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We The People i-Rights of Englishmen

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First session of Constitution class, "We The People." September-November 2013. Class title "Rights of Englishmen." This class begins with Magna Carta and concludes with the Revolutionary War and the …

First session of Constitution class, "We The People." September-November 2013. Class title "Rights of Englishmen." This class begins with Magna Carta and concludes with the Revolutionary War and the writing of state constitutions. A provocative section quotes from material in Stephen Webb, "1676;The End of American Independence."Class outlines and suggested viewing and reading are posted in my documents section.

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  • 1. The U.S. Constitution session i Rights of Englishmen
  • 2. The U.S. Constitution session i Rights of Englishmen
  • 3. major points of this session the “uncollected” English constitution “Before the white man came…” the colonial experience 1676; the end of American independence the road to 1776 the state constitutions
  • 4. the “uncollected” English constitution
  • 5. “You will observe that from Magna Charta [sic] to the Declaration of Right, it has been the uniform policy of our constitution to claim and assert our liberties, as an entailed inheritance derived to us from our forefathers, and to be transmitted to our posterity; as an estate specially belonging to the people of this kingdom, without any reference whatever to any other more general or prior right.” Edmund Burke (1729-1797), Reflections on the Present Revolution in France, 1790
  • 6. The British have an “unwritten constitution.” Rather, it is better thought of as an “uncollected constitution.” A series of historical legal landmarks define the shape of the British government. jbp
  • 7. Magna Carta, 1215 1209-1213--Richard the Lionhearted’s “wicked brother,” John (Robin Hood’s arch enemy) fell afoul of his nobles and Pope Innocent III the perennial enemy France also threatened invasion January 1215-the barons made an oath that they “would stand fast for the liberty of the church and the realm” 10 June-with the support of Alexander II king of the Scots and the City of London, King John was brought to terms ARTICLES OF THE BARONS THE GREAT SEAL RUNNYMEDE 15 JUNE 1215
  • 8. The 1215 charter required King John of England to proclaim certain liberties and accept that his will was not arbitrary clauses still in force: I -We have granted to God, and by this our present Charter have confirmed, for Us and our Heirs for ever, that the Church of England shall be free, and shall have all her whole Rights and Liberties inviolable. We have granted also, and given to all the Freemen of our Realm, for Us and our Heirs for ever, these Liberties under- written, to have and to hold to them and their Heirs, of Us and our Heirs for ever. XIII -the City of London shall have all the old Liberties and Customs which it hath been used to have. Moreover We will and grant, that all other Cities, Boroughs, Towns, and the Barons of the Five Ports, as with all other Ports, shall have all their Liberties and free Customs. XXXIX -NO Freeman shall be taken or imprisoned, or be disseised of his Freehold, or Liberties, or free Customs, or be outlawed, or exiled, or any other wise destroyed; nor will We not pass upon him, nor condemn him, but by lawful judgment of his Peers, or by the Law of the land. We will sell to no man, we will not deny or defer to any man either Justice or Right. [due process]
  • 9. It was Magna Carta, over other early concessions by the monarch, which survived to become a "sacred text"….by the time of the English Civil War [1640s] it had become an important symbol for those who wished to show that the King was bound by the law. It influenced the early settlers in New England and inspired later constitutional documents, including the United States Constitution. Wikipedia
  • 10. Petition of Right, 1628 1603-25--James I Stuart had angered Parliament by his absolutist pretensions 1625-28--his successor, Charles I, was, if anything, even more tactless Parliament refused to pass taxes to support the Thirty Years War. So Charles used martial law, quartering troops and imprisonments to exact “forced loans” both Lords and Commons united in their opposition to this highhandedness the upshot was the second major limitation on royal prerogative, “no taxation without representation” (Parliament’s approval) Charles indignantly accepted the Petition, got his taxes, dismissed Parliament, and began the eleven year Personal Rule refusing to summon another Parliament ... 1640-...until another war forced him to. This confrontation led to the eight- year English Civil War
  • 11. The Petition profoundly influenced the rights contained by the Constitution of the United States. The clauses relating to the billeting of troops later helped form the Third Amendment to the United States Constitution, which states that "No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law". Steve Bachmann, writing in the Quinnipiac Law Review, goes further; he says that the Criminal Trials Clause of the Sixth Amendment, the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment and the Civil Jury Trial Clause of the Seventh Amendment all draw influence from the Petition of Right, Wikipedia
  • 12. Habeas Corpus Act, 1679 Charles II, the “Merrie Monarch,” continued his father’s absolutist ways but with more political savvy 1678-81--The Earl of Shaftesbury led a Whig opposition in Parliament during the tumult known as the Popish Plot 1679-this reassertion of restraint on imprisonment without due process was a major limitation on royal power it has its echo in our Constitution, Article I, Section 9, Clause 2 (cited as I. 9.2)
  • 13. The Habeas Corpus Parliament, 1679--Wikipedia Elections were held for a new parliament on various dates in February 1679, after which the Earl of Shaftesbury• estimated that of the members of the new House of Commons one third were friends of the court [Tories], three fifths favoring the Opposition [Whigs], and the rest capable of going either way [fence sitters]. On Thursday, 6 March, the Parliament first met, and the King [Charles II] opened the Session with a Speech to both Houses, in which he said: Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury 1621 –1683
  • 14. The Habeas Corpus Parliament, 1679--Wikipedia Elections were held for a new parliament on various dates in February 1679, after which the Earl of Shaftesbury•estimated that of the members of the new House of Commons one third were friends of the court [Tories], three fifths favoring the Opposition [Whigs], and the rest capable of going either way [fence sitters]. On Thursday, 6 March, the Parliament first met, and the King [Charles II] opened the Session with a Speech to both Houses, in which he said: Charles II 1630 -- 1660 –1683
  • 15. I have done many great Things already...as the Exclusion of the Popish Lords from their Seats in Parliament; the Execution of several Men...upon the score of the [Popish]Plot....Above all, I have commanded my Brother [James, Duke of York] to absent himself from me, because I would not leave malicious Men room to say, I had not removed all Causes which could be pretended to influence me towards Popish Counsels... I have not been wanting in giving Orders for putting all the present Laws in Execution against Papists; and I am ready to join in the making such farther Laws, as may be necessary for securing the Kingdom against Popery…. I will conclude as I begun, with my earnest Desires to have this a Healing Parliament; and I do give you this Assurance that I will with my Life defend both the Protestant Religion, and the Laws of this Kingdom, and I do expect from you to be defended from the Calumny, as well as the Danger of those worst of Men, who endeavour to render me, and my Government, odious to my People.
