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The Russian Revolution
                             1815-1924
                                 Session III
              T...
Major Topics

         I.Economic Developments

           Economic Theory

           The Industrial Revolution

        ...
Economic Developments




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Economic Developments

                              “Puffing Billy”
                                       1813
           ...
Review of Economics




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Review of Economics




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Walt Whitman Rostow
                                    1916-2003


Tuesday, September 29, 2009
WW Rostow, The Stages of Economic
              Growth; A Non-Communist Manifesto.1960




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
WW Rostow, The Stages of Economic
              Growth; A Non-Communist Manifesto.1960

                              The ...
WW Rostow, The Stages of Economic
              Growth; A Non-Communist Manifesto.1960

                              The ...
WW Rostow, The Stages of Economic
              Growth; A Non-Communist Manifesto.1960

                              The ...
WW Rostow, The Stages of Economic
              Growth; A Non-Communist Manifesto.1960

                              The ...
WW Rostow, The Stages of Economic
              Growth; A Non-Communist Manifesto.1960

                              The ...
Russia’s First Four Stages


                                                domestic product

                  50


    ...
Russia’s First Four Stages


                                                     domestic product

                  50

...
Russia’s First Four Stages


                                                     domestic product

                  50

...
Russia’s First Four Stages


                                                     domestic product

                  50

...
Russia’s First Four Stages


                                                     domestic product

                  50

...
Economically--Two Europes




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Economically--Two Europes




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Russia and Britain, 1830-1890


                                 Russian GNP          British GNP


                  30

...
Russia and Britain, 1830-1890


                                 Russian GNP          British GNP


                  30

...
Panics and Boom Times




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Panics and Boom Times

                                            • during the nineteenth century the global
            ...
Panics and Boom Times

                                            • during the nineteenth century the global
            ...
Panics and Boom Times

                                            • during the nineteenth century the global
            ...
The Industrial Revolution




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
The Industrial Revolution




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Tuesday, September 29, 2009
A word about the term “industrial revolution.” Economic
          historians have rebelled at it. They emphasize the lengt...
Rostow’s Stages 3-5; Britain vs Russia


   Britain


    Russia




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Rostow’s Stages 3-5; Britain vs Russia


   Britain


    Russia




    Stage 3- Take-off          1783-1802 (19 years)   ...
Britain vs Russia




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Britain vs Russia
      Private Enterprise
      Consumer & Heavy
           Industry
        18th & early 19th c.s
      ...
Britain vs Russia
      Private Enterprise                                   Government
      Consumer & Heavy            ...
government and industrialization:
                             subsidies and tariffs
      • List’s “National System” had b...
The Early Economists


               Adam Smith
                    1723-1790
            The Wealth of Nations, 1776



...
The Early Economists




            Thomas Robert
               Malthus
                    1766-1834
       Essay on th...
The Early Economists




             David Ricardo
                    1772-1823
          Principles of Political Econom...
Early Socialists-Marx’s “Utopians”

                                                Robert Owen
                          ...
Early Socialists-Marx’s “Utopians”




                                            Count de Saint-Simon
                  ...
Early Socialists-Marx’s “Utopians”




                                               Charles Fourier
                    ...
Characteristics of the Second Industrial
                            Revolution




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Characteristics of the Second Industrial
                            Revolution


                              The Krupp ...
Steel production--post 1850’s




               Sir Henry Bessemer (1813-1898)      Sir William Siemens
                 ...
Ernst Werner von
            Siemens
                        (1816-1892)


            founder of Siemens A. G.
         f...
communication--telegraphy, 1842




                                 telegraph lines in 1891
Tuesday, September 29, 2009
communication--telephony, 1870s

                                                    Alexander
                           ...
communication--telephony, 1870s

                                                                                Alexander...
Technical Education




             Science room at the Technical School, Finsbury, London, 1884

Tuesday, September 29, ...
communication--print technology




                              The Miehle P.P. & Mfg. Co., 1905
Tuesday, September 29, ...
Chemical industry
     BASF - Badische Analin und
         Soda-Fabrik, 1865                  • by 1900, Germany dominated...
The internal combustion engine



       • 1860-a Belgian, Lenoir, produced
          the first gasoline internal
         ...
Business Combinations: Trusts and Cartels




           The Match Trust




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Business Combinations: Trusts and Cartels


                                              • survivors of capitalism’s earl...
Business Combinations: Trusts and Cartels


                                              • survivors of capitalism’s earl...
Business Combinations: Trusts and Cartels


                                              • survivors of capitalism’s earl...
Business Combinations: Trusts and Cartels


                                              • survivors of capitalism’s earl...
Business Combinations: Trusts and Cartels


                                              • survivors of capitalism’s earl...
Business Combinations: Trusts and Cartels


                                              • survivors of capitalism’s earl...
Business Combinations: Trusts and Cartels


                                              • survivors of capitalism’s earl...
Monopoly--Negative or Positive?


     • trusts and cartels were unpopular because they were often exploitative
        an...
Types of Capitalists




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Types of Capitalists

     • industrial capitalists
           •   factory owners: Robert Owen, Friedrich Engels, Alfred K...
Types of Capitalists

     • industrial capitalists
           •   factory owners: Robert Owen, Friedrich Engels, Alfred K...
Types of Capitalists

     • industrial capitalists
           •   factory owners: Robert Owen, Friedrich Engels, Alfred K...
Types of Capitalists

     • industrial capitalists
           •   factory owners: Robert Owen, Friedrich Engels, Alfred K...
Azovsko-Donskoy Bank
       • 1871-opened in Taganrog for
         financing trade and granting loans

       • mid 1880s-l...
European Bourses-Stock Exchanges




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
European Bourses-Stock Exchanges




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
European Bourses-Stock Exchanges




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
European Bourses-Stock Exchanges




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
European Bourses-Stock Exchanges




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
The Labor Movement:
                             Trade Unions

                              Tolpuddle Martyrs
           ...
classic tensions




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
classic tensions
                              Direct Action vs political work
                              (strikes, sab...
classic tensions
                              Direct Action vs political work
                              (strikes, sab...
classic tensions
                              Direct Action vs political work
                              (strikes, sab...
classic tensions
                              Direct Action vs political work
                              (strikes, sab...
Challenges




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Challenges




                                The “Peterloo Massacre”
                              the Duke of Wellingto...
gradual legalization of unions




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
gradual legalization of unions
    • after 1815, all public assemblies were suspected of revolutionary
       tendencies a...
gradual legalization of unions
    • after 1815, all public assemblies were suspected of revolutionary
       tendencies a...
gradual legalization of unions
    • after 1815, all public assemblies were suspected of revolutionary
       tendencies a...
gradual legalization of unions
    • after 1815, all public assemblies were suspected of revolutionary
       tendencies a...
gradual legalization of unions
    • after 1815, all public assemblies were suspected of revolutionary
       tendencies a...
gradual legalization of unions
    • after 1815, all public assemblies were suspected of revolutionary
       tendencies a...
Tolpuddle, Then & Now




