In Class Session 3; Culture
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In Class Session 3; Culture

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In Class Session 3; Culture

In Class Session 3; Culture

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  • 1. Chapter 3 Culture
  • 2. Chapter Outline
    • Culture and Society in a Changing World
    • Components of Culture
    • Technology, Cultural Change, and Diversity
    • A Global Popular Culture?
    • Sociological Analysis of Culture
    • Culture in the Future
  • 3. Sharpening Your Focus
    • What are the essential components of culture?
    • To what degree are we shaped by popular culture?
    • How do subcultures and countercultures reflect diversity within a society?
    • How do the various sociological perspectives view culture?
  • 4. Culture
    • The knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society.
  • 5. Culture
    • Culture is essential for survival and communication with other people.
    • Culture is learned through interaction, observation and imitation.
    • Culture is fundamental for the survival of societies.
  • 6. Material Culture
    • Physical creations that members of a society make, use, and share.
      • Items of material culture begin as raw materials such as ore, trees, and oil.
      • They are transformed through technology.
      • Technology is knowledge, techniques, and tools that make it possible for people to transform resources into usable forms.
  • 7. Nonmaterial Culture
    • Abstract or intangible human creations of society that influence people’s behavior.
      • Language, beliefs, values, rules of behavior, family patterns, and political systems are examples of nonmaterial culture.
      • A central component of nonmaterial culture is beliefs .
  • 8. Culture Shock
    • The anxiety people experience when they encounter cultures radically different from their own.
  • 9. Values
    • Collective ideas about what is right or wrong, good or bad, and desirable or undesirable in a particular culture.
  • 10. Ten Core American Values
    • Individualism
    • Achievement and Success
    • Activity and Work
    • Science and Technology
    • Progress and Material Comfort
  • 11. Ten Core American Values
    • Efficiency and Practicality
    • Equality
    • Morality and Humanitarianism
    • Freedom and Liberty
    • Racism and Group Superiority
  • 12. Smyrna, Tennessee From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Smyrna is a town in Rutherford County , Tennessee , United States . Smyrna's population was 26,614 people at the 2000 census . Smyrna is the location of a very large manufacturing facility owned by Nissan , and has been since 1982. Many of the businesses in the town are related to manufacturing . Nissan has attracted other companies which support their plant, such as Square D and PREMIER System Integrators .Other types of businesses are the standard smaller town types: car dealerships, drug stores, banks, discount stores, and plenty of restaurants. With the change of the liquor laws in the late 1990s, larger chain restaurants started moving in, such as O'Charley's , Ruby Tuesday , Logan's Roadhouse , and Chili's . There are more residents in Smyrna than jobs, so many of the residents commute to nearby Nashville and Beautiful Murfreesboro .
  • 13. [ edit ] Demographics As of the census [1] of 2000, there were 25,569 people, 9,608 households, and 7,061 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,119.8 people per square mile (432.4/km²). There were 10,016 housing units at an average density of 438.6/sq mi (169.4/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 87.23% White , 7.82% African American , 0.29% Native American , 1.21% Asian , 0.08% Pacific Islander , 1.81% from other races , and 1.56% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.31% of the population. There were 9,608 households out of which 39.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.0% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.5% were non-families. 21.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.04.
  • 14. In the town the population was spread out with 27.6% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 35.1% from 25 to 44, 19.9% from 45 to 64, and 6.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 95.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $44,405, and the median income for a family was $51,550. Males had a median income of $37,130 versus $27,325 for females. The per capita income for the town was $19,704. About 6.7% of families and 8.8% of the population were below the poverty line , including 11.4% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over.