  • 16. “No Popery! No wooden shoes!” Although the Wars of Religion, c. 1524-1648, were over, their afterglow lingered for many years--in Ireland to this present day. Militant expansionism by France, England’s ancient enemy, under Louis XIV (1638-1643-1661-1715)• had a strong element of religious war. Louis’ chief enemy was William of Orange•, Stadtholder of the Netherlands, and Protestant son-in-law to Catholic James II of England. Louis had begun harassing his own Huguenots (Protestants) in 1681• and revoked their last legal protection in 1685. That same year, James succeeded his brother. When a Catholic male heir, the “Warming Pan Baby,” was born in 1688, the Whig Protestant opposition spurred the Glorious Revolution. jbp Louis XIVWilliam of Orange
  • 17. (R.C.) (R.C.) (R.C.) (R.C.) both nephew & son-in-law to James II
  • 18. (R.C.) (R.C.) (R.C.) (R.C.) (R.C.) (R.C.) (R.C.) (R.C.) both nephew & son-in-law to James II “...the duke [of York] married the French-sponsored, papally blessed (and altogether beautiful) Mary of Modena.”--Webb, p.324
  • 19. Bill of Rights, 1689 March, 1689--in the Declaration of Right the Whig Parliament declared that James II had abdicated when he fled to France it pronounced his Protestant daughter Mary and her husband William joint monarchs it listed limits on royal power, rights of Parliament and English citizens very similar to John Locke’s (Shaftesbury’s secretary) ideas December, 1689--in a statutory Act, known as the Bill of Rights, the same rights were made part of the British (unwritten) Constitution it has its echo in our Constitution’s first ten amendments, known as our Bill of Rights (cited as AMs I-X)
  • 20. The [English] Bill of Rights no royal interference with the law. Though the sovereign remains the fount of justice, he or she cannot unilaterally establish new courts or act as a judge no taxation by Royal Prerogative. The agreement of the parliament became necessary for the implementation of any new taxes freedom to petition the monarch without fear of retribution no standing army may be maintained during a time of peace without the consent of parliament no royal interference in the freedom of the people to have arms for their own defence as suitable to their class and as allowed by law (simultaneously restoring rights previously taken from Protestants by James II) no royal interference in the election of members of parliament the freedom of speech and debates or proceedings in Parliament ought not to be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of Parliament no excessive bail or "cruel and unusual" punishments may be imposed I.8.1 AM I I.8.12 & I.8.14 AM II I.4.1 & AM X AM I AM VIII I.8.9
  • 21. Before the white man came...
  • 22. ...there were Ongweoweh (the real people)
  • 23. ...there were Ongweoweh (the real people) Theodore de Bry (1528-1598), Grands Voyages (to America) (1588)
  • 24. the first “visuals” Theodore de Bry, for Tho Harriot’s A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia (1590)
  • 25. the first “visuals” Theodore de Bry, for Tho Harriot’s A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia (1590)
  • 26. the first “visuals”
  • 27. the first “visuals”
  • 28. the first “visuals”
  • 29. the first “visuals”
  • 30. the first “visuals”
  • 31. the first “visuals”
  • 32. the first “visuals”
  • 33. the first “visuals”
  • 34. the first “visuals”
  • 35. the first “visuals”
  • 36. ...there were Ongweoweh Jan Verelst (1648-1734), Four Mohawk Kings (1710) Allies against the French, they came to Queen Anne’s court. These Christianized Kanien'kehá:ka (people of the flint) so impressed her that she had these portraits painted by a Dutch Golden Age painter who worked in London. jbp Believed to be the first oil portraits of American Indians painted from life.
  • 37. The origins of America’s indigenous peoples are lost to history Hypothetical migration from Siberia, after 16,500 BC
  • 38. The origins of America’s indigenous peoples are lost to history Amerindian culture groups
  • 39. “Contact” 1500‘s-setting aside pre-Columbian encounters, the huge First Nations (Canadian preferred term) population (1-18 million) began to be decimated by “guns, germs and steel” avarice on both sides fueled the conflicts Europeans: gold & silver, sugar, chocolate, tobacco, coffee, land Amerindians: hatchets, kettles, fish hooks, firearms, gun flints, powder, “fire water” territorial wars were not introduced by the Europeans but New World colonial trade wars between the Spanish, English, French, and Dutch had a ripple effect on the already existing tribal rivalries jbp
  • 40. The Five Nations, Iroquois Confederacy, Haudenosaunee (people of the longhouse)
  • 41. The Five Nations, Iroquois Confederacy, Haudenosaunee (people of the longhouse)
  • 42. The Five Nations, Iroquois Confederacy, Haudenosaunee the modern flag of the Iroquois Nation
  • 43. The Five Nations, Iroquois Confederacy, Haudenosaunee It’s symbolism
  • 44. The Five Nations, Iroquois Confederacy, Haudenosaunee A wampum belt with the symbolism
  • 45. The Five Nations, Iroquois Confederacy, Haudenosaunee
  • 46. The Five Nations, Iroquois Confederacy, Haudenosaunee a modern representation of the Gayanashagowa
  • 47. “Gayanashagowa” or Great Law of Peace is the oral constitution of the Haudenosaunee preserved on wampum belts their tradition says it was conceived by Deganwidah, known as the Great Peacemaker, and his spokesman Hiawatha jbp
  • 48. “Gayanashagowa” or Great Law of Peace is the oral constitution of the Haudenosaunee preserved on wampum belts their tradition says it was conceived by Deganwidah, known as the Great Peacemaker, and his spokesman Hiawatha historians originally dated the start of the confederacy to the 16th century. Now some date it to 1090-1150 A.D. an “outlying” opinion suggests that it was an influence on the Founders as they framed our Constitution. This was immediately seized upon by the PC crowd and declared Truth in several high school textbooks jbp
  • 49. The Albany Plan of Union, 1754
  • 50. The Beaver Wars
  • 51. The Beaver Wars
  • 52. The Beaver Wars
  • 53. The Beaver Wars
  • 54. The Beaver Wars
  • 55. Beginning in 1609, the League engaged in the Beaver Wars against the French, their Huron allies, and other neighboring tribes, including the Petun, Erie, and Susquehannock. They also put great pressure on the Algonquian peoples of the Atlantic coast...and not infrequently fought the English colonies as well. During the Beaver Wars, they were said to have defeated and assimilated the Huron (1649), Petun (1650) the Neutral Nation (1651), Erie Tribe(1657), and Susquehannock (1680). The traditional view is that these wars were a way to control the lucrative fur trade in order to access European goods on which they had become dependent. Recent scholarship has elaborated on this view, arguing that the Beaver Wars were an escalation of the "Mourning Wars" that were an integral part of Iroquois culture. This view suggests that the Iroquois launched large scale attacks against neighboring tribes in order to avenge or replace the massive number of casualties resulting from smallpox epidemics or other battles. Wikipedia