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Tolpuddle, Then & Now




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Tolpuddle, Then & Now




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Tolpuddle, Then & Now




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
unions increase in size and militancy




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
unions increase in size and militancy

          originally unions were benevolent societies, small in membership,
       ...
unions increase in size and militancy

          originally unions were benevolent societies, small in membership,
       ...
unions increase in size and militancy

          originally unions were benevolent societies, small in membership,
       ...
unions increase in size and militancy

          originally unions were benevolent societies, small in membership,
       ...
unions increase in size and militancy

          originally unions were benevolent societies, small in membership,
       ...
unions increase in size and militancy

          originally unions were benevolent societies, small in membership,
       ...
unions increase in size and militancy

          originally unions were benevolent societies, small in membership,
       ...
Unions and Political Parties




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Unions form political parties




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Unions form political parties

     • as representative government spread from west to east, the newly legal
        union...
Unions form political parties

     • as representative government spread from west to east, the newly legal
        union...
Unions form political parties

     • as representative government spread from west to east, the newly legal
        union...
Unions form political parties

     • as representative government spread from west to east, the newly legal
        union...
Unions form political parties

     • as representative government spread from west to east, the newly legal
        union...
Unions form political parties

     • as representative government spread from west to east, the newly legal
        union...
Unions form political parties

     • as representative government spread from west to east, the newly legal
        union...
A Philosophy for Labor:
                            Karl Marx




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
A Philosophy for Labor:
                            Karl Marx

                              1818-1883




Tuesday, Septem...
Tuesday, September 29, 2009
[Marx’s] prominence among socialists was
     largely the result of the increasing respect felt for
     The Communist Man...
Marx, the Man




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
the early years, 1818-1843




                                     Marx’s Geburtshaus, Trier, Rhenish Prussia

Tuesday, S...
the early years, 1818-1843
           born into a bourgeois family, the third of
           seven children




           ...
the early years, 1818-1843
           born into a bourgeois family, the third of
           seven children

           182...
the early years, 1818-1843
           born into a bourgeois family, the third of
           seven children

           182...
the early years, 1818-1843
           born into a bourgeois family, the third of
           seven children

           182...
the early years, 1818-1843
           born into a bourgeois family, the third of
           seven children

           182...
the early years, 1818-1843
           born into a bourgeois family, the third of
           seven children

           182...
marriage
           1837, against the wishes of Marx’s
           parents, Karl (19) and Jenny (23)
           became enga...
political refugee, 1843-50




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
political refugee, 1843-50
           he met his lifelong collaborator, Engels, in
           Paris, 1844


           bot...
the famous
              collaboration
                  begins
              their first joint work,
                   a ...
against the “Young Hegelians”




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
against the “Young Hegelians”

                                                The holy family
                           ...
The Unholy Family




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
The Unholy Family




                                                  Helena Delmuth




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
family and later life




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
family and later life
           after the failure of 1848, the Marx family returned
           to London




            ...
family and later life
           after the failure of 1848, the Marx family returned
           to London


           the...
family and later life
           after the failure of 1848, the Marx family returned
           to London


           the...
family and later life
           after the failure of 1848, the Marx family returned
           to London


           the...
family and later life
           after the failure of 1848, the Marx family returned
           to London


           the...
family and later life
           after the failure of 1848, the Marx family returned
           to London


           the...
family and later life
           after the failure of 1848, the Marx family returned
           to London


           the...
1871-Great Hopes for the Paris Commune
        • following the French defeat, Paris
          radicals rebelled against th...
“The Young Marx”




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
“The Young Marx”

                                A 20th century,
                                post-Stalinist,
        ...
“Re-branding” a failed ideology




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
“Re-branding” a failed ideology

     • the 1960s--the New Left of Europe and the U.S. faced a huge problem




Tuesday, S...
“Re-branding” a failed ideology

     • the 1960s--the New Left of Europe and the U.S. faced a huge problem
     • Marxism...
“Re-branding” a failed ideology

     • the 1960s--the New Left of Europe and the U.S. faced a huge problem
     • Marxism...
“Re-branding” a failed ideology

     • the 1960s--the New Left of Europe and the U.S. faced a huge problem
     • Marxism...
“Re-branding” a failed ideology

     • the 1960s--the New Left of Europe and the U.S. faced a huge problem
     • Marxism...
“Re-branding” a failed ideology

     • the 1960s--the New Left of Europe and the U.S. faced a huge problem
     • Marxism...
Ideas of the “Young Marx”

     • his admirersand “communitarian”
       humanistic
                    believe they are m...
The 18th Brumaire of Louis Napoleon (1852)




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
The 18th Brumaire of Louis Napoleon (1852)




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
The 18th Brumaire of Louis Napoleon (1852)
                              • Marx wrote this mocking pamphlet after
        ...
The 18th Brumaire of Louis Napoleon (1852)
                              • Marx wrote this mocking pamphlet after
        ...
The 18th Brumaire of Louis Napoleon (1852)
                              • Marx wrote this mocking pamphlet after
        ...
The 18th Brumaire of Louis Napoleon (1852)
                              • Marx wrote this mocking pamphlet after
        ...
Marxism




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
WORKERS OF EVERY LAND UNITE
                    HAIL THE INTERNATIONAL WORKERS ARMY




                                  ...
The Materialistic Interpretation of History




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
“We found Hegel standing on his head…”

        • the materialistic interpretation of
          history reverses Hegelian ...
Dialectics

                                • the term originated with the Greek
                                 philosop...
The Class Struggle




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
The Class Struggle
        The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of
        class struggles. (page 1...
The Class Struggle
        The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of
        class struggles. (page 1...
The Class Struggle
        The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of
        class struggles. (page 1...
The Four Epochs




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
The Four Epochs
                                  • PRE-CLASSICAL
                                    •   THESIS = OPPRESS...
The Four Epochs
                                  • PRE-CLASSICAL
                                    •   THESIS = OPPRESS...
The Four Epochs
                                  • PRE-CLASSICAL
                                    •   THESIS = OPPRESS...
The Four Epochs
                                  • PRE-CLASSICAL
                                    •   THESIS = OPPRESS...
“The bourgeoisie are preparing their own gravediggers”
                                                      Marx & Engels...
Marx’s Critique of the Gotha Program, 1875

                                   • 1891--not published until long after Marx...
Marxism Comes to Russia




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Marxism Comes to Russia



                                     Georgi Valentinovich
                                     ...
Kazan Cathedral, Skt-Peterburg
                              from a 19th century postcard


Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Russia’s First Political Demonstration
                               December 6, 1876




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Russia’s First Political Demonstration
                                 December 6, 1876



