate in a sleep deficit. This leaves us less productive and more prone to stress,
    • among other things . Women, because of their busy schedules and multiple roles, often
    • find themselves getting less sleep than they need, or are unable to get a good night ’ s
    • sleep due to stress. If you find yourself getting too little sleep, the following resources can
    • help you get the quality sleep you need to function well.
    • Stress and Sleep: Learn about the physical and emotional damage that can result
    • from getting too little sleep, and how it all affects your stress levels.
    • The Benefits of the Power Nap: Read about how to use power napping as a stress
    • management tool and increase your productivity and improve your health in the process.
    • Sleep Aids: If you ’ re having trouble getting to sleep, staying asleep, or achieving
    • quality sleep every night, these are some all-natural ways you can get better
    • sleep from now on. Are You Overscheduled?
    • As mentioned on a previous page, being too busy is one of the main reasons
    • stressed people get too little sleep or suffer from poor quality sleep. Here ’ s a
    • refresher on cutting back your schedule.
  • 58.
    • In Touch With Your Feelings
    •                                                                 
    • Too often, we ’ re told to ignore our inner wisdom and charge ahead in pursuit of our goals or to do what ’ s
    • expected of us. While these things are important, if we habitually ignore what our feelings are telling us
    • about our choices and our lives, we make choices that aren ’ t in line with our true selves, and aren ’ t
    • good for us.
    • How much is too much to take on
    • Which people are good for us, and which sap us of energy or self-confidence
    • What vocation is really in line with our strengths and interests
    • And many other important life decisions that affect our stress levels.
    • While it ’ s easy to discount our own feelings or ignore intuition if that ’ s become habit,
    • you can tune into these things at any time. It may take a little practice, but you will ultimately
    • benefit greatly from listening to your inner wisdom rather than ignoring what your feelings
    • are trying to tell you about your life.
  • 59.
    • Change Your Self Talk
    •                                                                                              
    • Women also tend to get into the habit of putting ourselves down and adopting
    • a critical way of talking to ourselves. Your style of self talk develops in childhood
    • and becomes an ingrained habit, and colors the way you see and interact with the world.
    • It also can exacerbate or minimize your stress level, depending on how you talk to yourself. If you ’ ve developed a negative self talk style or a pessimistic world view, you can be missing opportunities, performing below your potential, and experiencing events as more stressful than they need to be. Fortunately, you can develop a more optimistic style of self talk and build a habit of positive thinking by taking small steps today. The following resources can help you to better understand the way you see the world and, if need be, make changes so that you ’ re performing to your best with minimal stress.
    • Negative Self Talk: Learn how negative self talk affects your stress level.
    • Benefits of Optimism: Learn why optimists finish first, and are healthier and happier
    • when they do!
    • Optimism Self Test: Many people think they ’ re optimists, but they don ’ t possess
    • the hallmark features in an optimistic thought process. Test your thinking style to see
    • where you stand.
    • Positive Self Talk: Learn how to change the way you talk to yourself,
    • think and interpret events in your life.
  • 60. Find Time For Yourself                                                                                                It ’ s important for women, including mothers, to take regular time to do things that nurture our souls and keep us feeling alive; if we don ’ t, we could face burnout, and we won ’ t be as helpful to others in our lives anyway. A regular stress management practice is a must, and it can come in the form of a hobby, a type of exercise, a tension taming practice, or some other habit, but its important to make time for such things that can keep you feeling your best.
  • 61. Safeguard Your Sex Life                                                                 With the busy schedules women keep these days, whether working full-time, staying home with children, or going to school, women are often exhausted at the end of the day. Because of this, sex sometimes takes a backseat to everything else in life , especially for women. However, whether you are too busy to meet someone, too frazzled to work on your relationship, or just plain too exhausted for sex, it ’ s important to make sex and your romantic life a priority too
  • 62. How Much Do You Know About Body Image and Gender?
    • True or False?
    • Recent studies show that up to 95% of men express dissatisfaction with some aspect of their bodies.
  • 63. True
    • In recent studies, up to 95% of men believed they needed to improve some aspect of their bodies.
  • 64. How Much Do You Know About Body Image and Gender?
    • True or False?
    • Many young girls and women believe that being even slightly “overweight” makes them less “feminine.”
  • 65. True
    • More than half of all adult women in the United States are currently dieting, and over three-fourths of normal-weight women think they are “too fat.”
    • Recently, very young girls have developed similar concerns. For example, 80% of fourth grade girls in one study were watching their weight.
  • 66. How Much Do You Know About Body Image and Gender?