  • 56. The Fall Line Tidewater
  • 57. The Fall Line Tidewater Piedmont
  • 58. The Fall Line Cities (selected) Lowell, MA Hartford, CT Bangor, ME Augusta, ME Albany, NY Washington, DC Richmond, VA Raleigh, NC Columbia,SC Augusta, GA Macon, GA Montgomery, AL Tuscaloosa, AL
  • 59. The Fall Line The Piedmont plateau served as the western limit of colonial expansion until the decade between the French and Indian Wa r a n d t h e A m e r i c a n Revolution. The colonial “back country” frontiersmen needed a century and a half to perfect the skills necessary to push over the Appalachians into the country of the Eastern Woodlands Indians. jbpThe Piedmont Plateau
  • 60. the colonial experience
  • 61. the colonial experience Jamestown Colony
  • 62. VIRGINIA BEACH, Va. (April 26, 2007) - John Smith, played by Dennis Farmer, claims the beach for England during a re- enactment ceremony on the 400th anniversary of the First Landing in the, "New World." Settlers from the ships the Godspeed, Discovery and the Susan Constant landed in Virginia Beach and stayed four days before transiting to Jamestown. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Matthew Bookwalter (RELEASED)
  • 63. “And God Gave a Fourth [Kingdom]” (the first three being England, Ireland and Scotland) early Virginia motto reflecting the colony’s significance England had come late to the colonial settlement of the New World. First permanent settlement in North America came in 1607, the Jamestown of the Virginia Company under James I Stuart. Early disasters, the “starving times,” 1609-10, the first American Indian,* or Powhatan, uprising, 1622, led to a change from a private company charter to Royal Colony status in 1624. Nevertheless, because of the turbulent domestic challenges to James and his successor, Charles I, little supervision was exercised from London for the next half century. jbp * the majority of American Indians/Native Americans believe it is acceptable to use either term, or both. Many have also suggested leaving such general terms behind in favor of specific tribal designations.--Infoplease
  • 64. 1619-The Three ‘B’s 20 Black men were purchased from a Dutch privateer sailing from Angola to Vera Cruz, Mexico. Their legal status was ‘indentured servants.’ Slavery would develop later Burgesses, the first elected representatives met in the Jamestown church jbp
  • 65. 1619-The Three ‘B’s 20 Black men were purchased from a Dutch privateer sailing from Angola to Vera Cruz, Mexico. Their legal status was ‘indentured servants.’ Slavery would develop later Burgesses, the first elected representatives met in the Jamestown church Brown “gold,” tobacco, replaced the original commercial object of the Virginia Company investors. This new addictive substance joined sugar, chocolate and coffee as the commercial cornerstones of colonialism jbp
  • 66. A Persistent A d d i c t i o n
  • 67. “Tobacco was the first of the major American staples to emerge. Imports into England rose dramatically from…” Horn, p. 283 1630 300,000 lbs. 1640 more than 1 million 1670 15 million 1700 28 million
  • 68. 1500s-The Three ‘G’s 1493-God-the pious purpose proclaimed by the Spanish wave of Conquistadors. Reflected in the division of the New World by that least pious of popes, Alexander VI jbp
  • 69. 1500s-The Three ‘G’s 1493-God-the pious purpose proclaimed by the Spanish wave of Conquistadors. Reflected in the division of the New World by that least pious of popes, Alexander VI Gold-the scramble to displace Spain became serious when regular “plate fleets” began bringing the loot of New Spain to the Mother Country and Spain became the dominant power of the 16th century jbp
  • 70. 1500s-The Three ‘G’s 1493-God-the pious purpose proclaimed by the Spanish wave of Conquistadors. Reflected in the division of the New World by that least pious of popes, Alexander VI Gold-the scramble to displace Spain became serious when regular “plate fleets” began bringing the loot of New Spain to the Mother Country and Spain became the dominant power of the 16th century Glory-such men as Cortez, Pizarro, Coronado, de Soto, jbp
  • 71. 1500s-The Three ‘G’s 1493-God-the pious purpose proclaimed by the Spanish wave of Conquistadors. Reflected in the division of the New World by that least pious of popes, Alexander VI Gold-the scramble to displace Spain became serious when regular “plate fleets” began bringing the loot of New Spain to the Mother Country and Spain became the dominant power of the 16th century Glory-such men as Cortez, Pizarro, Coronado, de Soto, Sir Francis Drake and John Smith exemplify the third motivation jbp
  • 72. New England began as the second British beachhead in 1620. There is no doubt whatsoever about the role of God in the minds of its colonists, or the role of high Anglican churchmen in “harrying the Separatists out of the Land.” The nucleus of Plimoth Plantation left Scrooby, England for the more tolerant Netherlands in 1609. When Anglican authorities followed them there to silence William Brewster in 1618 the Separatists became Pilgrims who founded the New England permanent settlements. As Spaniards, French and Virginians before them, the Puritans intended to convert the “Savages.” jbp
  • 73. New England began as the second British beachhead in 1620. There is no doubt whatsoever about the role of God in the minds of its colonists, or the role of high Anglican churchmen in “harrying the Separatists out of the Land.” The nucleus of Plimoth Plantation left Scrooby, England for the more tolerant Netherlands in 1609. When Anglican authorities followed them there to silence William Brewster in 1618 the Separatists became Pilgrims who founded the New England permanent settlements. As Spaniards, French and Virginians before them, the Puritans intended to convert the “Savages.” jbp
  • 74. Massachussetts Foundation Mythology Setting Sail from the Netherlands
  • 75. Massachussetts Foundation Mythology The Mayflower
  • 76. Massachussetts Foundation Mythology The Mayflower-cutaway
  • 77. Massachussetts Foundation Mythology Signing the Mayflower Compact
  • 78. Massachussetts Foundation Mythology Landing at Plymouth, 1620
  • 79. Massachussetts Foundation Mythology Plymouth Rock
  • 80. Massachussetts Foundation Mythology The First Thanksgiving, 1621
  • 81. Massachussetts Foundation Mythology Massachussetts Bay Colony, Governor Winthrop, 1630
  • 82. Massachussetts Foundation Mythology Roger Williams Expelled, Founds Rhode Island
  • 83. Massachussetts Foundation Mythology The Trial of Anne Hutchinson
  • 84. Massachussetts Foundation Mythology Later Waves of New England Settlement