     • organized and conducted...
Russia’s First Political Demonstration
                                 December 6, 1876



     • organized and conducted...
Russia’s First Political Demonstration
                                  December 6, 1876



     • organized and conducte...
Russia’s First Political Demonstration
                                    December 6, 1876



     • organized and conduc...
Russia’s First Political Demonstration
                                    December 6, 1876



     • organized and conduc...
Russia’s First Political Demonstration
                                    December 6, 1876



     • organized and conduc...
The Father of Russian Marxism
        • switched from a military college to a mining
          institute. dropped after tw...
Russian Social Democratic Labor Party

                                       • created to oppose narodnichestvo, the
    ...
The Development of
                                   Socialism




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
The Development of
                                   Socialism
                                     Socialist band
      ...
The First Workingman’s International,
                             1864-1876




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
The First Workingman’s International,
                             1864-1876




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
International Workingmen’s Association (1864-1876)
  • Marx gave the inaugural address and
    statement of principles in ...
The Internationale




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
The Internationale
                                  •   June,1871-the original lyrics were composed by Eugene Pottier, a
...
Bakunin addressing a meeting of the
                          IWA in Basel, 1869

Tuesday, September 29, 2009
How Ukrainian students learned this material in 1972




                                                         a page f...
How Ukrainian students learned this material in 1972

       • Oct-Dec, 1972--I was an exchange
          teacher in the U...
How Ukrainian students learned this material in 1972

       • Oct-Dec, 1972--I was an exchange
          teacher in the U...
How Ukrainian students learned this material in 1972

       • Oct-Dec, 1972--I was an exchange
          teacher in the U...
How Ukrainian students learned this material in 1972

       • Oct-Dec, 1972--I was an exchange
          teacher in the U...
How Ukrainian students learned this material in 1972

       • Oct-Dec, 1972--I was an exchange
          teacher in the U...
Anarchism




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Anarchism




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (1814-1876)
                                • noble birth, a junior officer in the army,
     ...
Anarchism in the late 19th century

      the first self-proclaimed anarchist was Pierre
      Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865)....
Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Marx versus Bakunin

          each detested the other personally




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Marx versus Bakunin

          each detested the other personally

          Bakunin hated Marx’s authoritarianism




Tue...
Marx versus Bakunin

          each detested the other personally

          Bakunin hated Marx’s authoritarianism

      ...
Marx versus Bakunin

          each detested the other personally

          Bakunin hated Marx’s authoritarianism

      ...
Marx versus Bakunin

          each detested the other personally

          Bakunin hated Marx’s authoritarianism

      ...
Marx versus Bakunin

          each detested the other personally

          Bakunin hated Marx’s authoritarianism

      ...
Anarchism after the First International
        1873, expulsion from the First International, engineered by Marx:

       ...
Syndicalism




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Syndicalism




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Georges Sorel (1847-1922) • French Syndicalist founder
      bourgeois, engineer graduate of the Ecole
      Polytechnique...
Revisionism




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Revisionism




Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Tuesday, September 29, 2009
Despite the anarcho-syndicalist preference for direct
      action as opposed to political maneuver, the main
      tenden...
the revisionist controversy

          for some time leading socialist and trade union leaders had been
          uneasy
 ...
Eduard Bernstein (1850-1932) German social democratic politician,
                 SPD member, founder of evolutionary soc...
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
Russian Revolution; Economic Background
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Russian Revolution; Economic Background

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Third presentation on the Russian Revolution examining the Industrial Revolution, Capitalism, and the spread of socialism

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Transcript of "Russian Revolution; Economic Background"