    • True or False?
    • In school, boys are more likely than girls to ridicule people about their appearance.
  • 67. True
    • Boys are especially likely to ridicule girls whom they perceive to be “unattractive” or overweight.
  • 68. Eating Disorders and Gender
    • Eating disorders cross lines of race and class.
    • Celebrities such as Mary-Kate Olsen make us aware of this when they announce they are being treated for anorexia or bulimia.
  • 69. Bodybuilding and Gender
    • Bodybuilding may be a source of empowerment for women, or it may be a way in which the body becomes objectified.
    • Competitions such as the one shown here have grown in popularity in recent years.
  • 70. Objectification
    • The process of treating people as if they were objects instead of human beings.
    • We objectify people when we judge them on the basis of physical appearance rather than on their individual qualities or actions.
  • 71. General Aspects Of Objectification Objectification Based On Preoccupation With “Looks” Women are responded to primarily as “females,” personal accomplishments are less important. Women are often seen as the objects of sexual attraction, not full human. Women are seen as “all alike.” Women are seen by some as depersonalized body parts. Example: “a piece of ass.” Women are seen as passive, so things can easily be “done to a woman”. (discrimination, harassment, and violence. Depersonalized female sexuality is used for economic purposes. In the media, advertising, fashion and cosmetics industries, and pornography.
  • 72. The Male Gaze
    • In nations around the world, women are often the objects of the male gaze.
    • How might the behavior of others influence our perceptions of body consciousness?
  • 73. Sexism toward Women
    • Three components:
    • Negative attitudes toward women.
    • Stereotypical beliefs that reinforce, complement, or justify the prejudice.
    • Discrimination - acts that exclude, distance, or keep women separate.
  • 74. Patriarchy
    • A hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by men.
  • 75. Matriarchy
    • A hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by women.
  • 76. Gender Stereotypes
    • Men
      • strong, rational, dominant, independent, less concerned with appearance
    • Women
      • weak, emotional, nurturing, dependent, anxious about appearance
  • 77. Gendered Division of Labor
    • Three factors:
    • Type of subsistence base.
    • Supply of and demand for labor.
    • The extent to which women's child-rearing activities are compatible with certain types of work.
  • 78. Single Mothers with Children Under 18
    • Between 1990 and 2000, the number of U.S. families headed by single mothers increased by about 25%.
    • This marks a change in the roles of many women, and may indicate that “traditional” households are in decline in
  • 79. Parents and Gender Socialization
    • Children's clothing and toys reflect their parents' gender expectations.
    • Children are often assigned household tasks according to gender.
  • 80. Parents and Gender Socialization
    • Are children’s toys a reflection of their own preferences and choices? How do toys reflect gender socialization by parents and other adults?
  • 81. Peers and Gender Socialization
    • Peers help children learn gender-appropriate and inappropriate behavior.
    • During adolescence, peers often are more effective at gender socialization than adults.
    • College student peers play an important role in career choices and the establishment of long term, intimate relationships.
  • 82. Gender Socialization
    • Parents, peers, and the larger society all influence our perceptions about gender-appropriate behavior
  • 83. Schools and Gender Socialization
    • Teachers often use competition between boys and girls to make a learning activity more interesting.
    • What are advantages and disadvantages of gender-based competition?
  • 84. Sports and Gender Socialization
    • From elementary school through high school:
      • Boys play football.
      • Girls are cheerleaders, members of the drill team, and homecoming queens.
    • For many males, sports is a training ground for masculinity.
  • 85. Sports and Gender Socialization
    • In recent years, women have expanded their involvement in professional sports through organizations such as the WNBA,
    • Do media coverage of women’s and men’s college and professional sporting events differs?
  • 86. Mass Media and Gender Socialization
    • On television:
    • Male characters typically are more aggressive, constructive, and direct.
    • Females are deferential toward others or use manipulation to get their way.
  • 87. % of Women, African Americans, Hispanics in Selected Occupations Women African American Hispanic Managerial, Professional 50.0 8.3 5.1 Technical, sales, support 63.7 11.4 9.1 Service jobs 60.4 17.9 16.3 Operators, laborers 23.3 15.6 17.7
  • 88. Gender and Occupations
    • What stereotypes are associated with men in female-oriented positions? With women in male-oriented occupations? Do you think such stereotypes will change in the near future?
  • 89. Pay Equity
    • The wage gap is the disparity between women’s and men’s earnings.
      • Women make 81 cents for every $1 earned by men.
      • Women receive less pay than men with the same education.
    • Pay equity or comparable worth is the belief that wages should reflect the worth of a job, not the gender or race of the worker.