  • 15. Nissan's Smyrna Plant Reaches Major Milestone in Tennessee REUTERS Mon Jun 16, 2008 4:00pm EDT   Email | Print | Share | Reprints | Single Page [ - ] Text [ + ] Nissan celebrates 25 years of making quality vehicles in Smyrna SMYRNA, Tenn., June 16 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ -- Nissan North America's (NNA) vehicle assembly plant in Smyrna, Tenn., celebrated 25 years of building high quality vehicles at the award-winning facility today. Since the plant produced its first compact pickup truck in June 1983, more than 8.2 million vehicles have been built in Smyrna. (Logo: http://www.newscom.com/cgi-bin/prnh/20080506/NISSANWOODMARKLOGO ) "Over the past 25 years, Nissan's Smyrna plant has placed its mark on this community, the southern United States, and the automotive industry," said Greg Daniels, senior vice president, U.S. Manufacturing, Nissan North America. "We are extremely proud of what we've accomplished over the past quarter of a century and are looking forward to the next 25 years." Nissan was the first foreign automaker to bring vehicle assembly operations to the southern part of the United States. The Smyrna plant represents a total capital investment of $2.5 billion over the past 25 years. Vehicles produced in Smyrna have won numerous awards including the 2002 Altima voted by U.S. and Canadian journalists as the "North American Car of the Year." Today, the plant's 5,650 employees build eight vehicles: -- Nissan Altima mid-size sedan -- Nissan Altima Coupe -- Nissan Altima Hybrid mid-size sedan -- Nissan Frontier King Cab pickup -- Nissan Frontier Crew Cab pickup truck -- Nissan Maxima sport sedan -- Nissan Xterra sport-utility vehicle -- Nissan Pathfinder sport-utility vehicle "Nissan's decision to begin manufacturing in Tennessee 25 years ago was a watershed event for our state and our nation," said Tennessee Governor Phil Bredesen. "With Nissan's continued success and the passage of time, it's easy to forget what a bold, innovative move that decision was and how it transformed our state's economy. The launch of the Smyrna facility was literally the first step in an explosion of automotive manufacturing in the southeast U.S. and the impact of the Nissan team is still being felt today." "After 25 years, Nissan's investment in Tennessee continues to reap benefits for our state each day," said Matt Kisber, commissioner, Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development. "From the thousands of good paying jobs to the additional employment provided by Nissan suppliers to the quality of the vehicles rolling off the assembly line, all of us in Tennessee are proud of Nissan's contributions to our state's economy." History -- 1980 - Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., established a U.S. manufacturing venture and announced plans to build a manufacturing facility in Smyrna, Tennessee. -- 1981 - Construction began on the $760 million plant and the first of 1,300 employees was hired. -- 1983 - Job 1 of Nissan's compact pickup rolled off the assembly line. -- 1984 - Nissan announced plans to assemble the Sentra sedan; the first Nissan car to be built in the United States, creating 1,700 jobs. -- 1985 - Sentra 1 rolled off the assembly line. -- 1989 - Nissan announced plans to assemble the Altima sedan, requiring a $490 million expansion and creating more than 2,000 jobs. -- 1992 - Altima Job 1 rolled off the assembly line. -- 1994 - The Smyrna plant was named most productive car plant and most productive truck plant in North America in The Harbour Report benchmarking survey. -- 1997 - The all-new Nissan Frontier pickup was launched. -- 1999 - The Smyrna plant launched the Nissan Xterra sport utility vehicle. -- 2000 - The Xterra was named "North American Truck of the Year". -- 2002 - The Altima was named "North American Car of the Year" . -- 2005 - It was announced Smyrna would begin building the Altima Hybrid in the summer of 2006 for the 2007 model year. -- 2006 - Smyrna earned the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) ENERGY STAR award which recognizes energy-efficient operations that have cut pollution, lowered energy consumption and reduced costs In North America, Nissan's operations include automotive styling, engineering, consumer and corporate financing, sales and marketing, distribution and manufacturing. Nissan is dedicated to improving the environment under the Nissan Green Program 2010, whose key priorities are reducing CO2 emissions, cutting other emissions and increasing recycling. More information on Nissan in North America and the complete line of Nissan and Infiniti vehicles can be found online at www.NissanUSA.com and http://www.nissandriven.com/www.infiniti.com . SOURCE Nissan North America Steve Parrett, Corporate Communications, Nissan North America, Inc., 0 +1-615-725-1448, C +1-817-819-0601
  • 16.
