Under the Hood: Model-Based Development in the Automotive Industry by Darren Buttle, ETAS GmbH (ECMFA'14 Keynote)
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Under the Hood: Model-Based Development in the Automotive Industry by Darren Buttle, ETAS GmbH (ECMFA'14 Keynote)

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In this talk, we'll look "under the hood" at model-based software development ...

In this talk, we'll look "under the hood" at model-based software development
in the automotive industry and consider:
- Where is model-based development used?
- What speci fic challenges are presented by the domain?
- Which technologies have proven successful?
- What are the current trends and tomorrow's challenges?

We'll draw on our experience as one of the early providers of model-based
software development tools and o ffer our perspective gained from over 20 years
or involvement in vehicle projects. Join us for the ride!

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  • 1. 1 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Under the hood Model-Based software development in the automotive industry
  • 2. 2 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. ETAS Who are we? ETAS GmbH Customers Vehicle OEMs, ECU suppliers, … Portfolio Tools, Services, Consulting Headquarters: Stuttgart, Germany 13 regional offices worldwide Employees: 850 Revenue: €149 million Ownership: 100% owned by Robert Bosch GmbH Find out more www.etas.com Function & Software Development Operating Systems & AUTOSAR RTE ECU Access & ECU Hardware Measurement & Calibration Test & Validation Prototyping Test & Validation LABCAR Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulatoren ASCET Model-based Development ETAS Lösungen ETK/XETK ECU Interfaces Isolating Measurement Probes Consulti ng on ETAS Consulting Prototyping Embedded Security RTPRO-PC PC Software for Real-time Prototyping ES900 and ES 1000 Prototyping and Interface Modules INTECRIO Integrated Prototyping Environment EHOOKS Bypass Hook Insertion Tool RTA-OSEK, RTA-OS Real-time Operating System INCA Measurement & Calibration Software ES400 & ES600 Measurement Modules ES500 ECU and Bus Interface Modules ES700 Road Testing Modules
  • 3. 3 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. An overview of the automotive industry Challenges for software Model-Based development What’s next? Overview
  • 4. 4 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. 80,000,000Annual worldwide car production 1,000,000,000Shipments of smartphones in 2013 A Big Number… …and a bigger one
  • 5. 5 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. €42.8 billion Annual vehicle export sales 17.1 million Vehicles manufactured annually in Europe 12.9 million People employed (directly or indirectly) in Europe making them Europe’s Largest Export Industry 2x
  • 6. 6 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Car Makers (the OEMs) Requirements provider System integrator Sometimes the ECU integrator ECU Suppliers (Tier1s) Design & implementation Usually ECU integrator Significant Interaction OEM builds the “plant” Tier1 builds the “controller” Distributed functions Sub-contracting to Tier2 suppliers Automotive Development Who does what? … and many more
  • 7. 7 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. € 3,000.00 € 2,000.00 € 6,000.00 € 9,000.00 € 15,000.00 Labour Other Raw Materials Electronics The Rest Assume it costs €20,000 to make a car… Automotive Development Where is the money spent? Sources McKinley, 2010
  • 8. 8 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. The Modern Car A box of electronics on wheels Complex mechatronic system Hard real-time constraints Designed by OEM and several Tier1 suppliers
  • 9. 9 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Engine Management Injection/Spark timing Emissions control Noise control Transmission Control Gear selection Terrain Adjustment Vehicle Domains: Powertrain (Or what does all that stuff do?)
  • 10. 10 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Braking Anti-Lock Braking (ABS) since 1978 Traction Control Electronic Stability (ESP) since 1995 Vehicle Domains: Chassis (Or what does all that stuff do?) Source: Robert Bosch GmbH
  • 11. 11 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Wiper control / rain sensing Wing mirrors Vehicle access Window lift/anti-trap/pinch Electronic seats Heating/ventilation Airbags Mood Lighting Stop/start Vehicle Domains: Body (Or what does all that stuff do?)
  • 12. 12 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Head Unit Radio/CD/MP3 integration Navigation/Mapping TV Internet Telephony Basically a “PC in a car” This area accounts for an increasing part of the “user experience” Vehicle Domains: In-Vehicle Infotainment (IVI) (Or what does all that stuff do?)