  • 85. Overlapping Colonial Claims
  • 86. Overlapping Colonial Claims
  • 87. Charter Colonies 1639-The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut-a compact or covenant between three Massachussetts-settled towns: Hartford, Windsor, and Wethersfield It has the features of a written constitution, and is considered by some as the first written Constitution in the Western tradition-- Wikipedia 1662-Charles II granted Connecticut a Royal Charter granting self-government in domestic affairs 1688-after the Glorious Revolution Rhode Island was detached from the Dominion of New England and also given a similar Royal Charter
  • 88. Windsor Wethersfield The first written constitution that worked--1639
  • 89. Proprietary Colonies--Maryland 1629-George Calvert, 1st Lord Baltimore in the Irish House of Lords, fresh from his failure further north with Newfoundland's Avalon colony, applied to Charles I for a royal charter for what was to become the Province of Maryland April 1632- George Calvert died in April 1632, but a charter for "Maryland Colony" (in Latin, "Terra Maria") was granted to his son, Cæcilius Calvert•, 2nd Lord Baltimore, in June, 1632. The new colony may have been named in honor of Henrietta Maria of France, wife of Charles I of England
  • 90. Proprietary Colonies--Maryland 1629-George Calvert, 1st Lord Baltimore in the Irish House of Lords, fresh from his failure further north with Newfoundland's Avalon colony, applied to Charles I for a royal charter for what was to become the Province of Maryland April 1632- George Calvert died in April 1632, but a charter for "Maryland Colony" (in Latin, "Terra Maria") was granted to his son, Cæcilius Calvert•, 2nd Lord Baltimore, in June, 1632. The new colony may have been named in honor of Henrietta Maria of France, wife of Charles I of England 1649-The Calvert family, who founded Maryland partly as a refuge for English Catholics, sought enactment of the law to protect Catholic settlers and those of other religions that did not conform to the dominant Anglicanism of Britain and her colonies. This led to the Maryland Toleration Act in 1649. It was the first law ever to guarantee the right to worship regardless of denomination.--Wikipedia
  • 91. Proprietary Colonies--Carolina (Lat. Land of Charles) 1663-”Eight Noble Lords Proprietor” were given the lands between Virginia and Spanish Florida by Charles II. He named it in honor of his father
  • 92. Proprietary Colonies--Carolina (Lat. Land of Charles) 1663-”Eight Noble Lords Proprietor” were given the lands between Virginia and Spanish Florida by Charles II. He named it in honor of his father 1669-Lord Ashley (better known by his later title, Shaftesbury) was one of the favorites, so honored . His secretary, John Locke, drew up the constitution for this vast domain. He called it The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina •
  • 93. Proprietary Colonies--Carolina (Lat. Land of Charles) 1663-”Eight Noble Lords Proprietor” were given the lands between Virginia and Spanish Florida by Charles II. He named it in honor of his father 1669-Lord Ashley• (better known by his later title, Shaftesbury) was one of the favorites, so honored . His secretary, John Locke•, drew up the constitution for this vast domain. He called it The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina • like so many of the colonies, Carolina experienced political upheavals. It was divided into two Royal colonies in the early 18th century and the heirs of the Lords Proprietor lost its revenues to the Crown.
  • 94. Proprietary Colonies--Carolina (Lat. Land of Charles) 1663-”Eight Noble Lords Proprietor” were given the lands between Virginia and Spanish Florida by Charles II. He named it in honor of his father 1669-Lord Ashley• (better known by his later title, Shaftesbury) was one of the favorites, so honored . His secretary, John Locke•, drew up the constitution for this vast domain. He called it The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina • like so many of the colonies, Carolina experienced political upheavals. It was divided into two Royal colonies in the early 18th century and the heirs of the Lords Proprietor lost its revenues to the Crown.
  • 95. Proprietary Colonies--Pennsylvania 1681-William Penn, the son of Admiral William Penn, received proprietorship of over 45,000 mi2 , making him the world’s largest landowner. Both Charles II and his brother owed financial and personal debts to Penn’s father Penn (1644-1718) had grown up during the religious turmoil of the Commonwealth. He was persuaded to the new Separatist faith of George Fox. Its members called one another Friends; their critics called them Quakers The colony was to be a haven for religious minorities, much as Maryland had served for Catholics. Penn wrote its Frame of Government•. It included many enlightened innovations such as a procedure for amendment to allow for peaceful adjustment Penn is also remarkable for his treatment of the American Indians, especially the Lenape•. In a series of purchases•, he recognized their property rights. This contrasts most favorably with the genocidal policies of other colonies, especially the “Saints” of Massachussetts Bay Colony
  • 96. Proprietary Colonies--Pennsylvania 1681-William Penn, the son of Admiral William Penn, received proprietorship of over 45,000 mi2 , making him the world’s largest landowner. Both Charles II and his brother owed financial and personal debts to Penn’s father Penn (1644-1718) had grown up during the religious turmoil of the Commonwealth. He was persuaded to the new Separatist faith of George Fox. Its members called one another Friends; their critics called them Quakers The colony was to be a haven for religious minorities, much as Maryland had served for Catholics. Penn wrote its Frame of Government•. It included many enlightened innovations such as a procedure for amendment to allow for peaceful adjustment Penn is also remarkable for his treatment of the American Indians, especially the Lenape•. In a series of purchases•, he recognized their property rights. This contrasts most favorably with the genocidal policies of other colonies, especially the “Saints” of Massachussetts Bay Colony
  • 97. Three Types of Colonies in 1675 By the end of the third quarter of the seventeenth century, England had created several types of North American colonial administration. All of them, by later standards, were “hands off.” Attention of the Lords of Trade and Plantations* focused on the Sugar Islands of the Caribbean, vastly more profitable. There were the Royal Colonies, the Proprietary Colonies, and the Charter Colonies. These three forms would persist for the next century. But the atmosphere of laissez-faire was about to end. jbp * founded in 1621, it was named "The Lords of the Committee of Privy Council appointed for the consideration of all matters relating to Trade and Foreign Plantations".