    •                                                             
    • Location
      • TOP > FOR INVESTORS > Financial Announcements
    •               
    • FY2008 2nd Quarter Financial Results, October 31, 2008
    • Date
      • October 31, 2008
    • Venue
      • Tokyo headquarters
    • Nissan Motor Co., Ltd. announced financial results for the first half of fiscal year 2008, ending March 31, 2009, as well as second-quarter performance. Net revenues amounted to 4.8693 trillion yen in the April-to-September period, down 3.9% compared with a year ago. Operating profit totaled 191.6 billion yen, down 47.8%, while the operating profit margin came to 3.9%. Ordinary profit amounted to 202.7 billion yen, down 43.7%. Net income after tax totaled 126.3 billion yen, down 40.5% compared with the same period last year. In the first half, Nissan sold 1,902,000 vehicles worldwide, up 4.7% compared with last year.
    • Despite the lack of reliable economic and industry forecasts and taking into consideration most factors affecting our activities, the company has revised its operating profit and its net income forecast for the full fiscal year 2008 to 270 billion yen and 160 billion yen, respectively. As a consequence of the revised operating profit forecast, the company will pay an interim dividend of 11 yen per share. Details of the second payment, based on the approval of the shareholders, will be provided at the Annual General Shareholders Meeting in June 2009.
  • 17.  
  • 18.  
  • 19.  
  • 20.  
  • 21. Ethnocentrism
    • The assumption that one’s own culture is superior to others.
  • 22. Cultural Relativism
    • Views and analyzes another culture in terms of that culture’s own values and standards.
  • 23. Cultural Universals
    • Examples :
      • Appearance (bodily adornment, hairstyles)
      • Activities (sports, dancing, games, joking)
      • Social institutions (family, law, religion)
      • Practices (cooking, folklore, gift giving)
  • 24. Sapir–Whorf Hypothesis
    • According to this theory, language shapes the view of reality of its speakers.
    • If people are able to think only through language, then language must precede thought.
  • 25. Languages Spoken at Home Other than English Language Total Estimated Number of Speakers English only 80.6% Spanish 62% Chinese 4.4% French 2.7% German 2.2% Tagalog 2.7%
  • 26. Languages Spoken at Home Other than English Language Total Estimated Number of Speakers Vietnamese 2.2% Italian 1.5% Korean 1.9% Portugese 1.3% Russian 1.6% Polish 1.2% Arabic 1.3%
  • 27. Norms
    • Norms are established rules of behavior or standards of conduct.
    • Prescriptive norms state what behavior is appropriate or acceptable.
    • Proscriptive norms state what behavior is inappropriate or unacceptable.
  • 28. Formal and Informal Norms
    • Formal norms are written down and involve specific punishments for violators.
      • Laws are the most common formal norms.
    • Informal norms are unwritten standards of behavior understood by people who share a common identity.
      • When individuals violate informal norms, people may apply informal sanctions.
  • 29. Folkways
    • Everyday customs that may be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture.
    • In the United States, folkways include:
      • using underarm deodorant
      • brushing our teeth
      • wearing appropriate clothing for a specific occasion
  • 30. Mores
    • Strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be violated without serious consequences.
      • Taboos are mores so strong that violation is considered extremely offensive and even unmentionable.
      • The incest taboo , which prohibits sexual relations between certain kin, is an example of a nearly universal taboo.
  • 31. Laws
    • Formal, standardized norms enacted by legislatures and enforced by formal sanctions.
      • Civil law deals with disputes among persons or groups.
      • Criminal law deals with public safety and well-being.
  • 32. Technology, Cultural Change, and Diversity
    • Changes in technology continue to shape the material culture of society:
    • Cultural lag is a gap between the technical development of a society and its moral and legal institutions.
  • 33. Computers and Internet Access in the Home: 1984 to 2003
  • 34.  
  • 35. Discovery
    • The process of learning about something previously unknown or unrecognized.
  • 36. Invention
    • The process of reshaping existing cultural items into a new form.