  1. 1. The Russian Revolution 1815-1924 Session III The Industrial Revolution, Evolution of Capitalism & Spread of Socialism, 1801-1914 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  2. 2. Major Topics I.Economic Developments Economic Theory The Industrial Revolution II.The Labor Movement:Trade Unions III.A Philosophy for Labor: Karl Marx IV. The Development of Socialism The First International Anarchism, Syndicalism, and Revisionism The Second International Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  3. 3. Economic Developments Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  4. 4. Economic Developments “Puffing Billy” 1813 for Wylam Colliery near Newcastle upon Tyne (not retired until 1862) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  5. 5. Review of Economics Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  6. 6. Review of Economics Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  7. 7. Walt Whitman Rostow 1916-2003 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  8. 8. WW Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth; A Non-Communist Manifesto.1960 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  9. 9. WW Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth; A Non-Communist Manifesto.1960 The Five Stages 1. Traditional Societies Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  10. 10. WW Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth; A Non-Communist Manifesto.1960 The Five Stages 1. Traditional Societies 2. Pre-conditions to Take-off Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  11. 11. WW Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth; A Non-Communist Manifesto.1960 The Five Stages 1. Traditional Societies 2. Pre-conditions to Take-off 3. Take-off Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  12. 12. WW Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth; A Non-Communist Manifesto.1960 The Five Stages 1. Traditional Societies 2. Pre-conditions to Take-off 3. Take-off 4. Drive to Maturity Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  13. 13. WW Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth; A Non-Communist Manifesto.1960 The Five Stages 1. Traditional Societies 2. Pre-conditions to Take-off 3. Take-off 4. Drive to Maturity 5. Age of High Mass Consumption Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  14. 14. Russia’s First Four Stages domestic product 50 37.5 25 12.5 0 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  15. 15. Russia’s First Four Stages domestic product 50 37.5 25 12.5 0 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 | traditional society | … to Peter’s reforms Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  16. 16. Russia’s First Four Stages domestic product 50 37.5 25 12.5 0 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 | traditional society | | pre-conditions to take-off | … to Peter’s reforms 1700-1885 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  17. 17. Russia’s First Four Stages domestic product 50 37.5 25 12.5 0 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 | traditional society | | pre-conditions to take-off | | take-off| … to Peter’s reforms 1700-1885 1885-1900 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  18. 18. Russia’s First Four Stages domestic product 50 37.5 25 12.5 0 1500 1550 1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 | drive to | traditional society | | pre-conditions to take-off | | take-off| maturity | … to Peter’s reforms 1700-1885 1885-1900 1900-1980 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  19. 19. Economically--Two Europes Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  20. 20. Economically--Two Europes Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  21. 21. Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  22. 22. Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  23. 23. Russia and Britain, 1830-1890 Russian GNP British GNP 30 22.5 15 7.5 0 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  24. 24. Russia and Britain, 1830-1890 Russian GNP British GNP 30 22.5 15 7.5 0 1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 | the Long Depression | 1873--------------------1896 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  25. 25. Panics and Boom Times Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  26. 26. Panics and Boom Times • during the nineteenth century the global economy became more and more integrated capitalism...is engaged perpetually in a process of creative destruction … it uses up its old forms and creates new ones… inevitably accompanied by a high degree of social hardship Joseph Schumpeter Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  27. 27. Panics and Boom Times • during the nineteenth century the global economy became more and more integrated • the Americas and Eastern Europe were a source of raw materials, agricultural exports, markets and investment for Western Europe capitalism...is engaged perpetually in a process of creative destruction … it uses up its old forms and creates new ones… inevitably accompanied by a high degree of social hardship Joseph Schumpeter Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  28. 28. Panics and Boom Times • during the nineteenth century the global economy became more and more integrated • the Americas and Eastern Europe were a source of raw materials, agricultural exports, markets and investment for Western Europe capitalism...is engaged perpetually • during the period 1815-1896, in spite of in a process of creative destruction panics, especially the “hungry ‘40s” and the … it uses up its old forms and “long depression, 1873-1896; the overall creates new ones… inevitably trend was up and living standards accompanied by a high degree of improved in the industrial world social hardship Joseph Schumpeter Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  29. 29. The Industrial Revolution Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  30. 30. The Industrial Revolution Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  31. 31. Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  32. 32. A word about the term “industrial revolution.” Economic historians have rebelled at it. They emphasize the length of Britain’s experience. Any change over decades, or centuries, is better called an evolution. However valid that is for Britain, those countries which followed had a much more rapid experience of the transition from agricultural to industrial society. And the pace shows no signs of abating. Hence Toffler’s term, Futureshock. Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  33. 33. Rostow’s Stages 3-5; Britain vs Russia Britain Russia Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  34. 34. Rostow’s Stages 3-5; Britain vs Russia Britain Russia Stage 3- Take-off 1783-1802 (19 years) 1885-1900 (15 years) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  35. 35. Britain vs Russia Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  36. 36. Britain vs Russia Private Enterprise Consumer & Heavy Industry 18th & early 19th c.s textile mills water power Arkwright’s “Water Frame” Hargreave’s “Spinning Jenny” Crompton’s “Mule steam & iron Watt’s 1762 engine for pumping out coal mines iron mills, “puddling” transportation, canals, iron bridges, railroads--”Puffing Billy” (1813-1862) Robert Fulton’s “Clermont” (1807) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  37. 37. Britain vs Russia Private Enterprise Government Consumer & Heavy Infrastructure Industry & Military 18th & early 19th c.s early & mid-19th c. textile mills railroads water power Skt-Peterburg-Tsarskoe Arkwright’s “Water Frame” Selo (1836-37) to Moscow Hargreave’s “Spinning Jenny” (1851) Crompton’s “Mule steamships steam & iron K.N. Bird’s “Elizabeth” Watt’s 1762 engine for pumping (1815) Admiralty Shipyard, out coal mines A.A. Schilder’s submarine iron mills, “puddling” (1834) Russia’s 1st all metal transportation, canals, iron ship bridges, railroads--”Puffing locomotives Billy” (1813-1862) Robert Fulton’s N.I. Putilov “the Russian “Clermont” (1807) Krupp” 1870s, built cannon next Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  38. 38. government and industrialization: subsidies and tariffs • List’s “National System” had brought to Prussia the Zollverein (tariff union) and the railway network which aided German unification • Russia had always favored the state leading economic development and after 1870 all European states followed suit with state encouragement of development and commerce • initially they tended to follow Britain’s policy of free trade • during the long depression all but Britain, Belgium and Holland reverted Friedrich List (1789-1866) to protectionism Prussian Minister Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  39. 39. The Early Economists Adam Smith 1723-1790 The Wealth of Nations, 1776 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  40. 40. The Early Economists Thomas Robert Malthus 1766-1834 Essay on the Principle of Population, 1798 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  41. 41. The Early Economists David Ricardo 1772-1823 Principles of Political Economy and Taxation, 1817 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  42. 42. Early Socialists-Marx’s “Utopians” Robert Owen 1771-1858 Welsh industrialist’ social reformer New Lanark, 1800 New Harmony, IN, 1826 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  43. 43. Early Socialists-Marx’s “Utopians” Count de Saint-Simon 1760-1825 technocracy, capitalists and scientists the new ruling class only wrote, never tried Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  44. 44. Early Socialists-Marx’s “Utopians” Charles Fourier 1772-1837 communes ca"ed phalanxes tried in France and America in the 1830s & ‘40s Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  45. 45. Characteristics of the Second Industrial Revolution Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  46. 46. Characteristics of the Second Industrial Revolution The Krupp works, Essen, 1905 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  47. 