  • 13. 13 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Adaptive Cruise Control Park pilot Lane departure warning Blind spot warning Collision mitigation Active steering Pedestrian protection Vehicle Domains: Advanced Driver Assistance (ADAS) (Or what does all that stuff do?) Images: Robert Bosch GmbH
  • 14. 14 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Up to 60kg in weight Over 5,000,000 combinations More changes requests than software The Vehicle Network Joining things together 50x Faster 10x Faster 19.2 kbit/s Up to 1Mbit/s Up to 10Mbit/s Infotainment
  • 15. 15 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. An overview of the automotive industry Challenges for software Model-Based development What’s next? Overview
  • 16. 16 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Constantly changing application requirements Quicker time to market demands Increased complexity and functionality Limited engineering resources The same as every other industry … Software Development in the Automotive Industry Challenges
  • 17. 17 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Tight performance constraints Must fit within very limited resources enable minimal production costs High reliability demands In massive production volumes In places where “patching the software” is difficult … but with some additional and unique challenges Software Development in the Automotive Industry Challenges
  • 18. 18 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Memory 8MB ROM/512kB RAM is “huge” 256kB ROM/32kB RAM is “typical” Speed 280MHz is “fast” 40MHz is “typical” Harsh environment Challenge: Manufacturing Cost Pressure Resource constrained devices Trademarks property of respective owners
  • 19. 19 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Challenge: Development Cost Pressure ECU development costs Software 50-70% Hardware 50-30%
  • 20. 20 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Challenge: Software Development Cost Pressure Lots of code ≈20,000,000 SLOC ≈ 100,000 SLOC ≈ 6,500,000 SLOC Sources Pavey & Winsborrow, “Demonstrating Equivalence of Source Code and PROM Contents”, Computer Journal Vol 36, No 7, 1993 Charette, “This car runs on code”, IEEE Spectrum, Feb 2009 = 500 copies of “The Complete Works of Shakespeare”
  • 21. 21 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Challenge: Variation Many models. Many configurations. 1974 2014 3000 Compile time options 35000 Calibration parameters (for tuning performance) Image sources: wikipedia.com / Daimler AG
  • 22. 22 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. 10x more “flying hours” than the entire Boeing 737 fleet since it entered service in 1968 Challenge: Exceptional Reliability Demands Big volumes. Long lifetime. Cars • 400,000 vehicles per year Hours • 7 hours driving per week Years • On road for 20 years Use • 2,912,000,000 hours
  • 23. 23 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Challenge: Exceptional Reliability Demands (2) Expensive to fix when it breaks. 22 million Vehicles recalled in US in 2013 17 million sold $1,000,000,00 Excluding cost of repair 1-6% of company revenue $1200 Estimated cost per SLOC for Toyota unintended acceleration problem Sources: New York Times, Klokwork, Autocar AU, Daily Telegraph, EDNbvg
  • 24. 24 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. An overview of the automotive industry Challenges for software Model-Based development What’s next? Overview
  • 25. 25 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Model-Based Software Development Automotive development jobs
  • 26. 26 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Modelling Continuous control/signal flow Reactive/Event triggered Architecture Three key areas Model-Based Software Development Where is “model-based software development” used? Modelling = “Drawing Software” + “Code Generation” Trademarks property of their respective ownersh
  • 27. 27 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Model-Based Software Development What does this enable? F F OS MDF Stimuli Plant Model 4 7 4 7F 4 7 F4 F 2 F1 F 3 F4 F 6 F5 F 7 F ‘4 F ‘7 Simulation Early design validation through experimentation Virtual Prototyping Add automotive infrastructure to function model. Validate new function in context of more realistic environment. Rapid Prototyping Bypass technology allows users to test new functionality in the context of an existing ECU Shortened feedback loop = Quicker time to market
  • 28. 28 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Think about V&V at the model level Model-Based Software Development What does this enable? Model-Based Testing Natural representation of test Easy management of variants Automatic generation of test campaigns
  • 29. 29 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Code generation is Fast, Systematic, Structured, Reproducible, Portable, Globally optimizable ~30% faster to model and then auto-code Compared to hand-written C ~50% lower residual failure rate Compared to the worlds best C programmers Automotive embedded software is mostly C Model-Based Software Development Code Generation for application software 16% 18% 66% MbSW Reuse (OS, drivers etc.) Hand Written in C
