2. Chapter Outline
• Families in Global Perspective
• Theoretical Perspectives on Families
• Developing Intimate Relationships and
• Child-Related Family Issues and Parenting
• Transition and Problems in Families
• Family Issues in the Future
3. Theoretical Perspectives
Role of families in
maintaining stability of
society and individuals’
Conflict/ Families as sources of
feminist conflict and social
4. Functionalist Perspective:
Four Functions of Families
1. Sexual regulation
3. Economic and psychological support for
4. Provision of social status and reputation.
5. Traditional Definition of Family
• A group of people who are related by blood,
marriage, or adoption, live together, are an
economic unit, and bear and raise children.
• While a relationship
between a husband
and wife is based on
parents and children
may be established
by blood ties or legal
7. Deciding to Have Children
• Society's bias is to assume having children is
• Infertility affects nearly five million U.S.
couples, or one in twelve couples in which the
wife is between the ages of fifteen and forty-
• 44% of pregnancies are intended, 56% are
8. How Much Do You Know About Trends in
U.S. Family Life
True or False?
• The number of children living with
grandparents and with no parent in the
home increased by more than 50%
between 1990 and 2000.
• The number of children living with
grandparents and with no parent in the home
grew by 51.5% between 1990 and 2000.
10. Changing Family Patterns
• Changing family
patterns have made
sights such as this
more common, as
children travel to be
reunited with a parent
or family member.
11. New Definition of Family
• Relationships in which people live together
with commitment, form an economic unit and
care for any young, and consider their identity
to be significantly attached to the group.
12. Household Composition,
1970 and 2003
Married couples with children 40.3% 23.3%
Married couples without
Persons living alone 17.1% 26.5%
Other family households 10.6% 16.4 %
Nonfamily Households 1.7% 5.6%
13. Marital Status of U.S. Population 18 and
Over by Race/Ethnicity
14. Diversity Among Singles
• Among persons age 15 and over, 43.4% of
African Americans have never married,
compared with 35.3% of Latinos/as, 31.3% of
Asian and Pacific Islander Americans, and
26.1% of whites.
15. Two-Parent Households
• Parenthood in the United States is idealized,
especially for women.
• Children in two-parent families are not
guaranteed a happy childhood simply because
both parents reside in the same household.
16. Housework and Child-Care
• Today, over 50% of all marriages in the United
States are dual-earner marriages - marriages
in which both spouses are in the labor force.
– The second shift is the domestic work that
employed women perform at home after they
complete their workday on the job.
17. The “Second Shift”
• Juggling housework,
child care, and a job in
the paid work force are
all part of the average
day for many women.
• Why does sociologist
Arlie Hochschild believe
that many women work a
• The legal process of dissolving a marriage.
• Most divorces today are granted on the grounds of
irreconcilable differences, meaning that there has
been a breakdown of the relationship for which
neither partner is blamed.
• Over the past 100 years, the U.S. divorce rate has
varied from a low of 0.7 in 1900 to an all-time high
of 5.3 in 1981.
19. Divorce Rates
• Over the past 100 years, the U.S. divorce rate varied
from a low of 0.7 in 1900 to an all-time high of 5.3 in
• By 2004, it had decreased to 3.7
• Recent studies have shown that 43% of first
marriages end in separation or divorce within fifteen
• One in three first marriages ends within ten years,
and one in five ends within five years.
20. Social Characteristics of Those Likely to Get
• Marriage at an early age (59% of
marriages to brides under 18 end in
separation or divorce within 15 years.
• A short acquaintanceship before marriage.
• Disapproval of the marriage by relatives and
• Limited economic resources.
21. Social Characteristics of Those Likely to Get
• A high school education or less (although deferring
marriage to attend college may be more of a factor
than education per se).
• Parents who are divorced or have unhappy
• The presence of children (depending on gender and
age) at the beginning of the marriage.