47. Steel production--post 1850’s Sir Henry Bessemer (1813-1898) Sir William Siemens (1823-1883) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  48. 48. Ernst Werner von Siemens (1816-1892) founder of Siemens A. G. father of electrical engineering Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  49. 49. communication--telegraphy, 1842 telegraph lines in 1891 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  50. 50. communication--telephony, 1870s Alexander Bell’s patent, 1876 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  51. 51. communication--telephony, 1870s Alexander Bell’s patent, 1876 Tivadar Puskas--”hallom! Boston, 1877 Edison Co., London, 1879 Swedish telephone, 1896 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  52. 52. Technical Education Science room at the Technical School, Finsbury, London, 1884 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  53. 53. communication--print technology The Miehle P.P. & Mfg. Co., 1905 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  54. 54. Chemical industry BASF - Badische Analin und Soda-Fabrik, 1865 • by 1900, Germany dominated the world market for synthetic dyes • the three major firms, BASF, Bayer & Hoechst produced several hundred different dyes • the five smaller, led by AGFA, concentrated on high quality specialty dyes • in 1913 these eight firms produced almost 90% of the world supply and sold 80% of their production abroad Indigo production at BASF, 1890 • the three majors began to expand into other areas such as pharmaceuticals, photographic film, fertilizers, explosives and munitions Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  55. 55. The internal combustion engine • 1860-a Belgian, Lenoir, produced the first gasoline internal combustion engine to be made in significant numbers • 1876-Nikolaus Otto gave his name to the four stroke cycle, illustrated, right 1.Intake • 1885-Karl Benz built his own four 2. Compression stroke engine used in the first 3. Combustion & automobiles in production Expansion 4. Exhaust Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  56. 56. Business Combinations: Trusts and Cartels The Match Trust Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  57. 57. Business Combinations: Trusts and Cartels • survivors of capitalism’s early competition sought to avoid further conflicts The Match Trust In 1843 two Quakers, May & Bryant, formed a partnership to import the new Swedish “Lucifer” matches. Their sales grew and they expanded, first in Britain and then throughout the empire, absorbing rivals. In 1861 they began manufacturing their own product. They were the target of the London matchgirls strike of 1888 which won important improvements in working conditions and pay for the mostly female workforce. Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  58. 58. Business Combinations: Trusts and Cartels • survivors of capitalism’s early competition sought to avoid further conflicts • through trusts and cartels they aimed at: The Match Trust In 1843 two Quakers, May & Bryant, formed a partnership to import the new Swedish “Lucifer” matches. Their sales grew and they expanded, first in Britain and then throughout the empire, absorbing rivals. In 1861 they began manufacturing their own product. They were the target of the London matchgirls strike of 1888 which won important improvements in working conditions and pay for the mostly female workforce. Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  59. 59. Business Combinations: Trusts and Cartels • survivors of capitalism’s early competition sought to avoid further conflicts • through trusts and cartels they aimed at: The Match Trust • expanding their operations In 1843 two Quakers, May & Bryant, formed a partnership to import the new Swedish “Lucifer” matches. Their sales grew and they expanded, first in Britain and then throughout the empire, absorbing rivals. In 1861 they began manufacturing their own product. They were the target of the London matchgirls strike of 1888 which won important improvements in working conditions and pay for the mostly female workforce. Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  60. 60. Business Combinations: Trusts and Cartels • survivors of capitalism’s early competition sought to avoid further conflicts • through trusts and cartels they aimed at: The Match Trust • expanding their operations In 1843 two Quakers, May & Bryant, formed a partnership to import the new • avoiding duplication of effort Swedish “Lucifer” matches. Their sales grew and they expanded, first in Britain and then throughout the empire, absorbing rivals. In 1861 they began manufacturing their own product. They were the target of the London matchgirls strike of 1888 which won important improvements in working conditions and pay for the mostly female workforce. Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  61. 61. Business Combinations: Trusts and Cartels • survivors of capitalism’s early competition sought to avoid further conflicts • through trusts and cartels they aimed at: The Match Trust • expanding their operations In 1843 two Quakers, May & Bryant, formed a partnership to import the new • avoiding duplication of effort Swedish “Lucifer” matches. Their sales grew and they expanded, first in Britain and then throughout the empire, • lowering cost of production absorbing rivals. In 1861 they began manufacturing their own product. They were the target of the London matchgirls strike of 1888 which won important improvements in working conditions and pay for the mostly female workforce. Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  62. 62. Business Combinations: Trusts and Cartels • survivors of capitalism’s early competition sought to avoid further conflicts • through trusts and cartels they aimed at: The Match Trust • expanding their operations In 1843 two Quakers, May & Bryant, formed a partnership to import the new • avoiding duplication of effort Swedish “Lucifer” matches. Their sales grew and they expanded, first in Britain and then throughout the empire, • lowering cost of production absorbing rivals. In 1861 they began manufacturing their own product. They • dividing markets were the target of the London matchgirls strike of 1888 which won important improvements in working conditions and pay for the mostly female workforce. Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  63. 63. Business Combinations: Trusts and Cartels • survivors of capitalism’s early competition sought to avoid further conflicts • through trusts and cartels they aimed at: The Match Trust • expanding their operations In 1843 two Quakers, May & Bryant, formed a partnership to import the new • avoiding duplication of effort Swedish “Lucifer” matches. Their sales grew and they expanded, first in Britain and then throughout the empire, • lowering cost of production absorbing rivals. In 1861 they began manufacturing their own product. They • dividing markets were the target of the London matchgirls strike of 1888 which won important • avoiding price cutting competition improvements in working conditions and pay for the mostly female workforce. Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  64. 64. Monopoly--Negative or Positive? • trusts and cartels were unpopular because they were often exploitative and caused tragedy in individual cases • thus they were the targets of socialist critics of capitalism • but in the last decades of the 19th century they also played a positive role. They : • made possible the introduction of new technology • eliminated much inefficiency and duplication of effort • contemporaries did not easily perceive these benefits Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  65. 65. Types of Capitalists Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  66. 66. Types of Capitalists • industrial capitalists • factory owners: Robert Owen, Friedrich Engels, Alfred Krupp, N.I.Putilov, Bryant & Mays (the match kings) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  67. 67. Types of Capitalists • industrial capitalists • factory owners: Robert Owen, Friedrich Engels, Alfred Krupp, N.I.Putilov, Bryant & Mays (the match kings) • comprador capitalists • merchants: HEIC (the British East India Co.), how Bryant and Mays began, the Stroganov family Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  68. 68. Types of Capitalists • industrial capitalists • factory owners: Robert Owen, Friedrich Engels, Alfred Krupp, N.I.Putilov, Bryant & Mays (the match kings) • comprador capitalists • merchants: HEIC (the British East India Co.), how Bryant and Mays began, the Stroganov family • finance capitalists • bankers, insurers, stockbrokers: the Rothchilds, Bleichröder, Lloyds, Barings Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  69. 69. Types of Capitalists • industrial capitalists • factory owners: Robert Owen, Friedrich Engels, Alfred Krupp, N.I.Putilov, Bryant & Mays (the match kings) • comprador capitalists • merchants: HEIC (the British East India Co.), how Bryant and Mays began, the Stroganov family • finance capitalists • bankers, insurers, stockbrokers: the Rothchilds, Bleichröder, Lloyds, Barings • rentier capitalists • property owners who take no active part in managing their assets: absentee landowners, stock and bond holders--Marx’s “parasites Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  70. 70. Azovsko-Donskoy Bank • 1871-opened in Taganrog for financing trade and granting loans • mid 1880s-largest bank in Russia • end of the 1890s-one of five largest national banks in the world • 1903-moved to Skt Peterburg • 73 branches • 1917-controlled 90 companies • 1909-1914--share value rose from 20 to 50 million roubles Skt-Peterburg headquarters built 1907-1909 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  71. 71. European Bourses-Stock Exchanges Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  72. 72. European Bourses-Stock Exchanges Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  73. 