  • 37. Cultural Diversity
    • Cultural differences between and within nations are caused by:
      • Natural circumstances
        • climate, geography
      • Social circumstances
        • technology, composition of the population
  • 38. Heterogeneity of U.S. Society: Religious Affiliation
    • Evangelical Protestants - 25.9%
    • Roman Catholics - 23.4%
    • Nonreligious - 18.5%
    • Mainline Protestants - 18.0%
    • Black Protestants - 7.8%
    • Other Christians - 3.3%
    • Jews - 2.0%
    • Other - 1.1%
  • 39. Heterogeneity of U.S. Society: Household Income
    • Under $9,999 - 9.6%
    • $10,000 to $24,999 - 20.0%
    • $25,000 to $49,999 - 29.2%
    • $50,000 to $74,999 - 19.1%
    • $75,000 and over - 22.1%
  • 40. Heterogeneity of U.S. Society- Race and Ethnic Distribution
    • White (non-Hispanic) - 68.3%
    • African American - 13.0%
    • Latino/a - 13.4%
    • Asian - 4.3%
    • American Indian - 0.9%
    • Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders -0.1%
  • 41. Heterogeneity of U.S. Society: Household Income
    • Under $9,999 - 9.6%
    • $10,000 to $24,999 - 20.0%
    • $25,000 to $49,999 - 29.2%
    • $50,000 to $74,999 - 19.1%
    • $75,000 and over - 22.1%
  • 42. Subculture
    • A group of people who share a distinctive set of cultural beliefs and behaviors that differs in some significant way from that of the larger society.
  • 43. Counterculture
    • A group that strongly rejects dominant societal values and norms and seeks alternative lifestyles.
  • 44. The Old Order Amish Subculture
    • Strong faith in God.
    • Rejection of worldly concerns.
    • Rely on horse and buggy for transportation.
  • 45. Subcultures
    • Although modernization and consumerism have changed the way of life of some subcultures, groups such as the Old Order Amish have preserved some of their historical practices, including traveling by horse drawn carriage.
  • 46. Examples of Countercultures
    • Beatniks of the 1950’s
    • Flower Children of the 1960’s
    • Drug Enthusiasts of the 1970’s
  • 47. Question
    • An alternative to ethnocentrism is:
        • racism
        • Prejudice
        • cultural relativism
        • xenophobia
  • 48. Answer: C
    • An alternative to ethnocentrism is cultural relativism .
  • 49. High Culture
    • Consists of activities patronized by elite audiences, composed of members of the upper-middle and upper classes.
      • Examples: classical music, opera, ballet, live theater
  • 50. Popular Culture
    • Consists of activities, products, and services that are assumed to appeal to members of the middle and working classes.
      • Examples : Rock concerts, spectator sports, movies, soap operas, situation comedies
  • 51. Popular Culture
    • Today, people of all ages spend many hours each week using computers, playing video games, and watching television.
    • How is this behavior different from the ways in which people enjoyed popular culture in previous generations?
  • 52. The Yanomamö
    • Even as global travel and the media makes us more aware of people around the world, the distinctiveness of the Yanomamö in South America remains apparent.
  • 53. Three Forms of Popular Culture
    • Fads - a temporary but widely copied activity followed enthusiastically by large numbers of people.
    • Fashions - A style of behavior, thinking, or appearance that is longer lasting and more widespread than a fad.
    • Leisure activities
  • 54. Fads
    • What kind of fad is shown here? Why are iPods and other music players so popular with such a wide variety of people?
  • 55. Cultural Imperialism
    • The extensive infusion of one nation’s culture into other nations.
    • If the world develops a global culture, it will likely include a diffusion of literature, music, clothing, and food from many societies and cultures.
  • 56. Immigrants
    • In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of immigrants who have become U.S. citizens.
  • 57. Disabilities
    • New technologies have made educational opportunities available to a wider diversity of students, including persons with a disability.
  • 58. Exam Hints:
    • Relatively few questions referencing individuals; rather, emphasis on measuring understanding of concepts.
    • Relatively few questions addressing micro issues (i.e., like gender, roles, statuses; this will addressed in the next section of the class);
    • Rather, focus is on addressing what constitutes culture, society and sociology as a scientific endeavor.