  • 30. 30 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Hard for OEMs and Tier1s to collaborate No common architectural standard Prohibitive effort for SW integration Lots of “custom glue” Lots of incompatible file formats/tooling What problem is it trying to solve? Model-Based Software Development AUTOSAR Hardware Software Hardware Application Software (ASW) Basic Software (BSW) Proprietary Hardware Application Software AUTOSAR RTE ECU Abstraction and Complex Drivers ECU Abstraction and Complex Drivers ECU Abstraction and Complex Drivers Microcontroller Abstraction Services
  • 31. 31 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. 63 Associate Members 6 Attendees 9 Core Partners General OEM Standard Software Semi- conductors Tools and Services Generic Tier 1 11 Development Members 47 Premium Members Model-Based Software Development AUTOSAR: A Pan-Industry Effort
  • 32. 32 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 R1.0 R2.0 R2.1 R3.0 R3.1 R3.2 R4.0 Auxilliary Standard Model-Based Software Development AUTOSAR: Size of releases (by pages of specification)
  • 33. 33 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Model-Based Software Development AUTOSAR: Basic principles Virtual Function Bus (VFB) ... SWC 1 SWC 2 SWC 3 SWC n AUTOSAR Interface AUTOSAR Interface AUTOSAR Interface AUTOSAR Interface Standardized Software Architecture • Software Components (SWCs) as building blocks • Virtual Function Bus (VFB) defines communication model • Abstraction that makes software components portable • Users define “what” but not “how” Bus Standardized Basic Software • Run-Time Environment (RTE) encapsulates VFB • Standardized OS, communication model, memory model, device drivers, etc. • All APIs are defined • All functionality is specified …
  • 34. 34 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Model-Based Software Development AUTOSAR: Freedom to be flexible
  • 35. 35 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Model-Based Software Development AUTOSAR: Software components My Component External Behaviour The ports define the external view of the SWC – what other SWCs see. Runnables represent programs inside the software component. They run when something happens on the interface. Events link events on the ports to runnables inside the SWC. Runnable Runnable Runnable Internal Behaviour captures what happens inside a software component Variable Inter-runnable variables provide communication between runnables in a SWC Per-instance memory provide persistant storage between runnable invocations PIM
  • 36. 36 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. 1990: ASCET-RS Simulation of continuous time systems Smalltalk, 80286/DOS, Transputer 1995: ASCET-SD V1.0 Re-worked to model legacy C code …and do code generation 1998: ASCET-SD V2.1 1st series production Bosch, BMW and Siemens Gasoline ECUs Today Up to 100% of application SW in ASCET ASCET: 15 years of series production Model-Based Software Development Function development the ETAS way
  • 37. 37 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. More than 450 million ECUs on the road Model-Based Software Development ASCET in action
  • 38. 38 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Model-Based Software Development Different techniques for different jobs What? Signal Flow Block Diagrams Where? Closed loop control e.g. Engine Management. Continuous values and time. What? State Machines Where? Discrete Event (Reactive) Systems e.g. Gearbox, Moding. Discrete value and time. What? Textual Description Why? Easier for programmers to read. Widely used in chassis control What? Conditional Tables Why? Easier comprehension of complex conditionals
  • 39. 39 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Controls-driven function development Not too high, not too low Model-Based Software Development Getting an appropriate level of abstraction More abstract Less abstract Software- driven controls development
  • 40. 40 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. − Object-based model − Forcing structure − Supporting systematic reuse − Real-time aware − Integrated threading model − Thread-safe communication using state-based messaging − Capture implicit assumptions about data values − Elements have value ranges − Used in code generation for defensive code generation − Domain-specific modelling elements − Characteristics, maps, curves, Encourage users to structure models Model-Based Software Development Borrow from “Good Old-Fashioned Software Engineering” Class X Class Y Class Z Module A Module B Process I Process J Process P Process Q Process R Module C Process F Process G Project “ECU1” Task1ms Task10ms P I Q J R Project “ECU2” Task5ms Task100ms I J F G
  • 41. 41 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Obligations Natural “hand over” point between function and software development Start with the end in sight Add low-level concerns without breaking the model Abstract Model Representation Variants + Requirements Fixed point quantization & storage allocation are de-coupled from the model Variant instances to support PLE
  • 42. 42 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Data & Code Variation / Binding ASCET Other variations Assembly Generation Pre-Processing Compile Link Calibration Static Run-Time Pre-Compile Link-Time Post-Build Data Variation Definition different data sets #if SYSTEMCONSTANT == 42 /* Something */ #else /* Something else */ #endif System Constant Code Variation Force pre-processing optimization Choose code from mode or libraries Replace intrinsic maths routines with custom “service” routines Binding Times Control what lives in ECU e.g. Ship one ECU to the OEM and let them selection options OR Ship different ECUs without modifying code base