73. European Bourses-Stock Exchanges Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  74. 74. European Bourses-Stock Exchanges Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  75. 75. European Bourses-Stock Exchanges Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  76. 76. The Labor Movement: Trade Unions Tolpuddle Martyrs Day, 2005 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  77. 77. classic tensions Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  78. 78. classic tensions Direct Action vs political work (strikes, sabotage) (parties, elections) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  79. 79. classic tensions Direct Action vs political work (strikes, sabotage) (parties, elections) Seeking piecemeal, moderate gains vs radical demands Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  80. 80. classic tensions Direct Action vs political work (strikes, sabotage) (parties, elections) Seeking piecemeal, moderate gains vs radical demands (wages, hours, work rules) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  81. 81. classic tensions Direct Action vs political work (strikes, sabotage) (parties, elections) Seeking piecemeal, moderate gains vs radical demands (wages, hours, work rules) (ultimately, revolution) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  82. 82. Challenges Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  83. 83. Challenges The “Peterloo Massacre” the Duke of Wellington sends in cavalry to break up a mass meeting at St Peter’s Field, Manchester, 1819 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  84. 84. gradual legalization of unions Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  85. 85. gradual legalization of unions • after 1815, all public assemblies were suspected of revolutionary tendencies and usually harshly suppressed, e.g.,the “Peterloo Massacre”(1819) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  86. 86. gradual legalization of unions • after 1815, all public assemblies were suspected of revolutionary tendencies and usually harshly suppressed, e.g.,the “Peterloo Massacre”(1819) • 1834--in Britain, the least reactionary state, the Tolpuddle Martyrs, six Dorsetshire agricultural laborers, were transported to Australia. Their “crime”? Forming an Agricultural Benevolent Society and swearing to refuse to work for less than 10 shillings a day Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  87. 87. gradual legalization of unions • after 1815, all public assemblies were suspected of revolutionary tendencies and usually harshly suppressed, e.g.,the “Peterloo Massacre”(1819) • 1834--in Britain, the least reactionary state, the Tolpuddle Martyrs, six Dorsetshire agricultural laborers, were transported to Australia. Their “crime”? Forming an Agricultural Benevolent Society and swearing to refuse to work for less than 10 shillings a day • 1840s--the Chartist Movement with its demands for the eight hour day and the right to form trade unions was a response. Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  88. 88. gradual legalization of unions • after 1815, all public assemblies were suspected of revolutionary tendencies and usually harshly suppressed, e.g.,the “Peterloo Massacre”(1819) • 1834--in Britain, the least reactionary state, the Tolpuddle Martyrs, six Dorsetshire agricultural laborers, were transported to Australia. Their “crime”? Forming an Agricultural Benevolent Society and swearing to refuse to work for less than 10 shillings a day • 1840s--the Chartist Movement with its demands for the eight hour day and the right to form trade unions was a response. • reforms spread slowly across Europe from west to east Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  89. 89. gradual legalization of unions • after 1815, all public assemblies were suspected of revolutionary tendencies and usually harshly suppressed, e.g.,the “Peterloo Massacre”(1819) • 1834--in Britain, the least reactionary state, the Tolpuddle Martyrs, six Dorsetshire agricultural laborers, were transported to Australia. Their “crime”? Forming an Agricultural Benevolent Society and swearing to refuse to work for less than 10 shillings a day • 1840s--the Chartist Movement with its demands for the eight hour day and the right to form trade unions was a response. • reforms spread slowly across Europe from west to east • by the last quarter of the 19th century unions were legal everywhere but often crippled by laws restricting their most effective tactics Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  90. 90. gradual legalization of unions • after 1815, all public assemblies were suspected of revolutionary tendencies and usually harshly suppressed, e.g.,the “Peterloo Massacre”(1819) • 1834--in Britain, the least reactionary state, the Tolpuddle Martyrs, six Dorsetshire agricultural laborers, were transported to Australia. Their “crime”? Forming an Agricultural Benevolent Society and swearing to refuse to work for less than 10 shillings a day • 1840s--the Chartist Movement with its demands for the eight hour day and the right to form trade unions was a response. • reforms spread slowly across Europe from west to east • by the last quarter of the 19th century unions were legal everywhere but often crippled by laws restricting their most effective tactics • in Alexander III’s Russia the police infiltrated the unions as with the case of Father Gapon in 1905 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  91. 91. Tolpuddle, Then & Now Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  92. 92. Tolpuddle, Then & Now Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  93. 93. Tolpuddle, Then & Now Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  94. 94. Tolpuddle, Then & Now Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  95. 95. unions increase in size and militancy Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  96. 96. unions increase in size and militancy originally unions were benevolent societies, small in membership, representing the better-educated, better-paid workers of the skilled trades Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  97. 97. unions increase in size and militancy originally unions were benevolent societies, small in membership, representing the better-educated, better-paid workers of the skilled trades their main purpose: assistance to members with unemployment and accident insurance plus death benefits Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  98. 98. unions increase in size and militancy originally unions were benevolent societies, small in membership, representing the better-educated, better-paid workers of the skilled trades their main purpose: assistance to members with unemployment and accident insurance plus death benefits they were cautious with their funds and reluctant to use the strike Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  99. 99. unions increase in size and militancy originally unions were benevolent societies, small in membership, representing the better-educated, better-paid workers of the skilled trades their main purpose: assistance to members with unemployment and accident insurance plus death benefits they were cautious with their funds and reluctant to use the strike in the 1880s, during the downturn, unions spread to less skilled workers, became more militant, and several bitter strikes occurred: Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  100. 100. unions increase in size and militancy originally unions were benevolent societies, small in membership, representing the better-educated, better-paid workers of the skilled trades their main purpose: assistance to members with unemployment and accident insurance plus death benefits they were cautious with their funds and reluctant to use the strike in the 1880s, during the downturn, unions spread to less skilled workers, became more militant, and several bitter strikes occurred: 1886--Charleroi, Belgium; glass workers and miners battled police Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  101. 101. unions increase in size and militancy originally unions were benevolent societies, small in membership, representing the better-educated, better-paid workers of the skilled trades their main purpose: assistance to members with unemployment and accident insurance plus death benefits they were cautious with their funds and reluctant to use the strike in the 1880s, during the downturn, unions spread to less skilled workers, became more militant, and several bitter strikes occurred: 1886--Charleroi, Belgium; glass workers and miners battled police 1889--London; dock workers won significant gains with disciplined tactics Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  102. 102. unions increase in size and militancy originally unions were benevolent societies, small in membership, representing the better-educated, better-paid workers of the skilled trades their main purpose: assistance to members with unemployment and accident insurance plus death benefits they were cautious with their funds and reluctant to use the strike in the 1880s, during the downturn, unions spread to less skilled workers, became more militant, and several bitter strikes occurred: 1886--Charleroi, Belgium; glass workers and miners battled police 1889--London; dock workers won significant gains with disciplined tactics 1896--Hamburg; harbor workers failed to match their British counterparts’ success due to employers’ associations resistance Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  103. 103. Unions and Political Parties Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  104. 104. Unions form political parties Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  105. 105. Unions form political parties • as representative government spread from west to east, the newly legal unions tended to form political parties to advance their interest Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  106. 