Study Abroad In Bangladesh Julia Byeseda


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Study Abroad In Bangladesh Julia Byeseda

  1. 1. Study Abroad in Bangladesh Winter 2008 UN Millennium Development Goals and Microfinance Julia Byeseda
  2. 2. History Under British colonial rule until 1947 1947: Bengal was split along religious lines between the new independent nations of Pakistan and India 1971: Liberation of Bangladesh as an independent nation 1974: Great Famine Today: more than half the nation lives on less than $1/day, and ¼ of This is the National Martyrs Memorial households are food insecure which is dedicated to the sacred memory of (WHO, 2007) the millions of unknown martyrs of the war of liberation
  3. 3. People’s Republic of Bangladesh Current Population: 156,050,883 Religions: Muslim 83%, Hindu 16%, other 1% Life Expectancy: male: 57.57, female: 63.03 Literacy Rates: male: 53.9% , female: 31.8% Industries: cotton textiles, jute, garments, tea processing, paper newsprint, cement, sugar This picture of mustard seed crop was taken somewhere in between Dhaka and Bogra
  4. 4. Flag of Bangladesh Despite adversity, Bangladesh is ranked as one of the happiest nations in the world. These children were begging outside of Parharpur.
  5. 5. Millennium Development Goal 1 These children were photographed outside of Parhapur. The boy on the right is severely underweight at 13 months old. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
  6. 6. Millennium Development Goal 2 This picture was taken outside of a BRAC funded primary schoolhouse in a village in Sreepur. 70% of the students were female, 30% were male ages 8-10. The dropout rate in BRAC funded primary schools is zero, and the government pays families in cash, rice, and vegetables to keep girls in school through 12th grade. Achieve universal primary education
  7. 7. Millennium Development Goal 3 Promote gender equality and empower women This photo was taken at a BRAC meeting in which loan payments were being collected. A healthcare worker attended the meeting and was selling medicines for common diseases such as the common cold and diarrhea, birth control pills, skin ointment for fungal diseases, and vitamins. These medicines are sold at a very small cost. The women holding the baby in this photo came late to the meeting because she was getting her baby a polio vaccination in a nearby village. The day this photo was taken on January 3, 2009 was a National Immunization Day in Bangladesh in which free immunizations are distributed.
  8. 8. Millennium Development Goal 4 Reduce child mortality This photo was taken in Kalampur Tamrai Village at a health sanitation village meeting. The village worker is trained by BRAC and travels to 4 villages a day to give one hour lectures on family planning, breastfeeding and the importance of colostrum, prenatal care and dangerous warning signs to look for during pregnancy, and the benefits of having only 2 children. The infant in the picture was showing early signs of blindness due to Vitamin A deficiency.
  9. 9. Millennium Development Goal 5 Improve maternal health This photo was taken at a BRAC funded health clinic in a village in Sreepur in which a health worker visits once a month to examine pregnant women. The services performed are minimal including height and weight checks, diabetes testing and breast exams; however, the worker is trained to determine warning signs that a woman needs to visit a hospital. 88% of women in Bangladesh give birth at home. At the present time there were 19 pregnant women in this village This woman in yellow, Salema, was 9 months pregnant and recently diagnosed with tuberculosis.
  10. 10. Millennium Development • Combat HIV/AIDS, Goal 6 malaria and other diseases Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other This boy was diagnosed with arsenicosis, a progressive and fatal illness caused by diseases drinking water rich in arsenic, a common problem in Bangladesh.
  11. 11. Millennium Development Goals 7 & 8 Develop a Global Partnership for Ensure environmental Development sustainability The main partners that the Government of Bangladesh As of January 2002, the recognizes as partners in the health government of Bangladesh has and child welfare of the country are outlawed the production and use of WHO, USAID, DFID, SIDA, Royal plastic bags. Government of Netherlands, Rotary International, ICDDR, NGO Services Delivery Program (NDSP), and BRAC.
  12. 12. Microfinance in Bangladesh “Poor people are poor because they are powerless” Fazle Hasan Abed, Founder of BRAC Programs such as ASA, BRAC, and Grameen Bank offer microcredit to the poorest women in Bangladesh and transform their lives by giving them the opportunity to create income generating activities.
