Bradford mvsu fall 2012 short social perception


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  • All communication about something at once conveys both information and at the same time, suggests or conveys information about the relationship or the situational context in which the communication occurs. Communication (behavior) is always also defining the nature of the relationship between the interactants. All ‘reports’ make implicit commands upon the listener, even if this command is nothing more than ‘listen to me.’ So, in other words, we can say that communication simultaneously communicates about other 'stuff' in the world as well the communication itself.  All communication (behavior) has effects on the relationship between communicants.Normally, however, this second relationship level of communication is rarely defined deliberately or with full awareness! It requires meta-communication, or communication about communication, to be able to fix problems that arise at this relationship level, which are usually not fully understood by the communicants.
  • The circles below represent distinctions. We can break down a communication into 3 steps, which actually occur simultaneously:1. A communication has to be noticed, or distinguished from other perceptions: one notices that a message (content/information) has been distinguished from a behavior, or means of expressing that message.2. One must infer that the sender has chosen a particular message to convey (distinguished from other possible messages)3. One must infer that the sender has chosen a particular way of expressing this message (distinguished from other possible ways of expressing it)
  • This constitutes the greatest single factor ensuring mental development and stability. A large portion of our communications are for validating the identities of others.For any social encounter to work, people have to accept the roles that others have suggested, creating a shared definition of the situation.
  • The ‘subject’ can be an a living organism, or even a machine, so long as it is goal-oriented or ‘purposeful.’ Rain isn’t a “sign”, but could become a sign if I regarded the rain as an indicator of an approaching hurricane or bad omen, to which I had to respond. In either case, however, my behavior in response to the rainisn’t ‘communication’ because the sign (rain) isn’t produced as a response to some other previous sign (whether natural or artificial). But my response to laughter, crying, music, speech, my dog barking, etc. is communication. What counts as communication will vary from species to species and even across individuals! According to this definition, responses to signs can be dislocated in time and space, and communication to and with machines is possible. The SIGNIFICATION OF A SIGN issomething other than the sign that the sign potentially produces a response to. A caricature is a sign of an image. Images connote structural properties, but concepts connote functional properties.Images help us describe; concepts help us explain.
  • Signs are a type of stimulus producing a response to something other than itself. I also include “icons” in the category “symbols.”
  • Bradford mvsu fall 2012 short social perception

    1. 1. Social Perception and Communication Dr. Bradford
    2. 2. Vocabulary• Social Perception: the study of how we form impressions of and make inferences about other people (p. 76)• Nonverbal communication: the way in which people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words; nonverbal cues include facial expressions, tone of voice, gestures, body position, gaze, etc.
    3. 3. Non-Referential and Referential Communication Communication REFERENTIAL NON-REFERENTIAL (with Signs) (without Signs) = interacting with + = interacting with communicating about
    4. 4. (How) Do Humans Communicate Differently from Animals?• CULTURE, ‘SYMBOLIC INTERACTION’, or HUMAN LANGUAGE = – learned and symbolic communicative behavior. Symbolic Learned Behavior Communica- tion
    5. 5. Two ‘channels’ of Human CommunicationAll communication has two levels ordimensions: content and relationshipContent RelationshipSymbolic Body LanguageInformation Behavior (meta-information)WHAT is communicated HOW something is communicated• All communication is both communication and communication about communication.
    6. 6. Two ‘channels’ of Human Communication• Human communication has two ‘channels’ operating at the same time: content and relationship.• Words are spoken by someone to someone about someone (or something).
    7. 7. Two ‘channels’ of Human Communication• Communication is any behavior perceived as expressing some message: 1. What (information) is communicated, and 2. How (behavior) this info is expressed. Communication Messages Expressions Selected Selected Other perceptions Message Expression
    8. 8. Body Language and PlayNegation and “NOT”  There is no simple way of expressing negation or the word “not” in body language!  Gregory Bateson (1972) proposed that playful behavior arose as a way of communicating the concept of “not.”