22. Consequences of Divorce
• One of the most dramatic
consequences of divorce
affects children, many of
whom divide their time
between the households
of their mother and
• The burden of child
rearing in single-parent
households falls most
heavily on women.
23. Single Parenting
• 42% of white children and 86% of African
American children spend part of their
childhood in a single parent household.
• Lesbian and gay parents are often counted as
single parents, however many share parenting
24. Single Parent Households
• Mothers and fathers
meet their children’s
daily needs without
help from others.
• Even children in two-
are not guaranteed a
• In recent years, more than 40% of all marriages were
between previously married brides and/or grooms.
• Among individuals who divorce before age 35, about
half will remarry within 3 years.
• Some people become part of stepfamilies or blended
families, which consist of a husband and wife,
children from previous marriages, and children (if
any) from the new marriage.
26. Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
• How family problems are perceived and
defined depends on:
– Patterns of communication.
– The meanings people give to roles and events.
– Individual interpretations of family interactions.
27. Eating a Commonplace Family
28. Romantic Love
• In the United States,
the notion of romantic
love is intertwined with
our beliefs about how
and why people
29. Why People Get Married
• Being "in love."
• Desiring companionship and sex.
• Wanting to have children.
• Social pressure.
• Attempting to escape from their parents'
• Believing they will have greater resources.
• Legally recognized arrangement between two
or more individuals that carries certain rights
• Monogamy is the only form of marriage
sanctioned by law in the United States.
• Establishes a system of descent so kinship can
31. Domestic Partnership
• Household partnerships in which an
unmarried couple lives together in a
committed, sexually intimate relationship and
is granted the same rights and benefits as
those accorded to married heterosexual
32. Gay and Lesbian Couples
• Although lesbian and gay
couples have limited
options for establishing
marriages in the United
States, many such
couples are committed to
their relationship with
each other and with their
• Cohabitation refers to a couple who live
together without being legally married.
• Based on Census Bureau data, the people who
are most likely to cohabit are under age 45,
have been married before, or are older
individuals who do not want to lose financial
benefits that are contingent upon not
34. How Much Do You Know About Contemporary
Trends in Family Life?
True or False?
• People under age 45 are more likely to
cohabit than are people over age 45.
• People under age 45 are more likely to cohabit
than are older individuals.
36. Postmodern Perspective
• Families are diverse and fragmented.
• Boundaries between workplace and home are
• Family problems are related to cyberspace and
consumerism in an age characterized by high-
tech “haves’ and “have-nots.”
37. Family Structure and Characteristics
• An extended family is composed of relatives
in addition to parents and children who live in
the same household.
• A nuclear family is composed of one or two
parents and their dependent children, all of
whom live apart from other relatives.
38. Family Structure and Characteristics
• Kinship refers to a social network based on common
ancestry, marriage, or adoption.
• Family of orientation is the family into which a
person is born and in which early socialization
usually takes place.
• Family of procreation is the family a person forms by
having or adopting children.
39. Patterns of Descent and Inheritance
• Patrilineal descent is a system of tracing descent
through the father’s side of the family.
• Matrilineal descent is a system of tracing descent
through the mother’s side of the family.
• Bilateral descent is a system of tracing descent
through both the mother’s and father’s sides of the
40. Power and Authority in Families
• A patriarchal family is a family structure in which
authority is held by the eldest male.
• A matriarchal family is a family structure in which
authority is held by the eldest female.
• An egalitarian family is a family structure in which
both partners share power and authority equally.
• Concurrent marriage of a person of one sex
with two or more members of the opposite
• The most prevalent form of polygamy is
polygyny—the concurrent marriage of one
man with two or more women.
• Polyandry is the concurrent marriage of one
woman with two or more men.
42. Marriage Patterns
• Endogamy is the practice of marrying within
one’s own group.
• Homogamy is the pattern of individuals
marrying those who have similar
• Exogamy is the practice of marrying outside
one’s social group or category.
