The passive overview


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The passive overview

  1. 1. 8 The Passive: Overview Crime and Punishment Focus on Grammar 4 Part VIII, Unit 18 By Ruth Luman, Gabriele Steiner, and BJ Wells Copyright © 2006. Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Crime ReportExamples of Passive Voice: On the night of January 12th, Star Video on Main Street was burglarized. The police reported the following: The glass door was broken and the alarm was disconnected. The suspect, who was watching a video, was found in a back room. Police were led to the suspect by a trail of popcorn and gummy bears. He was taken to the police station for questioning.
  3. 3. Legal System in the U.S.Examples of Passive Voice: If a crime is committed, a suspect is usually arrested and taken to jail. A lawyer is called and the suspect is interviewed. If a trial is necessary, jurors are selected. If the defendant is found guilty, he is sentenced by the judge to serve time in prison.
  4. 4. Form Passive Voice = Be + Past Participle + (by + Object) Subject Be (not) Past Participle (by + Object)Star Video was burglarized.The videos were not stolen. A case is being reviewed by a judge.
  5. 5. Active vs. Passive 1 Active sentences focus on the agent (person or thing doing the action). Passive sentences focus on the object (person or thing receiving the action). The police arrested the criminal. Active Subject is voice doing the action.The criminal was arrested by the police. Passive Subject is voicereceiving the action.
  6. 6. Active vs. Passive 2 Active Voice Passive VoiceA judge reviews the case. The case is reviewed by a judge.Someone removed the The videos were removed.videos.The jury didn’t find the The defendant wasn’t founddefendant guilty. guilty.
  7. 7. Identify the agent and receiverPractice 1 of the action. Are the verbs active or passive? 1. The lawyer instructed the jury. Active voice Agent of the action 2. The jury was instructed by the lawyer. Passive voice Receiver of the action
  8. 8. Identify the agent and receiverPractice 2 of the action. Are the verbs active or passive? 1. The case was read by the judge. Passive voice Receiver of the action 2. The judge read the case. Active voice Agent of the action
  9. 9. Use of Passive Voice 1 Use the passive voice when the agent of the action is unknown or not important. Pictures and fingerprints are taken. Jurors are selected.
  10. 10. Use of Passive Voice 2Use the passive voice when we want toavoid mentioning the agent. Passive voice Active voice We Paolo know don’t is who is responsible. responsible. A crime was committed. Paulo committed a crime.
  11. 11. By Phrases Use a by phrase when it is important to know who performs the action.The video store was burglarizedby a former employee. employee The information is surprising.
  12. 12. Change the sentences fromPractice 3 active to passive voice.Example: The lawyers submitted evidence. Evidence was submitted by the lawyers.1. The witness answered questions. Questions were answered (by the witness).2. The prosecution raised objections. Objections were raised (by the prosecution).3. Jurors take notes. Notes are taken (by the jurors).
  13. 13. ReferencesCopyright © 2006 Pearson Education andits licensors. All rights reserved.