2011 AP US PP - Social Reforms and Reformers 1800 - 1850


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2011 AP US PP - Social Reforms and Reformers 1800 - 1850

  1. 1. Social Reforms and Reformers AP US HISTORY MR. STUBBLEFIELD
  2. 2. Education Reform- 1828/1830’s• Among many efforts to reform education in America, two of these efforts were most prominent:• 1. Noah Webster’s publication of the first Webster’s Dictionary in 1828, but was titled, American Dictionary of the English Language. This dictionary did something that no other book in American history had done; it provided a standard for the spelling and usage of old and new American words. This dictionary also included words that were strictly words used in America 1.• 2. William H. McGuffey’s publication of McGuffey’s Readers in the 1830’s. These readers written to help younger students learn to read not only taught reading but simultaneously taught virtuous principles 2.CW
  3. 3. Education ReformersWebster-Family owned Libraries, read morethan average child.-Taught by mother as a child, attendedYale at 15 years old.-Developed “Reading Lessons” used in1800s read by millions. Reformedtextbooks because of his experienceswith their lack of explanation.-Webster’s Dictionary, originally called.The American Dictionary of theEnglish Language, was named afterWebster.McGuffey-Family continually moved Westwardthroughout his childhood.- Attended Washington College.-McGuffey’s Readers- Taught Moralityand Patriotism. 122 million copies.AW
  4. 4. Religious Reform- 1830’s and 1840’s• The Second Great Awakening was a religious reform in America comprised of many new individual movements and ideas such as:• 1. The preaching of Charles Grandison Finney. Finney went around the North in 1830 and 1831 preaching against pivotal issues such as alcohol and slavery 2. He is considered to be one of the most influential men involved with the Second Great Awakening.• 2. The traveling Methodist Minister Peter Cartwright. Cartwright was a preacher who traveled all over the country. His style of preaching was bold and moving, reportedly bringing thousands of people to Christ 2.• 3. The Mormon religion being founded in the 1830’s. The religion was founded by Joseph Smith. The book of that religion was based off of golden plates that Smith owned which he professed were given to him by an angel 2. Mormonism grew years after this and is still prevalent and growing today.CW
  5. 5. Religious ReformersPeter Cartwright-Key contributor Second GreatAwakening.-Personally baptized thousands.-”Circuit Rider.” Rode around thefrontier teaching and preaching theBible.Charles Grandison Finney-‘’Greatest of revival preachers.’’-Originally lawyer, developedpersuasive skills used in sermons.-Female involvement wasencouraged by Finney.-Opposed slavery, alcohol becauseof their violation of Biblical truth.Joseph Smith-1830s, claimed received “goldenplates” Book of Mormon.-Smith murdered, Brigham Youngtakes control and leads group toUtah.AW
  6. 6. Alcohol Reform- 1826• The Alcohol Reform which began in the 1820’s, was most famous for the American Temperance Society. This society was founded in 1826 in Boston, Massachusetts 2. The society was one of the first organizations opposed of drinking, but led to the formation of thousands of smaller groups 3. As the movement progressed, the societies pushed for total abstinence of all alcoholic drinks, not just “distilled spirits 3.CW
  7. 7. Alcohol ReformersNeal Dow-”Father of Prohibition.”“Napolean of Temperance.”-Sponsored Maine Law preventingmanufacturing and selling ofliquor.-Mayor of Portland, gave himinfluence when battling forprohibiton.AW
  8. 8. Women’s Reform- 1848• The women’s reform in America was lead by many women such as Catharine Beecher, Lucretia Mott, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. These women, along with many others, fought not only for women’s right to vote, but also for other various rights for women. The most notable event in women’s fight for rights was the Seneca Falls Convention held in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York 2. The convention raised awareness of women’s rights, and in the years following women were granted more and more rights 2.CW
  9. 9. Women’s ReformersCatherine Beecher-Claimed that Women needed toenter the teaching ministry-Advocated Kindergarten for allchildren.Elizabeth Cady Stanton-Advocated voting rights forwomen, out of the norm.-Worked with Susan B. Anthony,desired improvement in women’srights. Abolitonist.Lucretia Mott-Quaker. Was not recognized atantislavery convention in London.This offended her and propelledher to fight for women’s rights.-Dedicated her life to this fight.AW
  10. 10. Literary Reform- 1820’s and 1830’s• America’s literary reform was not necessarily a reform to promote literature, but to create a form of literature unique to America. James Fenimore Cooper was the first American to write novels that aimed to reform literature. He published novels that were about American history, such as The Spy, a novel published in 1821 that was about the American Revolution 2. Another moment in American history famous for promoting literary reform was Ralph Waldo Emerson’s speech to Harvard in 1837. This speech was titled, “ The American Scholar” and was a plea to the students to make literature that was a style only found in America 2.CW
  11. 11. Literary ReformersJames Fenimore Cooper-First American Novelist to gainfame.-The Spy- Widely read story ofRevolution.-Last of the Mohicans.Ralph Waldo Emerson-Transcendentalist- born inBoston.-Rejected early faith he had beentaught, became writer.-”The American Scholar”- speechat Harvard.-Implored Americans to rejectBritish ideas and “delve into theriches of their own backyards.”AW
  12. 12. Works Citedhttp://www.britannica.com/David M. Kennedy, Lizabeth Cohen, and Thomas A. Bailey, TheAmerican Pageanthttp://www.merriam-webster.com/info/noah.htmhttp://www.pbs.orghttp://www.online-literature.comAW
  13. 13. Works Cited• 1. http://www.history.com/this-day-in- history/websters-american-dictionary-of-the- english-language-is-printed• 2. The American Pageant : A History Of the Republic. Thirteenth Edition. Advanced Placement* Edition. David M. Kennedy, Lizabeth Cohen, Thomas A. Bailey.• 3. http://www2.potsdam.edu/hansondj/Controversi es/The-American-Temperance-Society.htmlCW