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Sph 107 Ch 9
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Sph 107 Ch 9


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  • 1. Chapter 9 Making Lasting Impressions: Introductions and Conclusions
  • 2. Why are Introductions and Conclusions Important?
    • The Opening and Closing of a speech can make or break it.
      • Primacy-recency effect
    • Give listeners a framework for grasping the topics and main points of your speech.
    • Clearly defined intro and conclusion can help reduce speaking anxiety by increasing your confidence.
  • 3. Developing Effective Introductions
    • Capturing Audience Interest
      • Your first sentence should capture your audience’s interest.
      • The attention catcher you choose for your introduction is crucial and must be unique enough to capture your audience’s attention.
  • 4. Types of Attention Catchers
    • Questions
      • Questions are particularly useful when related to the audience or the topic.
      • Use rhetorical questions or direct questions.
      • Direct questions can be difficult because your audience might not know how to respond.
      • They can also increase your anxiety.
      • The benefit is that they physically involve your audience so they are more engaged and attentive.
  • 5. Types of Attention Catchers
    • Quotations
      • A quote can be a clever means of sparking the interest of your audience but only if it relates in a significant way to the topic of the speech.
    • Stories
      • An actual example of something that happened to a real person (you, your family, someone you read about in a newspaper)
      • A hypothetical example would be a story you made up to illustrate a point.
  • 6. Types of Attention Catchers
    • Startling Facts or Statistics
      • The fact should be both little known and shocking.
      • Advertisers use this often to sell products.
    • Action
      • Using some kind of movement to illustrate a point.
  • 7. Types of Attention Catchers
    • Humor
      • A joke, an anecdote, or a story with a humorous twist.
      • Be realistic, relevant, and repeatable.
  • 8. Establishing a Rapport with The Audience
    • Your introduction should help you establish a connection with your audience.
    • Give the audience a reason why they should care about your topic.
  • 9. Establishing Your Credibility
    • Explain why you are an authority on the subject in the introduction.
    • Your authority can come from you major, life experience, etc.
  • 10. State Your Speech Topic
    • Your introduction must include a thesis statement.
    • Grasping the thesis early in the speech will help your listeners follow the thinking and main points of your speech.
  • 11. Previewing The Main Points
    • Your thesis statement should be followed with a preview or brief statements of the main points of your speech.
    • Your preview should be brief and concisely stated.
    • Condense each main point to a single phrase.
    • You might also use parallelism, repeating words or grammatical structures, to emphasize the content of your preview.
  • 12. Developing Effective Conclusions
    • Provide a sense of closure
      • Signaled through verbal and nonverbal communication.
      • Begin your conclusion with a phrase that indicates your are wrapping up.
      • Nonverbally slow your rate and pitch as you move through your closing remarks.
  • 13. Developing Effective Conclusions
    • Reinforce the main ideas
      • Tell them what you told them.
      • Restate your thesis.
      • Try to briefly summarize your main points in one sentence.
  • 14. Developing Effective Conclusions
    • Motivating Listeners to Remember
      • Listeners are more likely to remember your speech if you follow the summary with a clincher, a sentence that reinforces your main points in a memorable way.
      • An effective clincher often refers back to the introduction, especially the attention catcher.