  • 98. 1676; the end of American independence
  • 99. “[James II]appears in Lely’s unfinished… study of his character as the forceful and determined, haughty and stubborn, even stupid man that he was. Yet James Stuart was perhaps the bravest of English kings, certainly the best administrator, for a sovereign, since Elizabeth. Webb, p. 179
  • 100. The Anglo-Dutch Wars First War, 1652-54-Cromwell’s Commonwealth enacted the first Navigation Act, 1651, to deny its colonies trade with any other country, here the Dutch. England narrowly prevailed but both signed a peace of exhaustion Second War, 1664-67-Charles II promoted more anti-Dutch mercantilist policies which produced another contest. This one went to the Dutch--de Ruyter’s broom--Dutch naval zenith. But New York changed hands Third War, 1672-75-Charles, forced by the secret Treaty of Dover, reluctantly led his country back to war. Just as before, privateers inflicted commercial pain on both sides. When Admiral de Ruyter foiled the Anglo-French invasion, peace was restored The most purely commercial wars in history--R R Palmer, A History of the Modern World
  • 101. 1644-(age 11) created Duke of York (Eng.)and Albany (Scotland) by his father, Charles I, who was fighting for his kingdom 1649-(16)James Stuart was a refugee in the French court when his father was beheaded 1660-(27)after the Restoration, made Lord High Admiral and head of the Royal African Company. He hoped to seize possessions of the Dutch West India Company June, 1664-personally fought in the Second Anglo- Dutch War, invaded New Netherlands, gaining control by October March, 1665-(35)Charles made his brother proprietor. “New York” and “Albany” replace New Amsterdam and Fort Nassau James II and VII 1633-1644-1685-1688-1701
  • 102. “...the instrument required to curb the independence of New England….”--Webb, p. 182 Province of New York in 1665
  • 103. “The protagonists of 1676---Daniel Garacontié, the Onondaga sachem; Edmund Andros, the governor of New York; and James Stuart the duke of York and Albany and proprietor of the province---allied themselves through the agency of the Covenant Chain, thus making their linked dominions the center of empire in America. So doing, [they] [1]broke the preeminence in English America of puritan Massachussetts and planter Virginia. They [2] began to shift the focus of European attention to North America from the Caribbean. Their immediate successors opened the hundred years war with France for America, and the decisive outcomes of that enormous war made North America the lasting domain of English language and institutions. Such was the abiding strength of the Longhouse League, however, that, to this day, the Grand Council of the Iroquois still meets at Onondaga.” Steven Saunders Webb, 1676; The End of American Independence. (1995) p. xv
  • 104. born in London to a Royalist family with court connections. Military experience abroad with the Stuart refugees 1664-(age 27)served in the English army against the Dutch. Posted to Barbados in 1666 1674-(37)appointed provincial governor of New York, recently retaken in the Third Anglo-Dutch War by the Dutch and then re-retaken by England! 1675-Indian war in Massachussetts initiated by Wampanoag “King Philip” (Metacom) Andros invokes the long-standing alliance of the Covenant Chain (1613-present) which the English had renewed in 1664 Edmund Andros 1637 – 1714
  • 105. Haudenosaunee tradition also records the specific meaning of the belt as follows, in the form of a Haudenosaunee reply to the initial [1613] Dutch treaty proposal: You say that you are our Father and I am your Son We will not be like Father and Son, but like Brothers. This wampum belt confirms our words. '. Neither of us will make compulsory laws or interfere in the internal affairs of the other. Neither of us will try to steer the other's vessel. The agreement has been kept by the Iroquois to this date. The treaty is considered by Haudenosaunee people to still be in effect. Further Haudenosaunee tradition states the duration of the Two Row Wampum agreement: As long as the Sun shines upon this Earth, that is how long OUR Agreement will stand; Second, as long as the Water still flows; and Third, as long as the Grass Grows Green at a certain time of the year. Now we have Symbolized this Agreement and it shall be binding forever as long as Mother Earth is still in motion. Wikipedia The Guswhenta two-row wampum treaty belt
  • 106. “...Andros was assigned to direct traffic at the crossroads of 1676, the strategically located string of territories in which English imperialism and Iroquoian ambition became symbiotic partners.” --Webb, p. 304
  • 107. The Iroquois Strike South Like the opening break shot in pool,
  • 108. The Iroquois Strike South Like the opening break shot in pool, when the Iroquois attacked the Susquehannoks in what was soon to be Pennsylvania the Susquehannocks were driven south, and
  • 109. The Iroquois Strike South Like the opening break shot in pool, when the Iroquois attacked the Susquehannoks in what was soon to be Pennsylvania the Susquehannocks were driven south, and the smaller tribes were scattered into the Maryland and Virginia back country
  • 110. These attacks by displaced Indians, on the small proprietors of Virginia’s “back country,” were the immediate cause of what governor William Lord Berkeley called “Bacon’s Rebellion.” jbp
  • 111. Bacon’s Rebellion
  • 112. Nathaniel Bacon (29) 1647 – 26 October 1676 Cambridge, arrived VA, 1674 Sir William Berkeley (70) 1605 – 9 July 1677 Oxford, fought in the Bishops Wars VA governor, 1641-52 and 1660-77 “...through the whole Country and in every part the Rabble so threatened the better sort of people that they durst not step out of their house.” “...damne al [tax] leavies and forts and Assembles not Chosen by the People but by a few men.”
