NT Greek Writing System Lec 2


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This is lecture 2 dealing with the writing system and cognates.

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  • Chafer, Lewis Sperry. 1947. Systematic theology . Dallas: Dallas Seminary Press.
  • NT Greek Writing System Lec 2

    1. 1. The Writing System; Cognates 1.6-2.1 J. Brian Tucker, Ph.D. Michigan Theological Seminary
    2. 2. 1.6 Writing non-Greek Words <ul><li>Names and words not in Greek use close equivalents . </li></ul><ul><li>iota is used for /y/ sound (sometimes eta). Ἰωσήφ - Joseph </li></ul><ul><li>upsilon is used for /w/ sound. Λευί - Levi </li></ul><ul><li>sigma is used for several /s/ sounds. Ἠσαΐας - Isaiah </li></ul>
    3. 3. 1.7 Punctuation & Diacritical Marks
    4. 4. 1.7.1. Accents <ul><li>Three accents in Greek : </li></ul><ul><li>acute [ γάρ ] </li></ul><ul><li>circumflex [ αὐτοῦ ] </li></ul><ul><li>grave [ τὴν ] </li></ul><ul><li>Keep in mind the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>used to stress syllable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>written over vowels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>for diphthongs, written over the second vowel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>same applies to breathing marks, s.v. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. 1.7.2. Breathing Marks <ul><li>Memorize: Breathing marks occur over vowels and the letter ρ , when they begin a word . </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing marks look like the opening [ ὑπό , i.e. rough /h/ sound] and closing [ αὐτός , i.e. smooth, no sound] quote marks. </li></ul>
    6. 6. 1.7.2. Breathing Marks <ul><li>If a vowel begins a word and its syllable receives the accent, the breathing mark and the accent mark will be joined. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: ὄνομα [smooth + acute] </li></ul><ul><li>οἶδα [smooth + circumflex] </li></ul><ul><li>ἢ [smooth + grave] </li></ul><ul><li>ὅτι [rough + acute] </li></ul><ul><li>οὗ [rough + circumflex] </li></ul><ul><li>ὃς [rough + grave] </li></ul>
    7. 7. 1.7.2. Breathing Marks <ul><li>The vowel ὑ and the consonant ῥ ,when they begin a word, always get a rough breathing mark. </li></ul>
    8. 8. 1.7.3. Diaeresis <ul><li>Two vowels that would otherwise form a diphthong can be pronounced separately, this is indicated by 2 dots over the second vowel. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Σεμεΐν </li></ul><ul><li>Μωϋσῆς another sequence, ωϋ uses it as well. </li></ul>
    9. 9. 1.7.4. Punctuation <ul><li>Comma and period function like in English. </li></ul><ul><li>A raised period [ ἡμῶν· ] functions as a semicolon. </li></ul><ul><li>A semicolon [ μεμέρισται ὁ Χριστός; ] functions as a question mark. </li></ul><ul><li>Early mss lacked word divisions, punctuation, accents, and breathing marks. These are inserted based on editorial decisions. </li></ul>
    10. 10. 1.7.5. Reading Practice <ul><li>ἀγάπη </li></ul><ul><li>ἁγίου </li></ul><ul><li>ἅγιον </li></ul><ul><li>αἱμορροοῦσα </li></ul><ul><li>ἐν </li></ul><ul><li>ἕν </li></ul><ul><li>ἵππων </li></ul><ul><li>εἰς </li></ul><ul><li>εἷς </li></ul>
    11. 11. 1.7.5. Reading Practice <ul><li>ὁ ἄνθρωπος </li></ul><ul><li>ἡ ἀξίνη </li></ul><ul><li>ἡ ἡμέρα </li></ul><ul><li>ὁ υἱός </li></ul><ul><li>ἢ οὔ </li></ul><ul><li>ἕν </li></ul><ul><li>ᾗ ἡμέρᾳ </li></ul><ul><li>ὁ ἀδελφὸς ἢ ἡ ἀδελφὴ </li></ul><ul><li>ὑάκινθος </li></ul><ul><li>ᾧ ὠνήσατο </li></ul>
    12. 12. 1.8. Pronunciation Practice
    13. 13. 1.8.1. Books of the New Testament <ul><li>Turn to page 9 in your textbook or turn to page iii in your UBS text and practice pronouncing the Books of the New Testament. </li></ul>