43. Marriage and Family re: Essay
•Unfavorable treatment in terms of
tax code (aka Marriage
•Right to bear arms;
•Parents rights relatives to their
•children suing parents;
•emancipated adult status;
44. Emancipation of
45. Emancipation of minors is a legal mechanism by which a
minor is freed from control by their parents or guardians, and
the parents or guardians are freed from any and all
responsibility toward the child.
Until an emancipation is granted by a court, a minor is still
subject to the rules of their parents or guardians.
Whether parental consent is needed to achieve the
"emancipated" status varies from case to case.
In some cases, court permission is necessary.
Protocols vary by jurisdiction.
46. Emancipation in the United States of America
A person is a minor (and therefore under the control of their
parents or guardians) until they attain the Age of Majority (18
years old in most states), at which point they’re an adult.
However, in special circumstances, a minor can be freed from
control by their guardian before turning 18.
In most states, the circumstances in which a minor becomes
emancipated are enlisting in the military and marrying, both of
which require parent or guardian consent, or obtaining a court
order from a judge.
47. The exact laws and protocols for obtaining emancipation vary
from state to state. In most states, the minor must file a petition
with the family court in the applicable jurisdiction, formally
requesting emancipation and citing reasons why it is in their best
interest to be emancipated. The minor must prove financial self-
Many states require that the minor has been living separate from
their parents or guardians for a period of time; however, consent of
the parents or guardians is necessary in order to avoid being
classified simply as "running away.“
In some states, free legal aid is available to minors seeking
emancipation, through children's law centers. This can be a
valuable resource for minors trying to create a convincing
emancipation petition. Students are able to stay with a guardian if
exists to protect children by
empowering parents through the
passage of the Parental Rights
Amendment to the U.S.
Constitution, and by defeating
U.S. ratification of the U.N.
Convention on the Rights of the
49. Ten things you need to know about the structure of the CRC.
It is a treaty which creates binding rules of law. It is no mere
statement of altruism.
Its effect would be binding on American families, courts, and
Children of other nations would not be impacted in any direct way
by our ratification.
The CRC would automatically override almost all American laws
on children and families because of our Supremacy Clause.
The CRC has some elements that are self-executing, while others
would require implementing legislation. Federal courts would
have the power to determine which provisions were self-executing.
The Courts would have the power to directly enforce the
provisions that are self-executing.
50. Congress would have the power to directly legislate on all
subjects necessary to comply with the treaty. This would
constitute the most massive shift of power from the states to
the federal government in American history.
A committee of 18 experts from other nations, sitting in
Geneva, has the authority to issue official interpretations of
the treaty which are entitled to binding weight in American
courts and legislatures. This effectively transfers ultimate
authority for all policies in this area to this foreign committee.
Under international law, the treaty overrides even our
Reservations, declarations, or understandings intended to
modify our duty to comply with this treaty will be void if they
are determined to be inconsistent with the object and purpose
of the treaty.
51. Ten things you need to know about the substance of the CRC.
Parents would no longer be able to administer reasonable
spankings to their children.
A murderer aged 17 years, 11 months and 29 days at the time of
his crime could no longer be sentenced to life in prison.
Children would have the ability to choose their own religion while
parents would only have the authority to give their children advice
The best interest of the child principle would give the government
the ability to override every decision made by every parent if a
government worker disagreed with the parent’s decision
A child’s “right to be heard” would allow him (or her) to seek
governmental review of every parental decision with which the
52. •According to existing interpretation, it would be illegal for a nation
to spend more on national defense than it does on children’s welfare.
•Children would acquire a legally enforceable right to leisure.
•Christian schools that refuse to teach "alternative worldviews" and
teach that Christianity is the only true religion "fly in the face of
article 29" of the treaty.
•Allowing parents to opt their children out of sex education has been
held to be out of compliance with the CRC.
