Landfill Lifecycle Planning

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  • Good afternoon. Well, let me start off by telling you a little more about me.

  • This is me.

  • I’m from here.

  • More specifically here.

  • I live here, with my wife of 12 years and 3 kids in a modest house on a hill.

  • In a town we really love.

  • I was educated here. And here.

  • I work here.

  • Well, really I work here.

  • Where I design these ... landfills that is.




  • - click - Planning CAN and WILL save you money





  • Many attempts failed



  • Likely because of public opposition or political road blocks


  • Your site was a success?

  • Environmental protection is still paramount

  • Little thought to sequencing

  • Operations?

  • Designers often “County Engineer”

  • We have to live now, with the permits and plans that were often developed without significant or adequate experience based knowledge.













  • Know what’s needed?

  • Know what you have?

  • Know how long it will last?

  • Construct what’s needed.

  • Height = density

  • Maximize height = maximize density

  • Don’t trap storm water - block or dig a hole (or know how to manage)

  • Gravity flow where possible




  • Anticipate construction materials needs/excesses.





  • Total site soil balance is not staged soil balance

  • Access to cell

  • Extra haul distance? Temporary roads?

  • Construction traffic on permanent roads?

  • Solidification basins

  • Leachate pump stations

  • Cell Access roads

  • Perimeter roads

  • Haul roads

  • Close phases as possible - larger unclosed area = higher financial assurance




  • Sump Construction

  • Phased capping

  • Active face control

  • Storm water management

  • Daily cover management

  • Construct sumps large enough for expected flow

  • Depth matters for pump systems

  • Temporary sumps are problematic

  • Size tanks according to staged leachate flows

  • Close areas as soon as possible to minimize infiltration

  • Place adequate intermediate cover

  • Small active face minimizes storm water infiltration

  • Direct water away - berm




  • Segregate storm water in newly constructed cell

  • Divert storm water away from open cells

  • Don’t puddle water on the cell




  • Utilize alternate daily covers

  • Strip soils (causes breakouts, gas flow problems)

  • When to build

  • How much area (volume) to build

  • Bundle construction packages

  • Upcoming solid waste permit issues







  • OPTION 1

  • Each successive cell seems to achieve maximum volume on long edge

  • Geometry limits height

  • I have seen phasing very similar to this

  • 1 yr first cell

  • 6.5 yrs cell 3

  • 15 yrs cell 6

  • 55 total years life

  • OPTION 2

  • Some cell sequencing not the most efficient NEXT cell

  • But, we’re optimizing height

  • Yr 6 - Option 2 provides 18 yrs life vs. 15 yrs Option 1

  • Throughout Cells 6 through 12, Option 2 provides more life per cell

  • Note that both options yield the same life

  • This sequence maximizes volume by maximizing height

  • The Egyptian Triangle - vertical cross section of the pyramids

  • Pyramids utilize the Golden Ratio - that is the sides are of the ratio 1:sqrt(psi) where psi is teh golden mean or 1.61803

  • Slightly more volume in Cell 4, makes up for loss in Cell 3

  • Significant volume gain in Cells 6 and 8

  • We can see for a given cell, beyond cell 5, Option 2 is constructed at a later date, thus saving expense costs







