70 d-day spies


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Lesson 70 - D-Day Invasion

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70 d-day spies

  1. 1. D-Day June 6th, 1944 Created by Joe Burton www.burtonshistory.com From U.S. History Power Points
  2. 2. Essential Question How did the Allies use of spies and deception lead to the overall success of the D-Day Invasion?
  3. 3. Spies
  4. 4. ‘Garbo’
  5. 5. A.K.A Juan Pujol Garcia
  6. 6. Code Named after famous actress Greta Garbo…
  7. 7. Garcia’s Background Born in Catalan, Spain - 1912 Fought under Francisco Franco for Fascism in the Spanish Civil War… 1936-1939 Developed a hatred of Fascism… especially towards Nazi Fascism or Nazi Germany.
  8. 8. Garcia’s Background Germany’s remaining adversary was Great Britain… Garcia’s (Garbo) wife requests that British Officials employ him as a spy… The British Officials reject him… he needs a plan…
  9. 9. His Plan 1. Establish himself as a German Spy  Operating in Lisbon, Portugal he tells German Officials' that he is British…  He fabricates reports about English shipping movements…  German Officials buy his story 100%...
  10. 10. Garcia’s Background He returns to British Intelligence agencies to offer his services… He is accepted by the British as a ‘Double Agent…’ Joins the MI5 Military Intelligence Agency… 1942
  11. 11. Garbos’ Role  Sent a constant stream of misinformation over the radio…  Sent reports and images of troop move-ments in the southeast of England… opposite Pas-De-Calais…  Military infrastructure was reported daily in order to try and convince the Germans that the Allied Army was weak and their attack on the European mainland would be later in the year…  Despite the German defeat at Normandy … Hitler still trusted ‘Garbo’ as his own spy and awarded him the ‘German Iron Cross…’
  12. 12. Other D-Day Spies Roman Czerniawski – Poland A.K.A. Jerzey Tuszewski A.K.A. Armand Hubert Brutus A.K.A. ‘Brutus John ‘Hedge’ Moe – U.K. A.K.A. Mutt (Mutt & Jeff) Tore Glad – U.K. A.K.A. Jeff (Mutt & Jeff)
  13. 13. Roman Czerniawski (Brutus)  He began his career as a Polish Air Force Officer…  He created an Allied espionage network code named interaille…  He was allegedly (giving the appearance of) sold out by a member of his own group and sent on a mission to England as a German spy…  He became a double agent code named “Brutus” under the double cross system…  He was an intricate part of the ‘Double Cross System’ which was an anti-espionage and deception program run by the British MI5 military intelligence department…
  14. 14. Roman Czerniawski (Brutus)  Czerniawski was involved in that program… he became known as a captured Nazi spy who had provided faulty information to the Nazis in order to deceive them of the true plans of the allies…  The work of double agents such as Czerniawski was vital in deceiving the Germans with regards to the inevitable European invasion… D-Day
  15. 15. Hedge Moe & Tore Glad (Mutt & Jeff) o Norwegian… o Members of the MI5 Double Cross System… o After being picked up on the beach… they turned themselves in to the German Police… o From there they reported German military traffic, deployments, and Civilian morale… o British Spy Officers were also able to relay false information to Mutt and Jeff. They hoped that the Germans would hear this information and believe it… THEY DID…
  16. 16. Deception “In War time… truth is so precious that she should always be guarded by a body-guard of lies.” - Winston Churchill
  17. 17. The Tehran Conference  “Big Three” leaders consisting of Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill discussed the Allies opening up a second front…  The leaders agree to deceive the Germans about the true nature of the European invasion…
  18. 18. Five Fold Deception  Allied leaders planned a series of pseudo invasions to throw the Germans off guard… the Germans would learn of these faulty plans but lacked the military intelligence to decipher which ones were simply decoys…  VENDETTA and FERDINAND were code names for false invasions of the West Mediterranean…  IRONSIDE… another false invasion that led the Germans to believe that they would be attacked at the French Bay of Biscay…  ZEPPELIN was a false invasion of the Balkans in Eastern Europe… this false invasion was so decep-tive that many historians believe that Churchill truly wanted the Allies to invade there…  FORTITUDE NORTH was a pseudo invasion of German territory via Norway…
  19. 19. Operation Fortitude (South) Goal…  Convince the Germans that an invasion would take place at Pas de Calais…  Pas de Calais was the logical point of attack because it was the closest area…  from England…
  20. 20. Operation Fortitude (South) ‘Quicksilver’ Goal…  Convince the Germans that the Allies had two Army groups… …The 21st Army Group under the command of British General “Monty” Montgomery… …1st Army Group (FUSAG) under the command of American General George S. Patton…
  21. 21. 21st Army Group Chain of Command - Supreme Commander American General Dwight D. Eisenhower
  22. 22. Patton’s Ghost Army  Allies needed to make the Pas de Calais invasion seem imminent and realistic…  Highly respected by the German Military Intelligence Group… American General George S. Patton was put in charge of the completely fake Army called FUSAG…  The Army had fake armament, tanks, trucks, LST’s, Landing Devices, and Artillery Pieces… so the fake Army would appear to be embarking on an invasion of Hitler’s Fortress Europa… German aerial view of FUSAG