  • 90. The Wage Gap
  • 91. The Wage Gap
  • 92. The Wage Gap
  • 93. Views of Division of Labor by Gender Theory View Functionalism Women’s roles as caregivers are crucial in ensuring that societal tasks are fulfilled. Conflict Division of labor within families and the workplace results from male control and dominance over women and resources.
  • 94. Gender and Appearance
    • How do we do gender on a shopping trip?
    • For the man, a casual outing means wearing jeans, sandals, and a partially unbuttoned shirt.
    • For the woman, a casual outing means a “pulled together” outfit with heels, a dress and hair in place.
  • 95. Gender and Home Life
    • In recent years more men have assumed greater responsibility in regard to household tasks and child rearing.
    • Does our society still hold women more accountable for the well-being of children
  • 96. Gender and Social Interaction
    • How are the men shown here doing gender after their game of pick-up basketball?
    • Consider what they are wearing, how they are sitting, and how they are communicating with one another.
  • 97. Gender and Careers
    • In recent decades, more women have become doctors and lawyers.
    • How has this affected the way people do gender in settings that reflect their profession?
    • Do professional women look and act more like male colleagues, or have men changed as a result of female colleagues?
  • 98. Gender and Success
    • When you hear someone referred to as a “wealthy entrepreneur,” do you tend to think of a man or a woman?
    • Are the typical trappings of success—such as luxury cars and private airplanes—more associated with how men or how women do gender?
  • 99. Latinas
    • Latinas have become increasingly involved in social activism for causes that they believe are important.
    • This woman is showing her support for amnesty for undocumented workers in the United States.
  • 100. Importance of Traditional Gender Roles
    • According to Talcott Parsons, women’s roles as caregivers are more pronounced in contemporary industrialized societies.
      • The husband provides economic support and makes decisions.
      • The wife provides affection and emotional support for the family.
      • This division of family labor provides stability for family members.
  • 101. The Human Capital Model
    • According to this model, individuals vary in the amount of human capital they bring to the labor market.
    • Human capital is acquired by education and job training; it is the source of a person’s productivity and can be measured in terms of the return on the investment (wages) and the cost (training).
  • 102. Feminism
    • The belief that women and men are equal and should be valued equally and have equal rights.
    • In liberal feminism, gender equality is equated with equality of opportunity.
    • According to radical feminists, male domination causes all forms of human oppression, including racism and classism.
  • 103. Feminism
    • Socialist feminists suggest that women’s oppression results from their dual roles as paid and unpaid workers in a capitalist economy.
    • Multicultural feminists analyze race, class, and gender and suggest that equality will occur only when all women, regardless of race/ethnicity, class, age, religion, sexual orientation, or ability (or disability), are treated more equitably.
  • 104. Quick Quiz
  • 105.
    • 1. Primary sex characteristics are:
      • genitalia.
      • ones that are most important in a relationship.
      • clothing that a person wears.
      • characteristics such as facial hair and tone of voice that are obvious when meeting someone.
  • 106. Answer: A
    • Primary sex characteristics are genitalia .
  • 107.
    • 2. Extreme prejudice against gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and non-heterosexuals is:
        • thesbianophobia
        • xenophobia
        • homophobia
        • agoraphobia
  • 108. Answer: C
    • Extreme prejudice against gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and non-heterosexuals is homophobia .
  • 109.
    • 3. Body consciousness is:
      • how a person perceives and feels about his or her body
      • how a person imagines others feel about his or her body
      • recognizing reality outside the individual experience
      • recognizing how society shapes our perceptions of what beauty is.
  • 110. Answer: A
    • Body consciousness is how a person perceives and feels about his or her body .
  • 111.
    • 4. Pay gap refers to:
      • the disparity that exists between earnings of individuals based on age.
      • the disparity between classes of people in earned income.
      • the disparity that exists in earnings between males and females.
      • the disparity that exists between various racial and ethnic group income.
  • 112. Answer: C
    • Pay gap refers to the disparity that exists in earnings between males and females .
  • 113.
    • 5. According to the Conflict theory perspective on gender:
      • the division of labor in families and the workplace results from male dominance over women and resources.
      • gender relations have evened out enough to make the proclamation that gender inequality is a thing of the past.
      • gender equality is agreed upon, but the legislation is not enacted as of yet.
      • gender dominance will swing toward women in the late 21 st century due to their increasing numbers in universities.
  • 114. Answer: A
    • According to the Conflict theory perspective on gender: the division of labor in families and the workplace results from male control of and dominance over women and resources .