106. Unions form political parties • as representative government spread from west to east, the newly legal unions tended to form political parties to advance their interest the strongest of these was the Socialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD) (1863) Germany’s oldest political party Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  107. 107. Unions form political parties • as representative government spread from west to east, the newly legal unions tended to form political parties to advance their interest the strongest of these was the Socialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD) (1863) Germany’s oldest political party not all the labor parties were Marxian socialist, as was the SPD Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  108. 108. Unions form political parties • as representative government spread from west to east, the newly legal unions tended to form political parties to advance their interest the strongest of these was the Socialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD) (1863) Germany’s oldest political party not all the labor parties were Marxian socialist, as was the SPD often there were rival parties reflecting different ideologies Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  109. 109. Unions form political parties • as representative government spread from west to east, the newly legal unions tended to form political parties to advance their interest the strongest of these was the Socialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD) (1863) Germany’s oldest political party not all the labor parties were Marxian socialist, as was the SPD often there were rival parties reflecting different ideologies in France, for example, there was a movement called Syndicalism which was militant (origin of the term: sabotage) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  110. 110. Unions form political parties • as representative government spread from west to east, the newly legal unions tended to form political parties to advance their interest the strongest of these was the Socialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD) (1863) Germany’s oldest political party not all the labor parties were Marxian socialist, as was the SPD often there were rival parties reflecting different ideologies in France, for example, there was a movement called Syndicalism which was militant (origin of the term: sabotage) other parties called themselves Christian Socialist Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  111. 111. Unions form political parties • as representative government spread from west to east, the newly legal unions tended to form political parties to advance their interest the strongest of these was the Socialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands (SPD) (1863) Germany’s oldest political party not all the labor parties were Marxian socialist, as was the SPD often there were rival parties reflecting different ideologies in France, for example, there was a movement called Syndicalism which was militant (origin of the term: sabotage) other parties called themselves Christian Socialist all aimed at improving the status of the working class Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  112. 112. A Philosophy for Labor: Karl Marx Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  113. 113. A Philosophy for Labor: Karl Marx 1818-1883 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  114. 114. Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  115. 115. [Marx’s] prominence among socialists was largely the result of the increasing respect felt for The Communist Manifesto. As Harold Laski once wrote, this was … seen to be the first document of its kind to give a direction and a philosophy to what had before been little more than an inchoate protest against injustice;… it can be said to have created the modern socialist movement, which until now had been run by self-educated cranks. Craig, pp. 272-73 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  116. 116. Marx, the Man Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  117. 117. the early years, 1818-1843 Marx’s Geburtshaus, Trier, Rhenish Prussia Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  118. 118. the early years, 1818-1843 born into a bourgeois family, the third of seven children Marx’s Geburtshaus, Trier, Rhenish Prussia Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  119. 119. the early years, 1818-1843 born into a bourgeois family, the third of seven children 1824, his father, Herschel Mordechai Marx, converted to Lutheranism to be able to practice law Marx’s Geburtshaus, Trier, Rhenish Prussia Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  120. 120. the early years, 1818-1843 born into a bourgeois family, the third of seven children 1824, his father, Herschel Mordechai Marx, converted to Lutheranism to be able to practice law Karl and his sibs were baptized although both their grandfathers were rabbis Marx’s Geburtshaus, Trier, Rhenish Prussia Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  121. 121. the early years, 1818-1843 born into a bourgeois family, the third of seven children 1824, his father, Herschel Mordechai Marx, converted to Lutheranism to be able to practice law Karl and his sibs were baptized although both their grandfathers were rabbis he changed from law to philosophy while at several universities, arrested for disorderly conduct, disciple of Bruno Bauer Marx’s Geburtshaus, Trier, Rhenish Prussia Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  122. 122. the early years, 1818-1843 born into a bourgeois family, the third of seven children 1824, his father, Herschel Mordechai Marx, converted to Lutheranism to be able to practice law Karl and his sibs were baptized although both their grandfathers were rabbis he changed from law to philosophy while at several universities, arrested for disorderly conduct, disciple of Bruno Bauer “mail order PhD” from University of Jena Marx’s Geburtshaus, Trier, Rhenish Prussia Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  123. 123. the early years, 1818-1843 born into a bourgeois family, the third of seven children 1824, his father, Herschel Mordechai Marx, converted to Lutheranism to be able to practice law Karl and his sibs were baptized although both their grandfathers were rabbis he changed from law to philosophy while at several universities, arrested for disorderly conduct, disciple of Bruno Bauer “mail order PhD” from University of Jena editor of the Rheinische Zeitung in Cologne, 1841-43, until censors drove him to emigrate Marx’s Geburtshaus, Trier, Rhenish Prussia Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  124. 124. marriage 1837, against the wishes of Marx’s parents, Karl (19) and Jenny (23) became engaged Jenny’s grandfather had been Chief of Staff for Frederick the Great her half brother would be Prussian Minister of the Interior in the 1850s 1843, Jenny and Karl eloped to Paris and despite many crushing hardships maintained a lifelong devoted marriage Jenny von Westphalen, (1814-1881) picture, 1840 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  125. 125. political refugee, 1843-50 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  126. 126. political refugee, 1843-50 he met his lifelong collaborator, Engels, in Paris, 1844 both were political radicals who often fled from the police during the 1840s together they wrote the Communist Manifesto in 1848 at the outbreak of the revolutions he returned to Germany with hope for the revolution there Engels often aided Marx financially from his income from the family textile mills in Manchester Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  127. 127. the famous collaboration begins their first joint work, a pamphlet, “The Holy Family” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  128. 128. against the “Young Hegelians” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  129. 129. against the “Young Hegelians” The holy family or Critique of the Critical Criticism ____________ Against Bruno Bauer & Consorts _____________ by Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx _____________________________ Frankfurt on the Main River Literary Institute 1845 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  130. 130. The Unholy Family Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  131. 131. The Unholy Family Helena Delmuth Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  132. 132. family and later life Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  133. 133. family and later life after the failure of 1848, the Marx family returned to London in happier times Laura, Eleanor, daughter Jenny Friedrich, Karl (1860) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  134. 134. family and later life after the failure of 1848, the Marx family returned to London the 1850s saw their most desperate economic circumstances in happier times Laura, Eleanor, daughter Jenny Friedrich, Karl (1860) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  135. 135. family and later life after the failure of 1848, the Marx family returned to London the 1850s saw their most desperate economic circumstances two children were stillborn in happier times Laura, Eleanor, daughter Jenny Friedrich, Karl (1860) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  136. 136. family and later life after the failure of 1848, the Marx family returned to London the 1850s saw their most desperate economic circumstances two children were stillborn son Edgar (1847-1855) died in Karl’s arms in happier times Laura, Eleanor, daughter Jenny Friedrich, Karl (1860) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  137. 137. family and later life after the failure of 1848, the Marx family returned to London the 1850s saw their most desperate economic circumstances two children were stillborn son Edgar (1847-1855) died in Karl’s arms Engels lent the money to bury him in happier times Laura, Eleanor, daughter Jenny Friedrich, Karl (1860) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  138. 