  13. 13. Microfinance in Bangladesh The microfinance industry in Bangladesh currently provides access to credit to around 13 million poor households (World Bank, 2008) Each year, 5% of households in Bangladesh lift themselves out of poverty with access to micro-credit loans (Yunus, 2004) Among borrowers, extreme poverty (defined by consumption of less than 80% of the minimum requirement stipulated by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations) declined by more than 70% within five years of taking out a microcredit loan (Khankder, 2005) This photo was taken in a village in Bogra at an ASA village loan repayment meeting
  14. 14. ASA Mission: To reduce poverty from society gradually Ranked by Forbes Magazine Survey as the #1 MFI (microfinance institution) globally Since 1992: Self reliant using the globally recognized ASA Cost-effective Sustainable Microfinance Model
  15. 15. ASA ASA 70% of borrowers are female Recovery rate: 99.48% at 12.5% interest rate (ASA, 2008) Small Loan Program (Male): usually small and marginal farmers Small Business Loan Program: graduated women members who already have proved themselves successful and reliant Small Entrepreneur Lending Program: large loans to help small businesses grow and create jobs for the extremely poor ASA has reached 5.06 million families in Bangladesh in 72.204 villages
  16. 16. ASA 2007 Impact Assessment 87.29% of members 83.52% of members report 80.16% of members in 2007 increased income through literacy rate has improved were using sanitary IGA’s (Income generating latrines, an increase from 96% of members in 2007 activities) 60.23% in 2005 were taking in fresh water 41.41% of members live 86.72% of members 88.88% of members report to in a thatched house in report the quality of food have created employment 2007, an increase from in household increased for non-members 23.18% in 2005
  17. 17. BRAC (Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) Largest NGO in the world, founded in Bangladesh in 1972 These photos were taken in a village in Sreepur. A village worker is teaching a legal rights education class to a group of BRAC members. The photo on the left is a picture of the three common religions in Bangladesh, Muslim, Hindu, and Christian, and the women are learning about freedom of religion in Bangladesh. BRAC classes use picture books to teach members because of the high illiteracy rate in the country.
  18. 18. BRAC (Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) Holistic approach to poverty alleviation: microfinance, education, health education and clinics, human rights and legal services, and environmental efficiency These photos were taken at a BRAC school house in a village in Sreepur. The children sang “We shall overcome” and danced for us. So we taught them the chicken dance and the hokey pokey.
  19. 19. BRAC (Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) This photo was taken in a village in Sreepur. The boys were just released from school and were watching their mothers participate in a legal rights education class from a BRAC village worker.
  20. 20. BRAC Key Achievements 2007 MICROFINANCE 7 million members, distributed 917 million USD, interest rate 12.5% DISASTER RELIEF Distributed emergency relief, food and clothing, and medical care to 180,000+ families in November 2007 after Cyclone Sidr hit Bangladesh TARGETING THE ULTRA POOR: Includes beggars and homeless, 132,500 members create income generating activities such as investing in a chicken or goat HEALTH AND SANITATION Maternal, Neonatal and Child Health (MNCH) Program & Water Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Program—workers teach classes to members in the village using picture books
  21. 21. BRAC Key Achievements 2007 HUMAN RIGHTS AND LEGAL EDUCATION Provided legal education to 3.4 million women to date EDUCATION 1.55 million children enrolled in 20,140 pre-primary and 32,000 primary schools from which 6.1 million children have already graduated BRAC ENTERPRISES Aarong (buys goods from local villagers at fair price and sells them in the city), BRAC Dairy (sells livestock to poor villagers at fair price, buys the raw resources back from villagers, and then produces milk and food products enriched with vitamins to sell back to villagers at fair price) INTERNATIONAL Established in Tanzania, Uganda, Southern Sudan, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan
  22. 22. Grameen Bank Founded by Professor Muhammad Yunus in 1974, and officially recognized as a bank in 1983 Operates as a bank, requiring members to have a savings account, buy shares in Grameen Bank, and put money into a pension account This photo was taken in a village called Baratia. This woman used her loan to purchase fabrics and accessories to make garments. Gives microcredit loans to nearly 7 million people with no collateral, 97% women 58% of borrowers have lifted themselves out of poverty as of 2006 20% interest on basic loan, 5-8% interest on housing and education loans
  23. 23. Grameen Bank “We are talking about a new kind of banking. It is about banking with people, about prioritizing people ahead of money” Muhammad Yunus This photo was taken in Baratia at a Grameen borrower meeting 100% of Grameen borrowers’ family members vote in every national election: the day we arrived in Bangladesh was election day, and it was the first time in the history of the country that the majority of voters were women 100% of Grameen children are in school Grameen children receive education loans for higher education
  24. 24. Grameen Bank Beggar’s Program “Charity has only one life, social business has endless life” Muhammad Yunus Bank rules do not apply to the nearly 100,000 members 0% interest on a small loan of 1000 taka (about 7 USD) Carry small merchandise such as snacks, toys for kids or household items and go house to house selling them for a small profit It is working—nearly 6,000 members have already stopped begging completely
  25. 25. “We can put poverty into museums” Muhammad Yunus
  26. 26. These two sisters were photographed outside of an orphanage called Rays of Hope Professor Yunus tells a story of a mother and daughter, one illiterate and the other a doctor. The only difference between the two is that the latter was given the opportunity to learn and realize the existence of her potential.
  27. 27. I found this pile of bricks in the middle of a village called Baratia. The picture metaphorically speaks for itself.
  28. 28. Ways you can help Visit Bangladesh! There are currently zero tourism dollars contributing to the GDP DONATE Rays of Hope-Bangladesh— ASA Foundation—contact Rachel McCullough-Sanden at BRAC— Grameen Foundation— UNICEF—