Endocrine Sys. (Hypercalcemia)

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  • 1. Endocrine system
    • Regulates metabolic activities of the body.
    • Structures
    • Adrenal glands
    • Ovaries
    • Pancreas
    • Parathyroid glands
    • Pineal gland
    • Pituitary gland
    • Testes
    • Thymus gland
    • Thyroid gland
    • 11F – Select 2 suffixes, identify the term and report on it.
    • BIO120: Medical Terminology
    • PROF: Rashidah Abdullah 09 november, 2009
    • JUA
  • 2. Hyperparathyroidism (HYPERCALCEMIA)
    • Hyperparathyroidism is an excessive production of parathyroid hormone (PTH) by the parathyroid gland, which in turn stimulates increased levels of calcium in the blood stream. (also called hypercalcemia)
    • This condition is also classified as primary hyperparathyroidism, caused by enlargement of one or more of the thyroid glands.
    • Symptoms
    • Back pain, Decreased height, Joint pain, Bone pain or tenderness, Fractures of long bones
    • Blurred vision (because of cataracts)
    • Depression , Fatigue, Loss of appetite ,Nausea
    • Increased urine output ,Increased thirst, Itchy skin
    • Muscle weakness and pain
    • Personality changes, Stupor and possibly coma
  • 3.
    • Signs and tests
    • Blood tests will be done to check for increased levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, and alkaline phosphatase, and lower levels of phosphorus. A 24-hour urine collection test can help determine how much calcium is being removed from the body.
    • Bone x-rays and bone mineral density test can help detect bone loss, fractures, or bone softening.
    • X-rays, ultrasound, CT scans of the kidneys or urinary tract may show calcium deposits or a blockage.
    • Treatment
    • mildly increased calcium levels due to primary hyperparathyroidism needs regular check ups with your doctor.
    • if calcium level is very high, surgery may be needed to remove the parathyroid gland that is overproducing the hormone.
    Hyperparathyroidism (HYPERCALCEMIA)
  • 4. Hyperparathyroidism (HYPERCALCEMIA)
    • hyperparathyroidism. By far the most common (90% of cases) is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor in one of the parathyroid glands called a Parathyroid Adenoma. Next most common (5%) is a condition which can affect all of the parathyroid glands called Parathyroid Hyperplasia, this condition is sometimes associated with a rare genetic condition called multiple endocrine neoplasia or MEN. Sometimes there can be two or more parathyroid adenomas (4%) and the rarest cause is parathyroid cancer (1%).
  • 5. Glycosuria
    • Glycosuria is defined as sugar (glucose) in the urine . It occurs when the amount of glucose in the blood exceeds the maximum amount that the kidneys can reabsorb (renal threshold). The renal threshold for glucose ranges from 160 to 190mg/dL of blood; glycosuria does not occur until the blood glucose rises above this level.
    • Diabetes (DM) When there is too much glucose in the body, the renal system is unable to remove all of the sugar, allowing some of it to be passed through in the urine, which results in Glycosuria. Insulin is a hormone that is used to break down and process sugar in the bloodstream, and if the body is unable to produce enough insulin, glucose will build in the body.
    • Hyperthyroidism High concentration of thyroid hormones may cause difficulties in various organ systems, including the renal system, where increased thyroid hormones can lead to poor absorption of glucose from the body's waste fluids. The end result is that glucose is not properly filtered from the urine as it passes out of the body
  • 6. Glycosuria
    • Liver Problems The human liver is responsible for a variety of functions, including the processing of carbohydrates, which leads to the formation of blood glucose that is required for brain and other bodily functions.
    • Kidney Problems Because the kidneys and the renal system are responsible for removing sugar from urine, kidney problems can result in glycosuria. Simple bacterial infections of the kidney can cause a dysfunction in glucose filtration, which is relieved by the use of antibiotics.
    • Pregnancy it is normal for women to have small amounts of sugar leak from the kidneys into the supply of urine, causing glycosuria. This is most common after pregnant women consume large meals or have sugary drinks.
    • But it may also occur after a heavy meal, during times of emotional stress.
    • Risk: Glycosuria in the absence of hyperglycemia (renal glycosuria) is extremely rare and tends to be hereditary.
    • Urine glucose tests are used to screen for diabetes, to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes, or to monitor diabetic control. Urinalysis will reveal excessive amounts of glucose in the urine.
  • 7. Glycosuria
    • additional complications.
  • 8. source
    • Hyperparathyroidism. aarp.org
    • http://healthtools.aarp.org/adamcontent/hyperparathyroidism?CMP=KNC-360i-GOOGLE-HEA&HBX_OU=50&HBX_PK=hyperparathyroidism
    • Hyperparathyroidism, Over activity of the parathyroid gland. endocrineweb.com
    • http://www.endocrineweb.com/hyperpara.html
    • Endocrinology: Hyperparathyroidism. healthsystem.virginia.edu.
    • http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/uvahealth/adult_endocrin/hyperpar.cfm
    • Glycosuria.
    • http://www.mdguidelines.com/glycosuria
    • Harrison,Hayley. Causes of glycosuria; ehow.com
    • http://www.ehow.com/about_5072895_causes-glycosuria.html
    • Glycosuria
    • http://www.patient.co.uk/doctor/Glycosuria.htm