  • Be knowledgeable, plan, make informed decisions




  • Landfill Lifecycle Planning

    1. 1. Landfill Lifecyle Planning: A Necessity for Efficient Operation and Capital Expenditure
    2. 2. Jeffrey J. Breedlove, P.E.
    3. 3. CHATTANO OGA
    4. 4. Overview • Permit Designs of the early 1990’s often leave much to be desired operationally • 15 years of landfill operation have taught us much • Many landfills can benefit from a Life of Site Staging Plan review
    5. 5. Why Plan?
    6. 6. Why Plan?
    7. 7. “ Insanity is continuing to do the ” same thing over and over, and expecting different results. ~ Einstein (attributed)
    8. 8. Initial Impetus GET THE PERMIT
    9. 9. Initial Impetus GET THE PERMIT Many failures Public opposition Political road blocks Success?
    10. 10. Permit Conditions GOT THE PERMIT Emphasis on regulatory issues Environmental protection was paramount   Rote presentation of cell sequencing Designers Inexperienced in Landfill Operations Operations not adequately addressed   Economic efficiency often ignored
    11. 11. The Hand We’ve Been Dealt • Permit Drawings • Staging Plans • Ops Plan
    12. 12. 15 Years of Experience
    13. 13. 15 Years of Experience The school of hard knocks gives advanced degrees in landfill design and operation!
    14. 14. Cell Sequencing Experience Lessons
    15. 15. Sequencing Experience Lessons Defer capital expenditures
    16. 16. Sequencing Experience Lessons Increase waste density with no additional effort
    17. 17. Sequencing Experience Lessons Manage storm water
    18. 18. Sequencing Experience Lessons Don’t double handle
    19. 19. Sequencing Experience Lessons Maintain access to critical components
    20. 20. Sequencing Experience Lessons Minimize costs for road networks
    21. 21. Leachate Management
    22. 22. Leachate Management Sumps
    23. 23. Leachate Management Leachate Holding Tanks
    24. 24. Leachate Management Capping/Closure
    25. 25. Leachate Management Active Face
    26. 26. Leachate Management Storm Water
    27. 27. “ ” Where is all this leachate coming from?
    28. 28. Leachate Management Daily Cover
    29. 29. Planning Issues
    30. 30. Planning Issues When?
    31. 31. Planning Issues When? How much?
    32. 32. Planning Issues When? How much? Bundle?
    33. 33. Planning Issues When? How much? Bundle? Upcoming permit issues?
    34. 34. Life of Site Staging What dierence does the order make?
    35. 35. Life of Site Staging What dierence does the order make? “” Good order is the foundation of all great things. ~ Edmund Burke
    36. 36. Staging Example
    37. 37. Staging Example
    38. 38. Staging Example 400’ 800’
    39. 39. Staging Example Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres 400’ 800’
    40. 40. Staging Example Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres 400’ 800’
    41. 41. Staging Example Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 800’
    42. 42. Staging Example Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 800’ 170
    43. 43. Staging Example – Option 1 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 800’
    44. 44. Staging Example – Option 1 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 800’
    45. 45. Staging Example – Option 1 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 3 800’
    46. 46. Staging Example – Option 1 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 3 4 800’
    47. 47. Staging Example – Option 1 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 3 4 5 800’
    48. 48. Staging Example – Option 1 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 800’
    49. 49. Staging Example – Option 1 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 800’
    50. 50. Staging Example – Option 1 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 800’
    51. 51. Staging Example – Option 1 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 800’ 100
    52. 52. Staging Example – Option 1 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 800’
    53. 53. Staging Example – Option 1 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 800’ 8
    54. 54. Staging Example – Option 1 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 800’ 8 9
    55. 55. Staging Example – Option 1 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 800’ 8 9 10
    56. 56. Staging Example – Option 1 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 800’ 8 9 10 11
    57. 57. Staging Example – Option 1 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 800’ 8 9 10 11 12
    58. 58. Staging Example – Option 1 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 800’ 8 9 10 11 12 13
    59. 59. Staging Example – Option 1 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 800’ 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
    60. 60. Staging Example – Option 1 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 800’ 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
    61. 61. Staging Example – Option 1 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 800’ 170 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
    62. 62. Staging Example – Option 1 Monthly Intake: 20,000 cy Assumed Density: 0.75 t/cy ~ 600 tpd
    63. 63. Staging Example – Option 2 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 800’
    64. 64. Staging Example – Option 2 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 800’
    65. 65. Staging Example – Option 2 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 800’ 3
    66. 66. Staging Example – Option 2 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 800’ 3 4
    67. 67. Staging Example – Option 2 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 5 800’ 3 4
    68. 68. Staging Example – Option 2 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 5 800’ 3 4 6
    69. 69. Staging Example – Option 2 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 5 7 800’ 3 4 6
    70. 70. Staging Example – Option 2 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 5 7 800’ 3 4 6 8
    71. 71. Staging Example – Option 2 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 5 7 9 800’ 3 4 6 8
    72. 72. Staging Example – Option 2 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 5 7 9 800’ 3 4 6 8 10
    73. 73. Staging Example – Option 2 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 5 7 9 11 800’ 3 4 6 8 10
    74. 74. Staging Example – Option 2 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 5 7 9 11 800’ 3 4 6 8 10 12
    75. 75. Staging Example – Option 2 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 5 7 9 11 13 800’ 3 4 6 8 10 12
    76. 76. Staging Example – Option 2 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 5 7 9 11 13 800’ 3 4 6 8 10 12 14
    77. 77. Staging Example
    78. 78. Staging Example
    79. 79. Staging Example
    80. 80. Staging Example – Option 2 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 5 7 9 11 13 800’ 3 4 6 8 10 12 14
    81. 81. Staging Example – Option 2 Landfill Cell: 7.3 acres Landfill: 103 acres 400’ 1 2 5 7 9 11 13 800’ 3 4 6 8 10 12 14
    82. 82. Staging Example Cell # vs. Volume 2,000 Option 1 Option 2 1,500 Volume (cy x1,000) 1,000 500 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Cell
    83. 83. Staging Example Construction Expense vs. Time $18,000 $16,000 Option 1 Construction Costs ($ x1,000) Option 2 $14,000 $12,000 $10,000 $8,000 $6,000 $4,000 $2,000 $0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Year
    84. 84. Staging Example Construction Expense vs. Time $18,000 $16,000 Option 1 Construction Costs ($ x1,000) Option 2 $14,000 $12,000 $10,000 $8,000 $6,000 $4,000 $2,000 $0 0 10 20 30 40 50 Year
    85. 85. Staging Example (1) (2) (1) Assumes average $150,000 per acre construction (PV) (2) Utilized 5% Net Interest Rate (interest rate minus inflation)
    86. 86. Staging Example (1) (2) (1) Assumes average $150,000 per acre construction (PV) (2) Utilized 5% Net Interest Rate (interest rate minus inflation)
    87. 87. Staging Example (1) (2) (1) Assumes average $150,000 per acre construction (PV) (2) Utilized 5% Net Interest Rate (interest rate minus inflation)
    88. 88. Staging Example (1) (2) (1) Assumes average $150,000 per acre construction (PV) (2) Utilized 5% Net Interest Rate (interest rate minus inflation)
    89. 89. Staging Example Option 2 Cost of Money Savings $300.00 Interest Cost Savings ($ x1,000) $206.25 $112.50 $18.75 $-75.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Cell
    90. 90. Landfill Staging Knowledge → Planning Planning → Success Success = $
    91. 91. Knowledge is Power; Time is Money Knowledge = Power- eqn. 1 Time = Money - eqn. 2 High school physics has taught us that Power = Work/Time. From eqn. 2, Time = Money, so Power = Work/Money From eqn. 1, Knowledge = Power, so Knowledge = Work/Money Rearranging: Money = Work/Knowledge

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