Chapter 1 Communication Perspectives
What is Communication? <ul><li>Communication is the process of creating or sharing meaning in informal conversation, group...
Parts of Communication <ul><li>Participants – individuals who take turns assuming the role of sender and receiver during a...
Parts of Communication <ul><li>Messages – verbal utterances and nonverbal behaviors to which meaning is attributed during ...
Parts of Communication <ul><li>Meanings (cont.)- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decoding: process of interpreting another’s message...
Parts of Communication <ul><li>Contexts- Settings in which Communication occurs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Context: l...
Parts of Communication <ul><li>Contexts (cont.)- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological Context: the mood and feelings of eac...
Parts of Communication <ul><li>Channels- The route used to transmit messages and he means of transporting that message. </...
Parts of Communication <ul><li>Noise- any stimulus that interferes with shared meaning, whether physical or psychological....
Parts of Communication <ul><li>Noise (cont.)- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological Noise: internal distractions based on th...
Parts of Communication <ul><li>Feedback – a receiver’s reactions and response to a message. </li></ul>
Model of the Communication Process <ul><li>Illustrates the communication process between two people. </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Model of the Communication Process <ul><li>Context permeates the process. </li></ul><ul><li>Noise may occur at various poi...
Functions of Communication <ul><li>We communicate to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet social needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Communication Settings <ul><li>Interpersonal: informal conversations between a small number of people who have relationshi...
Communication Settings <ul><li>Electronically-Mediated Communication: participants do not share a physical context but com...
Communication Principles <ul><li>Communication has a purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is continuous. </li></ul><ul...
Communication Principles <ul><li>Communication is Relational. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediacy: the degree of liking or att...
Communication Principles <ul><li>Communication has Ethical Implications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethics is a set of Moral Pri...
Communication Principles <ul><li>Communications has Ethical Implications (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect: showing re...
Increasing Our Communication Competence <ul><li>Must be affective and appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on motivation...
Developing Communication Skill Improvement Goals <ul><li>State the Problem. </li></ul><ul><li>State the Specific Goal. </l...
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SPH 106 Ch 1

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SPH 106 Ch 1

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Communication Perspectives
  2. 2. What is Communication? <ul><li>Communication is the process of creating or sharing meaning in informal conversation, group interaction, or public speaking. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Parts of Communication <ul><li>Participants – individuals who take turns assuming the role of sender and receiver during an interaction. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sender: where the message originates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiver: where the message is received. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Parts of Communication <ul><li>Messages – verbal utterances and nonverbal behaviors to which meaning is attributed during communication. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meanings: thoughts in our minds and interpretations of other’s messages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symbols: words, sounds, and actions that are generally understood to represent meaning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encoding: the process of putting our thoughts and feelings into words and nonverbal cues. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Parts of Communication <ul><li>Meanings (cont.)- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decoding: process of interpreting another’s message. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form of Organization: how the message is arranged. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Parts of Communication <ul><li>Contexts- Settings in which Communication occurs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Context: location, environmental conditions, distance, seating arrangements, and time of day. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Context: the type of relationship that exists between the participants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical Context: background provided by previous communication episodes. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Parts of Communication <ul><li>Contexts (cont.)- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological Context: the mood and feelings of each person. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural Context: beliefs, values, attitudes, orientations and underlying assumptions prevalent among people in society. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Parts of Communication <ul><li>Channels- The route used to transmit messages and he means of transporting that message. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Face to face communication has verbal symbols and nonverbal cues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online communication has verbal symbols and some nonverbal cues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other sensory channels. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Parts of Communication <ul><li>Noise- any stimulus that interferes with shared meaning, whether physical or psychological. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Noise: includes sights, sounds, and other stimuli in the environment that draw people’s attention away from intended meaning. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Parts of Communication <ul><li>Noise (cont.)- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological Noise: internal distractions based on thoughts, feelings, or emotional reaction to symbols. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal Noise: thoughts and feelings that compete for attention and interfere with the communication process. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic Noise: distractions aroused by certain symbols that take our attention away from the main message. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Parts of Communication <ul><li>Feedback – a receiver’s reactions and response to a message. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Model of the Communication Process <ul><li>Illustrates the communication process between two people. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sender encodes messages based on their previous experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receiver decodes the speaker’s message from within the context of their previous experience. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback provides information on how well the receiver understood the message. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Model of the Communication Process <ul><li>Context permeates the process. </li></ul><ul><li>Noise may occur at various points, affecting the participant’s ability to arrive at similar meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>The process becomes more complex when you include more than two people. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Functions of Communication <ul><li>We communicate to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet social needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance and maintain our sense of self. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop relationships. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influence others. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Communication Settings <ul><li>Interpersonal: informal conversations between a small number of people who have relationships with each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-solving group: participants come together for the specific purpose of solving a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Public Speaking: one or more participants deliver a prepared speech to a group. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Communication Settings <ul><li>Electronically-Mediated Communication: participants do not share a physical context but communicate through the use of technology. (ex: Email, IM, Text Message, Listservs, Chatrooms, Blogs, Online Games, Social Media) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Communication Principles <ul><li>Communication has a purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is continuous. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication messages vary in conscious thought. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spontaneous Expression: spoken without much conscious thought. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scripted: phrasings we have learned from past encounters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructed Messages: those messages we put together with careful thought when our known scripts are inadequate for the situation. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Communication Principles <ul><li>Communication is Relational. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediacy: the degree of liking or attractiveness in a relationship. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control: the degree to which one person is perceived as more dominant or powerful. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication is Guided by Culture. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture: systems of shared beliefs, values, symbols and behaviors shared by a relatively large group of people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture has a strong affect on perception, verbal processes, and nonverbal processes. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Communication Principles <ul><li>Communication has Ethical Implications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethics is a set of Moral Principles and Standards. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Truthfulness and Honesty: Refraining from lying, cheating, stealing, deception. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity: maintaining consistency or belief and action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairness: achieving a balance between interests without showing favor to a any side. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Communication Principles <ul><li>Communications has Ethical Implications (cont.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect: showing regard for others or their ideas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility: being accountable for one’s thoughts or actions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communication is Learned. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Increasing Our Communication Competence <ul><li>Must be affective and appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>Depends on motivation, knowledge, and skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility and social ease are also important to communicate competence. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Developing Communication Skill Improvement Goals <ul><li>State the Problem. </li></ul><ul><li>State the Specific Goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Outline a specific procedure for reaching the goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Devise a method of determining when the goal has been reached. </li></ul>

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