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Sph 106 Ch 14

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Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 14 Adapting Verbally and Visually
  • 2. Adapting to Your Audience Verbally
    • Relevance: adapting the information in the speech so that audience members view it as important to them.
      • Establish timeliness: show how information is useful now.
      • Establish proximity: show a relationship to personal space
      • Demonstrate personal impact.
  • 3. Adapting to Your Audience Verbally
    • Information Comprehension
      • Orient the audience: present an overview of information.
      • Define key terms.
      • Illustrate new concepts with vivid examples; helps understanding and memory.
      • Personalize information: present information within a frame of reference that is familiar to the audience.
      • Compare unknown ideas with familiar ones.
      • Use multiple methods for developing criteria.
  • 4. Adapting to Your Audience Verbally
    • Common ground: the background, knowledge, attitudes, experiences, and philosophies shared by audience members and the speaker.
      • Use personal pronouns: (you, us, we, our)
      • Ask rhetorical questions: phrase questions to stimulate a mental response rather than an actual response spoken response from the audience.
      • Share common experiences: present personal experiences, examples and illustrations that exhibit what you and the audience have in common.
  • 5. Adapting to Your Audience Verbally
    • Speaker Credibility: the confidence an audience places in the truthfulness of what a speaker says.
      • Build audience perceptions of your knowledge and expertise.
        • How prepare you seem.
        • How well know and convey the material.
        • How you are directly involved with the topic.
      • Build audience perception of your trustworthiness.
        • Based on moral and ethical traits.
        • Based on apparent motives.
  • 6. Adapting to Your Audience Verbally
    • Speaker Credibility (cont.)
      • Build audience perception of your personality.
        • Depends upon if the audience sees the speaker as “one of them”.
        • Depends upon appropriate grooming and dress.
        • Depends upon your ability to smile and use a pleasant tone.
  • 7. Adapting to Your Audience Verbally
    • Initial Audience Attitudes: predispositions for or against a topic, often expressed as an opinion.
      • Use audience analysis to determine attitudes.
      • Adapt to attitudes accordingly.
      • An important skill for informative speeches as well as persuasive speeches.
  • 8. Adapting to Your Audience Verbally
    • Language and cultural differences.
      • Overcome linguistic problems that result from that audience having difficulty understanding you because you are speaking in a second language.
        • Overcome self-consciousness.
        • Speak slowly and articulate carefully.
        • Practice in front of trial audience.
      • Choose culturally sensitive materials that help you overcome a limited common experience on which to establish common ground.
  • 9. Adapting to Audiences Visually
    • Visual Aids: forms of speech development that enables the audience to see as well as hear information.
    • Types of visual aids:
      • Objects: 3D representation of an idea you are communicating.
      • Models: useful when an object is too large or too small to be seen.
      • Still photographs.
      • Slides.
      • Film and video clips.
      • Simple drawings.
      • Maps.
      • Charts.
      • Graphs.
  • 10. Adapting to Your Audience Verbally
    • Methods for displaying visual aids
      • Computer-mediated presentations.
      • Overhead transparencies.
      • Flip-charts.
      • Poster board.
      • Chalkboards.
      • Handouts.
  • 11. Adapting to Your Audience Verbally
    • Criteria for choosing visual aids.
      • What are the most important ideas?
      • Would he concept be more easily understood visually?
      • How many visual aids are appropriate?
      • How large is the audience?
      • Is the necessary equipment readily available?
      • Is the time involved in making the visual aid cost effective?
  • 12. Designing Effective Visual Aids
    • Use a print or type size that is easily readable.
    • Include only information that you include in your speech.
    • Lay out information in an aesthetically pleasing way.