  • 43. 43 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. − Defense against − Numeric problems (re-quantizations, overflow) − Temporal problems (race conditions) − Protection against common numeric errors − E.g. Division by zero − Introduction of Limiters (Saturated arithmetic) − Easy use of fixed-point arithmetic − Automatic re-scaling for differing quantas − Mutual exclusion over critical sections − Detect when messages can be read before they are written Systematic introduction of defensive code ASCET Code generation Source: de.wikipedia.com Source: esa.int Source: netcarshow.com Source: BMWblog.com
  • 44. 44 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Encourages homogeneous thinking Model-Based Software Development Problems for (i=0; i < InjCrv_numInj; i++) { if (qInj[i] > qInjMax[i]) { qInj[max] += eta.calc(qInj[i]-qInjMax[i]); qInj[i] = qInjMax[i]; } if (qInj[i] < qInjMin[i]) { qInj[max] += eta.calc(qInj[i]-qInjMin[i]); qInj[i] = qInjMin[i]; } }
  • 45. 45 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. − Graphical modeling = Drawing − Not natural for all problems − Layout is dominant effort sink − Software engineers unimpressed when shown graphical modeling − Representation is not natural − Need to visualize, but not draw − The right abstraction level is important − Graphical model: too hot − C programming: too cold − Maybe need a “Goldilocks” solution that is just right? − DSLs? Appropriate notations Model-Based Software Development Problems Source: en.wikipedia.com
  • 46. 46 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Workflow interaction Hard to use efficiently Lot’s of clicking Diff & merge is a complex job Process integration Cumbersome to automate Barrier to continuous integration Incorrectly assume central position in workflow “Industrial strength” Models can be enormous Good tooling matters Model-Based Software Development Problems 500KB C code Data Representation Model 4GB Model
  • 47. 47 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. An overview of the automotive industry Challenges for software Model-Based development What’s next? Overview
  • 48. 48 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Future Concerns Trends & Drivers ? Earlier V&V New Hardware New Functionality
  • 49. 49 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Limited functional model composition Integration of C code is normal Feature interaction bugs often discovered ad-hoc Need different views during development Drawn from different model sources/DSLs AUTOSAR XML, ML/SL, ASCET, MSR-SW, DBC, FIBEX, LDF, … Tooling isn’t as mature as for code Less “out-of-the-box” support for metrics, re-factoring, model analysis (information flow, program slicing, reasoning, …) Lots of models, with late system integration Earlier V&V Issues in MBSE
  • 50. 50 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. The hardware comes late Earlier V&V The wider vehicle development process 60% Less than of the engineers have the opportunity of an evaluation experience in the whole vehicle 10% Approximately of the development process no real prototype is available
  • 51. 51 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Earlier V&V Virtualization virtual driving Component design (SW, Mechanics, Electrics, …) Virtual System Enabling technologies:
  • 52. 52 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Multi-core is everywhere More computing power Redundancy Aggregation Experience is disappointing Communication delays Algorithmic timing issues OS overheads Models aren’t designed for parallel execution Paradox of more CPU power… …less performance Industry is struggling to take legacy to multicore New Hardware Multicore CPUs
  • 53. 53 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. More interactions “Internet” – navigation Roadside telemetry Look ahead data from other vehicles OTA Updates Secure software activation Patches for bugs New vulnerabilities Identical risks to other connected systems Connected vehicles New Functionality Bigger distributed systems Source: Robert Bosch GmbH
  • 54. 54 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. You are the biggest problem 1.3 million deaths a year ~90% are driver error Take the driver out of the loop More system integration Prevent conflicting decisions Move to domain controller architectures More focus on software safety Already being driven by standards Keeping you alive New Functionality More sophisticated driver assistance Source:Google Source:Boeing 1/hour
  • 55. 55 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Complex, cyber-physical system… …with stringent demands for safety, security, reliability We use model-based development to understand the problem… …and engineer solutions …under massive cost pressure What is a car then? Summary
  • 56. 56 Public | ETAS-PGA/PRM-E | July 2014 | © ETAS GmbH 2014. All rights reserved, also regarding any disposal, exploitation, reproduction, editing, distribution, as well as in the event of applications for industrial property rights. Under the hood Model-Based software development in the automotive industry