•Children would have the right to reproductive health information
and services, including abortions, without parental knowledge or
53. CONGRESSIONAL CO-SPONSORS
H.J. Res. 42
Includes lead sponsor, Rep. Pete Hoekstra.
Last updated April 21, 2009.
54. The Threat of Eroding Supreme Court
Support for parental rights has been
gradually eroding within the federal court
system for years. Many judges are denying
parental rights or refusing to recognize
them—at the expense of countless American
families. Their reasons for devaluing parental
rights vary, but the danger to the child-
parent relationship remains critical.
55. SOBERING WARNINGS
The most recent Supreme Court case to
address parental rights is the 2000 case of
Troxel v. Granville,
in which the Court ruled that a Washington
State grandparent-visitation statute
failed to respect "the fundamental right of
parents to make decisions concerning the
care, custody, and control of their children."
56. Citing extensive case precedent, the plurality
decision of the Court declared that the right of
parents to direct the upbringing and education of
their children is a fundamental right, with a rich
heritage in American law.
The Court also found that the grandparent-
visitation statute did not respect the fundamental
rights of parents, but instead gave preference to
what the state deemed to be in the child's best
interest. Because of the fundamental nature of
parental rights, the government could not overrule
a parent’s decision simply by questioning that
57. AN UNCERTAIN FOUNDATION
Although a total of six Supreme Court justices
ultimately sided with the parent in Troxel, the
Court had difficulty agreeing on the precise
legal status of parental rights.
Only four of the justices – one short of the five
justices required to form a majority – agreed in
the opinion that parental rights were
fundamental, implied rights that were
protected by the Constitution.
58. HOSTILITY TO PARENTAL RIGHTS
Justice David Souter was the fifth judge to vote for the
parent in Troxel, but he refused to support the decision
penned by the other four justices. In his concurring
opinion, Souter disagreed that parental rights were
fundamental, insisting instead that the Supreme Court has
never "set out exact metes and bounds to the protected
interest of a parent in the relationship with his child."
Souter then concluded that whatever the proper status of
parental rights, the Washington Statute violated it by
allowing visitation by "any party" at "any time" a judge
believed he could make a "better" decision.
Although Souter voted for the parent in Troxel, his
assertion that the Supreme Court has never defined the
extent of parental liberty leaves serious questions about
whether he would support parental rights in the future.
59. SCALIA AND "IMPLIED RIGHTS"
The first of these justices, Antonin Scalia, rejected the parent's
argument in Troxel because the rights of parents are not
guaranteed by an express provision of the Constitution. Scalia is
an adherent of "textualism," meaning that he believes the role of
the Supreme Court is to apply the requirements of the
Constitution as-written, instead of reading additional meanings
into its text in order to meet the changing needs of society.
Thus, even though Scalia agreed that parental rights were
probably among the "unalienable rights" of Americans
mentioned in the Declaration of Independence, the Court did not
have the authority to enforce them because they have not been
explicitly enumerated in the Constitution. Scalia feared that if
the Court recognized an implied right, the courts could
reinterpret and redefine that right at will, which would allow the
courts to freely interfere with family law whenever they wished.
60. STEVENS, KENNEDY, AND THE "BALANCING
The two remaining justices on the Court –John Paul
Stevens and Anthony Kennedy – refused to acknowledge
the fundamental nature of parental rights or their place in
Instead, these justices urged that the rights of parents be
balanced equally against additional interests, and that the
Court should determine which interests should prevail.
61. Justice Kennedy denied that parental rights should always be
protected as fundamental rights, claiming that such a theory is
"too broad to be correct.“
In his dissenting opinion, Kennedy disputes America’s long-
standing respect for parental rights, boldly asserting that "'our
Nation's history, legal traditions, and practices do not give us
clear or definitive answers" about the nature of these rights.
Kennedy also contended that the "best interests of the child
standard" has become a staple of family law, and could also
enter into the judicial equation as another interest to be
weighed against the rights of parents.