    14. 14. 1.8.2. Luke 3.31-38 <ul><li>… Δαυὶδ 32 τοῦ Ἰεσσαὶ τοῦ Ἰωβὴδ τοῦ Βόος τοῦ Σαλὰ τοῦ Ναασσὼν 33 τοῦ Ἀμιναδὰβ τοῦ Ἀδμὶν τοῦ Ἀρνὶ τοῦ Ἑσρὼμ τοῦ Φάρες τοῦ Ἰούδα 34 τοῦ Ἰακὼβ τοῦ Ἰσαὰκ τοῦ Ἀβραὰμ τοῦ Θάρα τοῦ Ναχὼρ 35 τοῦ Σεροὺχ τοῦ Ῥαγαὺ τοῦ Φάλεκ τοῦ Ἔβερ τοῦ Σαλὰ 36 τοῦ Καϊνὰμ τοῦ Ἀρφαξὰδ τοῦ Σὴμ τοῦ Νῶε τοῦ Λάμεχ 37 τοῦ Μαθουσαλὰ τοῦ Ἑνὼχ τοῦ Ἰάρετ τοῦ Μαλελεὴλ τοῦ Καϊνὰμ 38 τοῦ Ἐνὼς τοῦ Σὴθ τοῦ Ἀδὰμ τοῦ θεοῦ . </li></ul>
    15. 15. 1.8.3. Matthew 1.1-8 <ul><li>Βίβλος γενέσεως Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ υἱοῦ Δαυὶδ υἱοῦ Ἀβραάμ. 2 Ἀβραὰμ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰσαάκ, Ἰσαὰκ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰακώβ, Ἰακὼβ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰούδαν καὶ τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοῦ, 3 Ἰούδας δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Φάρες καὶ τὸν Ζάρα ἐκ τῆς Θαμάρ, Φάρες δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἑσρώμ, Ἑσρὼμ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἀράμ, 4 Ἀρὰμ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἀμιναδάβ, Ἀμιναδὰβ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ναασσών, Ναασσὼν δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Σαλμών, 5 Σαλμὼν δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Βόες ἐκ τῆς Ῥαχάβ, Βόες δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰωβὴδ ἐκ τῆς Ῥούθ, Ἰωβὴδ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰεσσαί, 6 Ἰεσσαὶ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Δαυὶδ τὸν βασιλέα. Δαυὶδ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Σολομῶνα ἐκ τῆς τοῦ Οὐρίου, 7 Σολομὼν δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ῥοβοάμ, Ῥοβοὰμ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἀβιά, Ἀβιὰ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἀσάφ, 8 Ἀσὰφ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰωσαφάτ, Ἰωσαφὰτ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰωράμ, Ἰωρὰμ δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ὀζίαν, . </li></ul>
    16. 16. 1.8.3. Matthew 1.1-8 Syllables (Hewett 2009: Appendix)
    17. 17. 1.9. Learning Essentials <ul><li>Do you know the sounds of the letters and diphthongs? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you recite the alphabet without mistakes? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you paid close attention to the way you write the letters? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you identify all the punctuation and diacritical marks in John 1.21-23? </li></ul>
    18. 18. Lesson 2 Cognates <ul><li>Used in ‘(linguistics) (of a word) having the same linguistic derivation as another (e.g. English father, German Vater , Latin pater )’ ( OED ). </li></ul><ul><li>New Testament also contains Hebrew and Aramaic loan words, which sometimes remain un-translated, e.g. Amen. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing these will help in vocabulary acquisition. </li></ul><ul><li>Ignore the endings when making comparisons and not that upsilon often becomes a ‘y’ in cognate English spelling (Kunjummen 2009: 13). </li></ul>
    19. 19. Lesson 2 Cognates hypotension ὑπό hypertension ὑπέρ epi-dermis ἐπί the-ist, a-the-ist θεός ex-clude ἐξ ego-tism ἐγώ auto-pilot αὐτός anthropology ἄνθρωπος English Cognate Greek Word
    20. 20. Lesson 2 Cognates sound, voice φωνή earth γῆ city πόλις many, much πολύ head κεφαλή woman γυνή around περί gospel, evangelism εὐαγγέλιον English Cognate Greek Word
    21. 21. Lesson 2 Cognates relating to sound or the sense of hearing ἀκούω speech, language λόγος the quality of being pleasing to the ear ευ - English Cognate Greek Word
    22. 22. Conclusions <ul><li>Move on to exercise 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you read all of page 15 it is quite important to this course. </li></ul>