  • 113. “If the first face [long term cause] of Virginia’s revolution was a tax revolt, primarily a protest by coastal counties against a gouging government, its other aspect [immediate cause] was a military mutiny, the frontier counties’ response to antique and inequitable defense policies. The government that cannot protect its people cannot command their obedience. Berkeley’s government could not protect Virginians in 1676 so they overthrew it.” Webb, p. 21
  • 114. “Now mark the late tragedy: Old Governor Barkly, Altered by marrying a young wyff, from his wanted publicq good, to a covetous fools-age, relished Indians presents, with som that hath a like feelinge, so wel, that many Christians Blood is pukkuted up, with other mischievs, in so much that his lady tould that it would bee the overthrow of the Country.” Frances Culpeper Stephens Berkeley (1634-1695) quoted in Webb, p.71
  • 115. The Burning of Jamestown, by Howard Pyle, ca. 1905
  • 116. A way of life, autonomous, colonial...traditional was sacrificed in the fires of Jamestown. The town itself, the assembly system...the capital of a colony dependent on England only economically, a life redolent of the more backward shires of England before the mother country’s own civil war and revolution, all burned and passed away on 20 September 1676. Now the horrors of Leviathan’s century had crossed the Atlantic to Virginia, destroying, transforming, modernizing. (cont.) Webb, op. cit. p. 65
  • 117. modernizing. (cont.) The siege of the Old Dominion’s capital---in which revolutionaries exposed gentlewomen and threatened race war, in which reaction so overwhelmed Sir William Berkeley, the personification of the old order, that he killed prisoners of war for their political opinions and social ambitions---had broken the bonds of wrath.” Ibid.
  • 118. As Bacon’s revolution seemed to be successful in Virginia, Protestant frontiersmen in Maryland looked to join them. They too were experiencing Indian attacks backed by Catholic France. They blamed their Catholic Calvert proprietor’s regime for preferring the fur trade to frontier defense, just as Bacon’s army had blamed Berkeley and the tidewater oligarchs. jbp
  • 119. “It was to the governor-general of New York, therefore, that the anti-proprietary Marylanders of 1676 looked for protection….Commander of the one colony that bordered both on the Iroquoian heartland and on the French province, Edmund Andros provided...an attractive contrast….[He] was a soldier of the king, not a trader in furs. Distinguished for his Protestantism and his service with the Dutch army...Major Andros was an established diplomatic and military intermediary with the Iroquois….” Webb, p. 78
  • 120. “This state had not existed when, in 1641, on the eve of the civil wars and revolution which cast the British kingdom into the maw of the Leviathan, Berkeley had begun his first term in command of Virginia. Out of the war and revolution first the national state had emerged in England. Then the imperial state had engorged all Britain, then Barbados, Jamaica, Tangier, New York. It had at last arrived in Virginia, despite Sir Wm Berkeley’s long resistance,…[his neglect of] the paperwork of modern government pressed on his regime from England…. ...These orders were inimical not only to Berkeleyan rule but also to American independence.” Webb, p. 129 The modernized English state
  • 121. The final southern event which ended American “Independence” in 1676 was the expeditionary force sent to both put down Bacon’s rebellion and replace Berkeley’s unjust, inefficient, autonomous regime. It included a naval squadron, a regiment of Scottish regulars, and three Royal Commissioners “for settling the Grievances and Other Affairs of Virginia.” jbp
  • 122. Puritan land grabs and genocides such as the Pequot War, 1634-38•, jbp King Philip’s War “...the greatest Indian war in American history, the enormous Algonquin uprising of 1675-76.”--Webb, p. 353
  • 123. Puritan land grabs and genocides such as the Pequot War, 1634-38•, finally bore bitter fruit. The Wampanoag People• jbp King Philip’s War “...the greatest Indian war in American history, the enormous Algonquin uprising of 1675-76.”--Webb, p. 353
  • 124. Puritan land grabs and genocides such as the Pequot War, 1634-38•, finally bore bitter fruit. The Wampanoag People• took a terrible revenge which broke New England’s independence as effectively as Bacon’s revolution had ended that of the Chesapeake Bay plantations. jbp King Philip’s War “...the greatest Indian war in American history, the enormous Algonquin uprising of 1675-76.”--Webb, p. 353
  • 125. The New England lands were finally successful in putting down the Indian uprising. It had required the diplomacy of New York’s governor Andros and military intervention by the Mohawks,“keepers of the eastern door” of the Iroquoian “longhouse.” The devastation invited “reconstruction” by the imperial government of the Mother Country. jbp
  • 126. “Per-capita incomes in New England did not recover their 1675 level until 1775…. ...although the starving Algonquin were undoubtedly subdued “& become more slaves yn formerly” to the New Englanders, “the warr hath been very Bloudy, there having been 17 townes or Villages destroyed by the Indians & as neare as they can compute it about 2500 men women and children killed….” The dead left a living legacy of hatred behind them. As the descendants of the survivors of the Indian war of 1676 in Massachussetts and Virginia became the leaders of American opinion, the image of the Indian savage which this year’s conflict confirmed became a racist stereotype.” Webb, p. 243 The Cost of King Philip’s War
  • 127. the road to 1776
  • 128. the road to 1776 Independence Hall site of the Declaration of Independence
  • 129. Dominion of New England-1686-1689
  • 130. June, 1684-Massachussetts’ charter was revoked in punishment for trading outside the empire. Both King Charles and his brother were determined to bring the North American colonies under tighter control 1685-a centralized administration was created out of the colonies from the New Jerseys to Maine (then a province of Mass.). It ran from the Delaware River to the Bay of Fundy. The goal was to bring the rebellious divines of “Boston” to heel, to end their discrimination against non-Puritans, but especially to enforce the trade legislation Dominion of New England-1686-1689