    9. 9. Responses to Communication at Relationship Level• In interpersonal encounters, each person offers a definition of themselves and the other as part of an overall definition of the situation. We can distinguish 3 different ways that someone may respond to the definition of self (and other) offered by the other:1. Confirmation/Acceptance2. Rejection3. Disconfirmation
    10. 10. Responses to Communication at Relationship Level1) Confirmation/Acceptance  Acceptance of the relationship implied in a communication.  Most communications are for validating our selves and our relationships Example: accepting friend requests on facebook.
    11. 11. Responses to Communication at Relationship Level2) Rejection  A rejection of the relationship someone is implicitly attempting to create;  Importantly, rejection presupposes recognition of what is being rejected.
    12. 12. Responses to Communication at Relationship Level3) Disconfirmation  Occurs when someone does not recognize that they dont recognize you (or the type of person or relation you are attempting to invoke).  Disconfirmation leads to a loss of self, depersonalization, and even dehumanization.
    13. 13. Responses to Communication at Relationship Level3) Disconfirmation• It is thus far more dramatic than outright rejection. Whereas a mis-match in perception occurs in both, with disconfirmation, there is no recognition by at least one party that the mismatch is happening!• Watzlawick et al. (1967) write: “ [W]hile rejection amounts to the message You are Wrong, disconfirmation says in effect You do not exist" (86).• Bateson proposed that disconfirmation which was repeatedly experienced could lead to schizophrenia.
    14. 14. Responses to Communication at Relationship Level 3) Disconfirmation – Example from Reading “Being Sane in Insane Places” From film “One Flew Over The Cookoo’s Nest”Pseudo-patients act sane. In response, the nurses can either a) acknowledge and accept thatthey are acting sane; b) recognize that they are acting sane, but not believe it (i.e. reject theirperformance); or c) not even recognize that they are acting sane! The last response (i.e.disconfirmation) is what occurred in the study.
    15. 15. What are Signs?• SIGNS (*as defined in this lecture*) are a type of stimulus producing a response to something other than itself.• SIGNS REFER TO SOMETHING. Signs include symbols. – Signs can be natural or artificial: smoke is a sign of fire, as is the word “fire”
    16. 16. Causes, Signs, and Symbols1. CAUSES: physical Domino effect cause and effect; Uni- directional and Deterministic2. SIGNS: indirectly triggers a response to something other than ‘stimulus’ ‘response’ the stimulus; SIGN INDICATES SOMETHING ELSE to Rain cloud Responds NOT to the cloud which you respond. directly, but to what it indicates: rain. You get an umbrella.
    17. 17. Causes, Signs, and Symbols3. SYMBOLS = – anything that re-presents something else to more than one person. – a sign of a sign! (Human Language) – {Notice that some perception or idea can be conveyed to someone else who hasn’t seen it.} Rain cloud A says B gets an “It’s about umbrella to rain!”
    18. 18. SYMBOLSSymbols can do two things:1. Symbols allow us to refer to or talk about things that are not there. Words stand in for absent things, i.e. serve as substitutes for them. This is called context independence (aka ‘Displacement’). “These Letters• ‘X counts as Y’ are symbols”
    19. 19. SYMBOLSSymbols can do two things:2. Symbols can also create the very things to which they refer!• ‘X counts as Y’, where ‘Y’ is some relationship!
    20. 20. Symbols and InstitutionsSymbolic Language is necessary to create institutions.‘X counts as Y’• Examples: – Money. We can agree that paper counts as money. But money (Y) has no existence apart from our definition of it. – Rules of chess: the rules of chess create chess. Chess would not exist apart from these rules. (vs. rules of traffic, for example) Rules of chess
    21. 21. Types of Interactive Behavior Interactive Behavior (‘Communication’) ‘Natural‘ Signs Non-interactive Anticipation (smoke = sign of fire) Non-Referential Referential using without SIGNS ‘Artificial’ SIGNS{aka Non-Referential {aka Referential CommunicationCommunication; Non-anticipatory Anticipatory Communication,interaction; Conversation of Language, or DigitalGestures; Body Language, or Communication}Analogical Communication} 2. *Symbols* 1. Signals (Human Language)