Darfur is located in Sudan Represents frontier between the Arab world and black Africa For 10 years, Sudan has hardly seen peace – regularly dealing with crises Darfur
Two distinct major cultures:
hundreds of ethnic and tribal subdivisions and language groups
make effective collaboration a major political challenge
Sudan’s population is one of the most diverse on the African continent.
Islamic Influence Fundamentalist Islamic law was instituted by Major General Gaafar Mohamed Nimeiri in 1983 Sudan proclaimed independence in 1956 from Egypt and Britain Series of unstable parliamentary governments established
Growing Differences Influenced by the National Islamic Front and southern rebels, and supported by the Sudan People’s Liberation Army, unending civil war erupted between government forces. Language Religion Political Power Ethnicity
A famine in the mid-1980s disrupted many societal structures Led to first significant fighting among people in Darfur Low level conflict continued for 15 years Government survived and armed "Arab" militias against its enemies Start of the Crisis
Fight for Resources The arid, mountainous soil is central to the conflict between African farmers and Arab herders There is an eternal fight for water, food, and shelter Below-normal rainfall and massive numbers of displaced people have led to water shortages in refugee camps
A secret group called “Tajamu al Arabi”
(Arab Gathering) emerged in the
Darfur region in the 1980s.
This group created tensions between Muslims and Non-Arab Africans with violent attacks against the Non-Arab Africans.
The mentality behind the conflict stems from the 1960s and 1970s. The ideology of Arab supremacies grows in northern Africa.
In 2003, the Non-Arab Africans combined forces to protect themselves against the militia groups. The Sudanese government became involved in the 1990s, funding militia groups who were carrying out the attacks.
Capital : Khartoum
President : General Omar Hassan Ahmad Al-Bashir
Industries : Oil, Textiles, Cement, Sugar
Natural Resources : Oil, Iron Ore, Copper, Zinc
Per Capita GDP : 1,900
Ethnic Groups : Black 52%, Arab 39%
Capital : Washington D.C.
President : George W. Bush
Industries : Oil, Steel, Chemicals, Aerospace, Food Process
Natural Resources : Coal, Copper, Lead, Gold, Iron, and Nickel
Per Capita GDP : 40,100
Ethnic Groups : White 75.1%, Black 12.3%, Hispanic 12.5%, Asian 3.6%
Sudan United States
TV Sets: 173/1000
Life Expectancy: 57.3 male, 59.8 female
Infant Mortality: 62.5/1000
Education: mandatory ages 6-13
TV Sets: 844/1000
Internet: 161.6 million users
Life Expectancy: 74.9 male, 80.7 female
Infant Mortality: 6.5/1000
Education: mandatory 6-17
Sudan United States
Janjaweed Attack The Janjaweed, a rebel militia group, contribute to much of the violence in Sudan, which has created over 2.5 million refugees Mostly members of nomadic “Arab” tribes, long at odds with settled “African” farmers in Darfur Target non-Islamic Sudanese
“ The refugees are going to have to move. There’s going to be nothing here to sustain life.” - Palouma Ponlibae Agriculture and Natural-Resources Officer for CARE