62. Justice Stevens went one step further and claimed that a
third set of interests should always be introduced into
the equation: the interests of the state. Stevens agreed
that parental rights are certainly among "the
constellation of liberties" protected by the Constitution,
but also contended that the state has responsibilities
when it comes to the care of children, and that "children
are in many circumstances possessed of constitutionally
protected rights and liberties" as well.
In Stevens' view, when the interests of parents, the
state, and the child conflict, the job of the Supreme
Court is to balance these competing interests and
determine what actions serve the best interests of the
63. THE UNKNOWN
Finally, it remains to be seen how the two newest
members of the Court – Chief Justice John Roberts
and Justice Samuel Alito – will vote when it comes to
parental rights. Both are considered to be
conservative justices, but as the records of Thomas
and Scalia demonstrate, they could fall either way on
the issue of parental rights, and early indicators
suggest they would side with Scalia.
Furthermore, even if both of these justices rule that
parental rights are "fundamental," the fate of parental
rights will hang precariously on the thread of a slim
64. The vital relationship between child and
parent is far too precious to be entrusted to
such slender odds, but if we rely on the
Supreme Court to guarantee our freedoms,
these are precisely the odds we are risking.
65. Now is the time to ensure that parental
rights are protected and preserved for
generations to come.
The only way we can achieve this is through
an amendment to the Constitution, an
amendment that guards what millions of
Americans have valued for generations: the
vital relationship that children share with
66. The Parental Rights Amendment to the
The liberty of parents to direct the upbringing and
education of their children is a fundamental right.
Neither the United States nor any State shall infringe
upon this right without demonstrating that its
governmental interest as applied to the person is of the
highest order and not otherwise served.
No treaty may be adopted nor shall any source of
international law be employed to supersede, modify,
interpret, or apply to the rights guaranteed by this
67. Marriage and the
The Heritage Foundation is an American
conservative-leaning think tank based in
The foundation took a leading role in the
conservative movement during the presidency of
Ronald Reagan, whose policies drew significantly
from Heritage's policy study Mandate for
Leadership. Heritage has since continued to have
a significant influence in U.S. public policy
making, and is widely considered to be one of the
most influential research organizations in the
United States, especially during the Republican
administration of President George W. Bush.
69. By Patrick F. Fagan
The basic unit of society is the family, and the
cornerstone of the family is marriage, the union of one
man and one woman. Deeply rooted in all societies,
marriage is a fundamental social institution that has
been tested and reaffirmed over thousands of years.
Children especially need marriage. The family yields
significant "social capital" and other benefits to
society, and children in an intact family have the most
promising life prospects. Parents have the right and
responsibility to oversee the education and upbringing
of their children.
•Defend and strengthen marriage and the family in federal
and state law and policies. As an institution, marriage is the
foundation of a harmonious and enriching family life and the
basic building block of our society. It is not a casual
relationship, but one that carries many obligations and
benefits affecting husbands and wives, fathers and mothers,
sons and daughters, and thus every individual in society. All
household forms other than the intact family—a man and
woman who are married and raising their biological
children—increase children’s risk of poor development and
achievement, which in turn increases the likelihood that
they will need costly social services.
71. •Ease economic and other burdens on families. Federal
and state governments should encourage marriage as
the foundation of family life. Government benefits
should not be distributed in ways that will create a
disincentive to marry or that would effectively establish
institutions parallel to marriage. Children fare best and
have the most promising life prospects when they are
raised in intact families. Data from alternate household
forms over the past several decades have reaffirmed
that the intact family remains the best environment for
children. The law has an interest in setting marriage
apart from all other household forms. These other
forms have not been able to guarantee the same level
of security for the welfare of the next generation, nor
do they give children the institution they need: their
72. •Encourage healthy marriages through welfare
reform and other social service programs. Family
breakdown is closely associated with child poverty.