  23. 23. Further Deception  Captured German General Hans Kramer (Hitler’s Chief of Staff) was to be repatri-ated in an exchange…  While going through England, he saw the 21st Army group… this was the actual invasion force being prepared for the D-Day invasion…  Allies misled him on his location so he thought he was seeing them in Kent, England where the German forces were located…
  24. 24. D-Day Leadership “Sure, we want to go home… we all want this war to be over. Trust me… the quickest way to get it over with is to go get the ones who started it. The quicker they are whipped, the quicker we can go home. The shortest way home is through Berlin. And when I get to Berlin, I’m going to personally shoot that Nazi paper hanging Adolph Hitler. Just like I'd shoot a snake.” General George S. Patton - (addressing to his troops before Operation Overlord) - 5th June 1944
  25. 25. D-Day Allied Leaders Eisenhower Bradley Montgomery Spaatz Patton Lt. Dempsey
  26. 26. D-Day Allied Leaders - General Dwight D. Eisenhower  Made Supreme Allied Commander – 1944…  In complete control of the planning and execution of the Allied invasion at Normandy…  A month after Normandy, oversaw the successful invasion of Southern France…  The success of the invasion was far from a certainty in Eisenhower’s mind…  In advance, he wrote a short speech for the potentially catastrophic failure…
  27. 27. D-Day Allied Leaders - General Dwight D. Eisenhower “Our landings have failed and I have with-drawn the troops. My decision to attack at this time an place was based on the best information available. The troops, the air, and the navy did all that bravery could do. If any blame or fault attaches to the attempt it is mine alone.”
  28. 28. D-Day Allied Leaders - General Omar Bradley  Commander of the imperative 1st Army…  Commanded three corps directed at Utah and Omaha Beaches…  Men under his command grew to 900,000 (largest ever under one commander)…  Eventually became the first Chairman of NATO after World War II… (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)…
  29. 29. D-Day Allied Leaders - General Carl Spaatz  Commander of the U.S. Strategic Air Forces in Europe (USSTAF)…  Worked with British Air Commander, Marshall Trafford LeighMallory…  Together they strategically bombed German oil rigs and army bases near the English Channel to help with the overall success of Operation Overlord…
  30. 30. D-Day Allied Leaders - Lt. Miles Dempsey  Commander of the 2nd British Army (British, Canadian, and Polish Forces)…  Landed successfully at Gold, Juno, and Sword Beaches…  Captured the French city of Caen after success at Normandy…
  31. 31. D-Day German Leaders - Field Marshal Rommel  Commander of the 7th German Army…  Informed Hitler about the severity of the invasion but was ignored…  Planned with other officers to possibly overthrow Hitler in hopes of negotiating with the Allies…  Rommel was accused of planning assassination of Hitler… was forced to commit suicide…  The Germans anticipated the attack in 1944…
  32. 32. D-Day Allied Leaders - Comments on The Invasion “To preserve… our civilization and to set free a suffering humanity.” - FDR “The whole of the South Coast of England is a bastion of defense against the invasion of Hitler; you’ve got to turn it into the springboard for out attack.” - Churchill “I have full confidence in your courage, devotion to duty, and skill in battle. We will accept nothing less than full victory.” - General D.D. Eisenhower
  33. 33. Preparation  Nine (9) Battleships…  Twenty-three (23) Cruisers…  One Hundred and Four (104) Destroyers…  71 U-boats…  150,000 Troops set to cross the English Channel in the invasion of Hitler’s Fortress Europa…
  34. 34. D-Day Planning Map & General Overview
  35. 35. Preparation
  36. 36. German Defense System
  37. 37. Invasion of Utah Beach
  38. 38. Deception Works Again  German counter-attack to initial invasion were delayed because of internal arguments among the German High Command…  Fortitude South had been so successful in deceiving the German’s that they remained convinced the main invasion point of France was still to come from the Pas-de-Calais.  “I remember seeing all of the dead bodies littering the beach. Some were killed on the first landing. They were fodder for the German guns. Others were washed in by the tide where their boats had been caught.” - Sgt. Bernard Morgan
  39. 39. Welcome to Hell
  40. 40. Fatalities  4,500 Allied and American Troops Dead…
  41. 41. National D-Day Memorial Foundation
  42. 42. Turning The Tide of The War  The mass invasion of Normandy was the decisive Allied Victory that turned the tide of World War II…  Success of the invasion of Normandy was essential in order for the Allies to liberate France from Nazi control…  Allies moved permanently on the offensive as the armies marched through Europe to liberate the other conquered nations…
  43. 43. Hitler’s “Fortress Europa”
  44. 44. VE Day… May 8, 1945
  45. 45. What if Normandy had Failed?  Had the invasion failed, the repercussion would have been both shocking and devastating…  The war in Europe would have lasted at least one more year…  The Atomic Bomb, created in the summer of 1945, would have been used on Germany first instead of Japan…  A destroyed Germany would have allowed the Russian Army to roll right through Europe, leaving Communism in their wake…
  46. 46.  A failure at Normandy could have even led to the Germans prevailing in the War…  A surrender could have been agreed upon with most of Europe remaining under Fascist control…