  • 131. June, 1684-Massachussetts’ charter was revoked in punishment for trading outside the empire. Both King Charles and his brother were determined to bring the North American colonies under tighter control 1685-a centralized administration was created out of the colonies from the New Jerseys to Maine (then a province of Mass.). It ran from the Delaware River to the Bay of Fundy. The goal was to bring the rebellious divines of “Boston” to heel, to end their discrimination against non-Puritans, but especially to enforce the trade legislation Dominion of New England-1686-1689
  • 132. June, 1684-Massachussetts’ charter was revoked in punishment for trading outside the empire. Both King Charles and his brother were determined to bring the North American colonies under tighter control 1685-a centralized administration was created out of the colonies from the New Jerseys to Maine (then a province of Mass.). It ran from the Delaware River to the Bay of Fundy. The goal was to bring the rebellious divines of “Boston” to heel, to end their discrimination against non-Puritans, but especially to enforce the trade legislation This far flung entity presented an impossible communications challenge. Roads were primitive or non-existent.Coastal and riverine transportation was dependent on weather in the age of sail 20 December 1686- New York governor Edmund Andros was made governor of the Dominion and began a ruthless administration which provoked widespread push back Dominion of New England-1686-1689
  • 133. Andros took a hard-line position to the effect that the colonists had left behind all their rights as Englishmen when they left England. When in 1687 the Reverend John Wise rallied his parishioners to protest and resistant taxes, Andros had him arrested, convicted and fined. As an Andros official explained, "Mr. Wise, you have no more privileges Left you than not to be Sold for Slaves." Wikipedia
  • 134. 20 December 1686- New York governor Edmund Andros was made governor and began a ruthless administration which provoked widespread push back 1688-under French provocation “their” Indians attacked pro-British Indians, the Seneca, bound by the Covenant Chain of 1677. Andros led the military response 1689-when word of the Glorious Revolution reached the Dominion Andros was overthrown in Boston, his lieutenant governor Leister in New York Dominion of New England-1686-1689
  • 135. Mercantilism-- imperialism + capitalism = mercantilism--Webb The famous 18th century triangular trade
  • 136. bullionism wealth = power = a nation’s Au + Ag (precious metals, called specie or “hard money”-- 16th century Spain, the “proof” accumulation occurs when trade balance is favorable, i.e., exports > imports colonialism source of raw materials and markets for manufactures trade restrictions trade only with the Mother Country. Begun under Queen Elizabeth, the first so-called Navigation Act under Cromwell, 1651 Mercantilism-- imperialism + capitalism = mercantilism--Webb
  • 137. The Great War for the Empire-Lawrence Henry Gipson
  • 138. YEARS OF WAR NORTH AMERICA EUROPE TREATY 1688-1697 King William’s War War of the Grand Alliance War of the League of Augsburg Ryswick 1702-1713 Queen Anne’s War War of the Spanish Succession Utrecht 1744-1748 King George’s War War of the Austrian Succession Aix-la- Chapelle 1754-1763 French and Indian War (F & I) Seven Years War Paris The Great War for the Empire-Lawrence Henry Gipson
  • 139. At the start of Queen Anne’s War, 1702
  • 140. “Let sleeping dogs lie!”-Sir Robert Walpole In 1733 the Opposition in the House of Commons proposed taxing the American colonies to ease Britain’s war debt. The man generally regarded as “the first Prime Minister,” Sir Robert Walpole opposed this. Another of his reported truisms was “Don’t kill the goose which lays the golden eggs!” If this wise advice had continued to be followed things might have turned out differently...
  • 141. Britain Tightens Control of Her North American Colonies In addition to the issue of “taxation without representation,” Britain’s Royal Governors had unprecedented authority to apply pressure to the colonists. Most colonies had a two-chambered, or bicameral, legislature. The upper chamber, the governor’s Council, was appointive. So it, along with the veto power, served as a brake on the lower house--House of Delegates, House of Burgesses, Assembly of Freemen. These popular bodies were elected by propertied citizens of the towns or counties, usually for one year sessions. The similarity to Britain’s Crown, Lords and Commons was intentional. Just as in England, resistance to royal absolutism was centered in the lower house. jbp
  • 142. Royal Governors vs Popular Assemblies “The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations...
  • 143. “He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance... “He has refused to pass other Laws...unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only. “He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. “He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people. “He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining for the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within. “The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations...
  • 144. At the start of the F & I War, 1754
  • 145. The Great War Changed Everything it laid the foundation for the British Raj in India
  • 146. Lord Clive meeting with Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey, oil on canvas (Francis Hayman, c. 1762)
  • 147. The Great War Changed Everything it laid the foundation for the British Raj in India it expelled the French from North America
  • 148. The Death of General Wolfe is a well-known 1770 painting by Anglo-American artist Benjamin West depicting the death of British General James Wolfe during the 1759 Battle of Quebec of the Seven Years' War.