Efforts to strengthen the family and discourage
unwed childbearing have yielded impressive results
since the 1996 reforms, and the President’s
Healthy Marriage Initiative—included in the recent
welfare reauthorization—is a good next step.
Promoting marriage has the potential to
significantly decrease poverty and dependence,
increase child well-being and adult happiness, and
provide the safest environment for women and
73. •Reserve major decisions on marriage to
legislatures, not judges. Marriage is not merely
a private contract or personal consensual
relationship, but a matter of common interest
and public concern. It is a fundamental and
universal institution whereby a man and woman
are joined together for the primary purpose of
forming and maintaining a family. Individual
marriages are recognized by the state, but the
institution of marriage itself was not created—
and thus cannot be redefined—by government.
74. •Defer to parental rights regarding
the education and welfare of minor
children. Federal and state
government policy should not
overturn the rights of parents. Policies
should provide for ultimate parental
decision-making, particularly when it
regards the health and welfare of
76. Brookings Institution
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Brookings Institution is a non-profit, non-partisan public policy
organization based in Washington, D.C.
One of Washington's oldest think tanks, Brookings conducts research and
education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy,
governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development. Their
stated mission is to "provide innovative and practical recommendations that
advance three broad goals: strengthen American democracy; foster the
economic and social welfare, security and opportunity of all Americans; and
secure a more open, safe, prosperous and cooperative international system."
Brookings states that its scholars "represent diverse points of view" and
describes itself as non-partisan, while contemporary media descriptions of
Brookings range from liberal to centrist to independent, reflecting its current
researchers' positions and output.
77. Winter 2008 —
In the United States, public investment in children typically does
not begin until they are age five or six and enter a public school
system. Until that time, we regard the care of young children as
the almost exclusive domain of parents, relying on them to
provide an environment that will promote healthy physical,
intellectual, psychological, and social development. Good care
early in life helps children to grow up acquiring the skills to
become tomorrow’s adult workers, caregivers, taxpayers, and
citizens. Yet today, many parents are stretched thin, in both time
and money, trying to care for their young children, while early in
their own careers. Parents across the socioeconomic spectrum
struggle to balance both their children’s developmental needs and
the demands of their employers.
78. More Related Content »
Increasingly, research has demonstrated that investing in high-quality services for
young children and their parents produces significant returns, both to individuals and
to the larger economy. For instance, biomedical research shows that the development
of neural pathways in the brains of infants and toddlers is influenced by the quality of
their interactions with other people and their surroundings. Rigorous evaluations of a
number of early childhood programs reinforce the lessons of brain research. Children
who participate in effectively designed preschool programs achieve more in
elementary school, are less likely to be held back a grade or to need special education,
and are more likely to graduate from high school. Addressing gaps in skills at an early
age gives more children from disadvantaged families a fighting chance to achieve the
Despite this growing body of research on the importance of the early years on
development and achievement, the federal government has provided little direct
support to young children and families. However, there has been a significant change
at the state government level, with a majority of states adopting public pre-
kindergarten programs and other forms of early childhood intervention. In addition,
attitudes toward public investment in the pivotal early childhood years are shifting,
and the time is ripe for federal leadership in developing policies to support young
children and their families as a key part of a domestic policy agenda. Below, I outline
three policy proposals that have proved cost-effective and that can help to reduce
79. Washington, D.C.
Telephone: (202) 833-7200 n Fax: (202) 429-0687 n E-
Mail: email@example.com n Web Site:
This series, funded by the Charles Stewart Mott
Foundation, considers policies
that help low-income parents provide the emotional and
their children need.
The views expressed are those of the authors and do not
necessarily reflect those of the Urban Institute,
its board, its sponsors, or other authors in the series.
Copyright ã September 1998
This brief is available on the Urban Institute’s web site:
80. LOW-INCOME FAMILIES AND
THE MARRIAGE TAX
Promoting marriage was one of the primary
goals of the Personal Responsibility and Work
Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. But for
most two-earner couples, the tax system does not
support this goal. A couple with two children and
$11,000 in earnings each loses $1,491 in annual
after-tax income simply by virtue of marriage.
