How are groups and their members shaped by group size, leadership style, and pressures to conform?
What is the relationship between information and social organizations in societies such as ours?
What purposes does bureaucracy serve?
What alternative forms of organization exist as compared with the most widespread forms?
Aggregates and Categories
Aggregates happen to be in the same place at the same time:
Airline passengers, shoppers, waiting at a traffic light
Categories share a similar characteristic:
Students, elderly, Native Americans
Collective Behavior; Chapt. 20
Study of Crowd Conduct;
A collection of two or more people who:
Share a sense of belonging.
Have a feeling of interdependence.
Cooley’s Primary and Secondary Groups Primary group Emotion-based interaction over extended period. Secondary group Impersonal, goal-oriented relationships for a limited time.
Characteristics and Effects of Bureaucracy
A ritual of college life is standing in line and waiting one’s turn. Although some students are critical of “red tape”, most realize that bureaucracy is necessary for the university to operate smoothly.
Types of Formal Organizations Normative Organizations we join voluntarily to pursue a common interest or gain prestige. Coercive Associations people are forced to join. (Example: boot camps and prisons) Utilitarian Organizations we join voluntarily when they can provide us with a material reward.
SELECT A GROUP SPOKESPERSON TO RECORD THE GROUP SCORES
Win as Much as You Can Group Scores
Group 1 =
Group 2 =
Group 3 =
Group 4 =
Class, tell me how do define the word you?
Group Size Dyad Group composed of two members. Triad Group composed of three members. Formal organization Highly structured secondary group formed for the purpose of achieving specific goals
Possible Interactions Based on Group Size
Ingroups and Outgroups
Sometimes the distinction between an ingroup and an outgroup is subtle. The word club suggests that this country club is for “members only,” and that other people should not enter.
Sumner’s Ingroups and Outgroups Ingroup Group to which a person belongs and feels a sense of identity. Outgroup Group to which a person doesn’t belong and feels a sense of hostility towards.
Influences a person’s behavior and attitudes, regardless of whether they are a member.
We may act more like members of a group we want to join than members of groups to which we already belong.
In this case, reference groups are a source of anticipatory socialization.
Recently laid-off individuals hope networks will provide job opportunities. High-tech layoffs resulted in gatherings such as this dot-com “pink slip” party, where job hunters share leads regarding new employment opportunities.
Group Leadership Functions
Instrumental leadership is most appropriate when the group’s purpose is to complete a task or reach a particular goal.
Expressive leadership is most appropriate when the group is dealing with emotional issues, and harmony, solidarity, and high morale are needed.
Group Leadership Styles
Authoritarian leaders - often criticized for fostering intergroup hostility.
Democratic leaders - praised for supportive behavior and blamed for being indecisive in a crisis.
Laissez-faire leaders - do not provide active leadership.
Organizations have different leadership styles based on the purpose of the group. How do leadership styles in the military differ from those on college and university campuses?
Asch’s research assistants tried to influence participants to pick Line 1 or 3 as the match for the line in the lower card.
Many went along rather than risk the opposition of the “group.”
Effect of Group Size in the Asch Conformity Studies
Milgram’s Obedience Experiment: Results
Normative organizations rely on volunteers to fulfill their goals. Red Cross workers in Sri Lanka aided relief efforts in that country following a deadly tsunami.
Coercive organizations relay on involuntary recruitment; these prison inmates in Alabama are being resocialized in a total institution.
Utilitarian organizations provide material rewards to participants; in teaching hospitals, medical students and patients hope they benefit from their involvement.
Race, Class and Gender Inequalities
Although people of color and women of all racial and ethnic categories have made economic gains in U.S. bureaucratic organizations, power typically remains in the hands of a few affluent white men.
Alternative Forms of Organization
“ Humanizing” the bureaucracy:
Greater sharing of power and responsibility.
Encouragement of participants to share their ideas and try new approaches.
Efforts to reduce the number of people in dead‑end jobs and to help people meet family responsibilities.
Horizontal Model for Corporations – Key Elements
Work is organized around “core” processes, not tasks.
Hierarchy is flattened.
Teams manage everything and are accountable for measurable goals.
Japanese Model of Organization
Would it be a positive change if more workplace settings were viewed as an extension of the family? Why or why not?
Horizontal Model for Corporations – Key Elements
Performance is measured by customer satisfaction, not profits.
Team performance is be rewarded.
Employees have regular contact with suppliers and customers.
All employees are trained in how to use information to make their own decisions.
1. A collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but share little else in common are a(n):
A collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but share little else in common are an aggregate.
2. Ingroup and outgroup distinctions may:
encourage only prejudice.
encourage both social cohesion and prejudice.
none of the choices.
encourage only social cohesion.
Ingroup and outgroup distinctions may encourage both social cohesion and prejudice.
3. Reference groups are also a major source of:
Reference groups are also a major source of anticipatory socialization .
4. Social groups, according to Conflict theorists:
work toward helping individuals at the expense of groups.
involve a series of power relationships which may not equally serve individual members.
involve looking at various status characteristics which assist in understanding the power dynamic.
involve gaining better access to overthrow the Bourgeois mentality.
Social groups, according to Conflict theorists involve a series of power relationships which may not equally serve individual members.
Essay Question II
Discuss gender in terms of both a micro and macro theoretical perspective