  • 149. The Great War Changed Everything it laid the foundation for the British Raj in India it expelled the French from North America it created the largest Crown debt in history
  • 150. The Great War Changed Everything it laid the foundation for the British Raj in India it expelled the French from North America it created the largest Crown debt in history American Indian unrest produced a new policy, the Proclamation Line of 1763
  • 151. The Great War Changed Everything it laid the foundation for the British Raj in India it expelled the French from North America it created the largest Crown debt in history American Indian unrest produced a new policy, the Proclamation Line of 1763 simultaneously Britain embarked on the course of empire and the path which would deprive her of what could have been its crown jewel
  • 152. 1763-1775-The Three ‘T’s Taxes-beginning with the Sugar Act, 1764. Justified as repayment to Britain for the cost (£ 146 million) of the F & I War & Pontiac’s rebellion 1765-the Stamp Act produced such a tremendous negative reaction that it was quickly withdrawn jbp
  • 153. 1763-1775-The Three ‘T’s Taxes-beginning with the Sugar Act, 1764. Justified as repayment to Britain for the cost (£ 146 million) of the F & I War & Pontiac’s rebellion 1765-the Stamp Act produced such a tremendous negative reaction that it was quickly withdrawn 1767-but the Townshend Acts, another tax, showed that the lesson hadn’t been learned jbp
  • 154. 1763-1775-The Three ‘T’s Taxes-beginning with the Sugar Act, 1764. Justified as repayment to Britain for the cost (£ 146 million) of the F & I War & Pontiac’s rebellion 1765-the Stamp Act produced such a tremendous negative reaction that it was quickly withdrawn 1767-but the Townshend Acts, another tax, showed that the lesson hadn’t been learned Troops-sent not to the frontier but the colonial ports to insure collection of the Townshend duties, 1767 jbp
  • 155. jbp 5 March 1770
  • 156. “He has erected a multitude of New Offices and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people, and eat out their substance….”-- Action of the Second Continental Congress, July 4, 1776 1768-a new position was created, Colonial Secretary, to deal with the increasing difficulties more troops were sent to protect the governors, their councils and leading Loyalists (“Tories”) revenue collectors were increased to combat notorious smugglers like Massachussetts’ John Hancock, the richest merchant in America 1772-the revenue schooner, HMS Gaspée, ran aground chasing a smuggler. She was boarded, looted and torched
  • 157. “He has erected a multitude of New Offices and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people, and eat out their substance….”-- Action of the Second Continental Congress, July 4, 1776 1768-a new position was created, Colonial Secretary, to deal with the increasing difficulties more troops were sent to protect the governors, their councils and leading Loyalists (“Tories”) revenue collectors were increased to combat notorious smugglers like Massachussetts’ John Hancock, the richest merchant in America 1772-the revenue schooner, HMS Gaspée, ran aground chasing a smuggler. She was boarded, looted and torched this was in part “payback” for the “Boston massacre”
  • 158. 1763-1775-The Three ‘T’s Taxes-beginning with the Sugar Act, 1764. Justified as repayment to Britain for the cost (£ 146 million) of the F & I War & Pontiac’s rebellion Troops-sent not to the frontier but the colonial ports to insure collection of the Townshend duties, 1767 Tea-1773, the Tea Act restated the most profitable of the Townshend taxes. It led that December to the Boston Tea Party•, jbp
  • 159. 1763-1775-The Three ‘T’s Taxes-beginning with the Sugar Act, 1764. Justified as repayment to Britain for the cost (£ 146 million) of the F & I War & Pontiac’s rebellion Troops-sent not to the frontier but the colonial ports to insure collection of the Townshend duties, 1767 Tea-1773, the Tea Act restated the most profitable of the Townshend taxes. It led that December to the Boston Tea Party•, the Boston Port Bill (Intolerable Acts)1774•, &c., &c. jbp
  • 160. 1763-1775-The Three ‘T’s Taxes-beginning with the Sugar Act, 1764. Justified as repayment to Britain for the cost (£ 146 million) of the F & I War & Pontiac’s rebellion Troops-sent not to the frontier but the colonial ports to insure collection of the Townshend duties, 1767 Tea-1773, the Tea Act restated the most profitable of the Townshend taxes. It led that December to the Boston Tea Party•, the Boston Port Bill (Intolerable Acts)1774•, &c., &c. jbp
  • 161. 1940s illustration
  • 162. Listen, my children, and you shall hear Of the midnight ride of Paul Revere, On the eighteenth of April, in Seventy-Five: Hardly a man is now alive Who remembers that famous day and year. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, in The Atlantic, 1861
  • 163. By the rude bridge that arched the flood, Their flag to April's breeze unfurled, Here once the embattled farmers stood And fired the shot heard round the world. Ralph Waldo Emerson, Concord Hymn, 4 July 1837
  • 164. Give me liberty or give me death!
  • 165. Give me liberty or give me death! It is in vain, sir, to extenuate the matter. Gentlemen may cry, Peace, Peace – but there is no peace. The war is actually begun! The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death! Patrick Henry, 1775
  • 166. A National Park Service Ranger describes Independence Hall's Assembly Room, in which both the Declaration of Independence and Constitution were drafted and signed.
  • 167. the state constitutions
  • 168. 1736-(10)his planter father died. He grew up, largely self-educated from his maternal uncle’s library 1754-(28)justice of the Fairfax County court
  • 169. 1755-1759-Mason built this home, Gunston Hall, for his new family overlooking the Potomac River, it was the center of his 5,500 acre plantation
  • 170. 1736-(10)his planter father died. He grew up, largely self-educated from his maternal uncle’s library 1754-(28)justice of the Fairfax County court 1759-elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses 1776-(50)served in the Virginia Convention, a revolutionary provisional government here he was prominent in drafting the state constitution and bill of rights
  • 171. preparation of the first Virginia Constitution began in early 1776, in the midst of the initial events of the American Revolution. The final version was adopted on the eve of the colony-wide declaration of independence its principal authors were James Madison and George Mason. Jefferson was away in Philadelphia and his draft arrived too late for consideration like similar efforts in all the other colonies (now states), it began with condemnation of royal government and emphasized legislative (representative, popular) power over executive. The royal governors had tainted executive power in the eyes of the Founders. They equated it with tyranny the Virginia Declaration of Rights, Mason’s special contribution, checked all governmental power. It was another reflection on how the last century of British “tyranny” had disposed the “Patriots” towards limited government Virginia State Constitution 29 June 1776
  • 172. preparation of the first Virginia Constitution began in early 1776... its principal authors were ... like similar efforts in all the other colonies ... the Virginia Declaration of Rights … it, in turn, served as a model for several other historic documents, especially the U.S. Bill of Rights critically, the 1776 Constitution limited the right to vote primarily to property owners and men of wealth. This effectively concentrated power in the hands of the landowners and aristocracy of Southeastern Virginia. Dissatisfaction with this power structure would come to dominate Virginia's constitutional debate for almost a century Virginia State Constitution 29 June 1776
  • 173. States as “laboratories of democracy”- US Supreme Court Justice, Louis Brandeis During that first discouraging year of war with the world’s greatest military power, eleven of the colonies would try their hand at framing new “social contracts.” The two charter colonies, Connecticut and Rhode Island, felt no such need then. This experience would prepare many of the men who would meet a decade later to create the “Miracle at Philadelphia.”
  • 174. States as “laboratories of democracy”- US Supreme Court Justice, Louis Brandeis During that first discouraging year of war with the world’s greatest military power, eleven of the colonies would try their hand at framing new “social contracts.” The two charter colonies, Connecticut and Rhode Island, felt no such need then. This experience would prepare many of the men who would meet a decade later to create the “Miracle at Philadelphia.” But that’s another story...