Marriage penalties are highest as a percentage of
income for low-income couples, who are also
penalized by the phaseout of such transfer programs
as food stamps and Medicaid. Penalties from
the tax system and penalties from the transfer system
combine to cost low-income married couples
as much as 30 percent of their income.
81. Who Is Affected and How?
Not all married couples are subject to marriage
penalties. Slightly over half pay lower taxes as
a result of marriage. These couples receive marriage
subsidies under the tax system. In general,
couples in which one spouse earns all or most of
the income receive marriage subsidies, while those
with two similar income earners pay marriage
penalties. This pattern of subsidies and penalties is
the natural outcome of a tax system that is both
progressive and based on family rather than individual
82. Primary Reasons for Teen Pregnancy:
• Many sexually active teens don’t use contraceptives.
• Teenagers may receive little accurate information
about the use of contraception.
• Some teenage males believe females should be
responsible for contraception.
• Some teenagers view pregnancy as a sign of male
prowess or as a way to gain adult status.
83. Myths of Teenage Fathers
1. They engage in sexual activity early and
2. They sexually exploit unsuspecting females.
3. They have a need to prove their masculinity.
84. Myths of Teenage Fathers
4. They have few emotional feelings for the
women they impregnate.
5. They are rarely involved in caring for and
rearing their children.
85. POLITICAL INSTITUTION
I. Principle of Representative Government
A. campaign funding
B. interest group influence
C. pervasive presence of lawyers)
II. Voting (Amendment 26)
A. rising voter apathy
B. differential access
1) homeless (require proof of residency)
2) primary (requires declaring political affiliation)
III. Court System (6th, 7th & 8th Ammendments)
A. speedy trials
B. justice is blind principle? (affordability for legal representation)
86. II. ECONOMIC INSTITUTION
A. Principle of Life, Liberty & Pursuit of “Personal” Happiness
1) rising taxes and growing complexity, therein
2) failing social security/medicare programs (i.e., forced-choice
B. Principle of Free-Enterprise
1) increasing role of government in
directing private business activity (i.e. firing of GM
boss, penalizing ad hoc AIG bonus recipients)
2) government subsuming/subsidizing more services/businesses
that were once private endeavors (i.e., agriculture,
automotive, banking, MLB AND NFL)
3) government fostering unfettered legalistic environ
(i.e., increases in medical malpractice lawsuits)
87. Education Institution Principle of Life, Liberty & Pursuit of Happiness
•Unequal access to quality Education
•Voucher programs not readily available for parents
• Subsidization of private schooling or home schooling option
•Education focus departed from Jefferson’s vision of 3-tiered
education System (i.e, Elementary, Vocational & University)
•Student’s right to privacy (i.e., The Fourth Amendment protects citizens
from unreasonable search and seizure. The government may not conduct any searches
without a warrant, and such warrants must be issued by a judge and based on probable
random drug testing of student athletes
confiscation of cell phones, etc.
88. Religious Institution
The First Amendment provides that Congress make no law respecting an establishment of
religion or prohibiting its free exercise. It protects freedom of speech, the press, assembly,
and the right to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
•Issuance of tax exempt status to selected religious
•Reinforces the strength of particular religious
organizations over others
•Christian Coalitions strong presence in the political system,
in large measure through supportive government policy
(i.e, taxation, issuance of not for profit status, etc.)
•Religious organizations are business enterprises, granted
Favorable treatment, vis-à-vis tax code, leadership
Separation of Church & State Principle
•“In God We Trust”, struck on Currency
•Nativity Scenes, Menohara’s erected on Government
89. Marriage and Family re: Essay
•Unfavorable treatment in terms of
tax code (aka Marriage
•Right to bear arms;
•Parents rights relatives to their
•children suing parents;
•emancipated adult status;