138. family and later life after the failure of 1848, the Marx family returned to London the 1850s saw their most desperate economic circumstances two children were stillborn son Edgar (1847-1855) died in Karl’s arms Engels lent the money to bury him Karl sat in the reading room of the British Museum researching Capital (vol. 1, 1867) in happier times Laura, Eleanor, daughter Jenny Friedrich, Karl (1860) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  139. 139. family and later life after the failure of 1848, the Marx family returned to London the 1850s saw their most desperate economic circumstances two children were stillborn son Edgar (1847-1855) died in Karl’s arms Engels lent the money to bury him Karl sat in the reading room of the British Museum researching Capital (vol. 1, 1867) 1883, he died, two years after his wife in happier times Laura, Eleanor, daughter Jenny Friedrich, Karl (1860) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  140. 140. 1871-Great Hopes for the Paris Commune • following the French defeat, Paris radicals rebelled against the bourgeois national government • they declared a workers commune and executed hostages • Marx and Engels hoped this marked the beginning of the World Revolution • 1871-Marx writes The Civil War in France • the memory of the bloody repression fired class hatreds Commune prisoners being marched to Versailles from a contemporary illustrated magazine Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  141. 141. “The Young Marx” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  142. 142. “The Young Marx” A 20th century, post-Stalinist, “new look” at Marx Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  143. 143. “Re-branding” a failed ideology Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  144. 144. “Re-branding” a failed ideology • the 1960s--the New Left of Europe and the U.S. faced a huge problem Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  145. 145. “Re-branding” a failed ideology • the 1960s--the New Left of Europe and the U.S. faced a huge problem • Marxism had divided into warring camps: USSR & its satellites vs Red China, vs various Third World movements, most notably Cuba Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  146. 146. “Re-branding” a failed ideology • the 1960s--the New Left of Europe and the U.S. faced a huge problem • Marxism had divided into warring camps: USSR & its satellites vs Red China, vs various Third World movements, most notably Cuba • Stalin had been a huge embarrassment to the “faithful” when our CIA published Khrushchev’s private denunciation Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  147. 147. “Re-branding” a failed ideology • the 1960s--the New Left of Europe and the U.S. faced a huge problem • Marxism had divided into warring camps: USSR & its satellites vs Red China, vs various Third World movements, most notably Cuba • Stalin had been a huge embarrassment to the “faithful” when our CIA published Khrushchev’s private denunciation • radical students and their Marxist professors blamed Lenin and the Russian tradition of authoritarian government for Stalinism, a distortion of Marxism Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  148. 148. “Re-branding” a failed ideology • the 1960s--the New Left of Europe and the U.S. faced a huge problem • Marxism had divided into warring camps: USSR & its satellites vs Red China, vs various Third World movements, most notably Cuba • Stalin had been a huge embarrassment to the “faithful” when our CIA published Khrushchev’s private denunciation • radical students and their Marxist professors blamed Lenin and the Russian tradition of authoritarian government for Stalinism, a distortion of Marxism • it was necessary to go back to the early writings, the “Young Marx,” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  149. 149. “Re-branding” a failed ideology • the 1960s--the New Left of Europe and the U.S. faced a huge problem • Marxism had divided into warring camps: USSR & its satellites vs Red China, vs various Third World movements, most notably Cuba • Stalin had been a huge embarrassment to the “faithful” when our CIA published Khrushchev’s private denunciation • radical students and their Marxist professors blamed Lenin and the Russian tradition of authoritarian government for Stalinism, a distortion of Marxism • it was necessary to go back to the early writings, the “Young Marx,” • this was true Marxism which, if followed, really would bring about “the workers’ paradise” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  150. 150. Ideas of the “Young Marx” • his admirersand “communitarian” humanistic believe they are more • his principal influence at this time was Ludwig Feuerbach, atheist and materialist • early writings include: • Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844 • The German Ideology (both published posthumously) • The Holy Family (1845) • Eleven Theses on Feuerbach (1845) • The Poverty of Philosophy (1847) • The Communist Manifesto (1848) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  151. 151. The 18th Brumaire of Louis Napoleon (1852) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  152. 152. The 18th Brumaire of Louis Napoleon (1852) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  153. 153. The 18th Brumaire of Louis Napoleon (1852) • Marx wrote this mocking pamphlet after the coup of 2 December 1851 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  154. 154. The 18th Brumaire of Louis Napoleon (1852) • Marx wrote this mocking pamphlet after the coup of 2 December 1851 • the stated intention: “to demonstrate how the class stru%le in France created circumstances … that made it possible for a grotesque mediocrity to play a hero’s part.”--Marx Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  155. 155. The 18th Brumaire of Louis Napoleon (1852) • Marx wrote this mocking pamphlet after the coup of 2 December 1851 • the stated intention: “to demonstrate how the class stru%le in France created circumstances … that made it possible for a grotesque mediocrity to play a hero’s part.”--Marx • “Hegel remarks somewhere that a" great world- historic facts and personages appear, so to speak, twice. He forgot to add: the first time as tragedy, the second time as farce.” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  156. 156. The 18th Brumaire of Louis Napoleon (1852) • Marx wrote this mocking pamphlet after the coup of 2 December 1851 • the stated intention: “to demonstrate how the class stru%le in France created circumstances … that made it possible for a grotesque mediocrity to play a hero’s part.”--Marx • “Hegel remarks somewhere that a" great world- historic facts and personages appear, so to speak, twice. He forgot to add: the first time as tragedy, the second time as farce.” • “Men make their own history, but they do not make it as they please; they do not make it under self-selected circumstances, but under circumstances existing already, given and transmitted 'om the past.” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  157. 157. Marxism Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  158. 158. WORKERS OF EVERY LAND UNITE HAIL THE INTERNATIONAL WORKERS ARMY Marxism ONLY BY SEIZING THE MEANS OF PRODUCTION BY THE RED ARMY RSFSR= Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  159. 159. The Materialistic Interpretation of History Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  160. 160. “We found Hegel standing on his head…” • the materialistic interpretation of history reverses Hegelian idealist philosophy • for Hegel’s dialectic of ideas, Marx substitutes dialectical materialism • ideas don’t give birth to material reality, physical reality gives birth to ideas • change, i.e., history advances through “the negation (Aufhebung) of the negation” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  161. 161. Dialectics • the term originated with the Greek philosopher Zeno of Elea, ca. 490 B.C. • it is a form of argumentation Thesis<¬>Antithesis yields • Hegelian dialectics describes how ideas Synthesis change through conflict leading to synthesis • Marx’s dialectical materialism describes how opposing classes struggle and create historic change as new classes emerge Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  162. 162. The Class Struggle Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  163. 163. The Class Struggle The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. (page 1, first sentence after prologue) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  164. 164. The Class Struggle The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. (page 1, first sentence after prologue) Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on an uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary re- constitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the contending classes Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  165. 165. The Class Struggle The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles. (page 1, first sentence after prologue) Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on an uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary re- constitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the contending classes The bourgeoisie, wherever it has got the upper hand, has put an end to all feudal, patriarchal, idyllic relations. It ... has left remaining no other nexus between man and man than naked self-interest, than callous “cash payment” ... for exploitation, veiled by religious and political illusions, it has substituted naked, shameless, direct, brutal exploitation ... Constant revolutionizing of production, uninterrupted disturbance of all social conditions, everlasting uncertainty and agitation distinguish the bourgeois epoch from all earlier ones Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  166. 166. The Four Epochs Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  167. 167. The Four Epochs • PRE-CLASSICAL • THESIS = OPPRESSORS: chiefs & shamans • ANTITHESIS = OPPRESSED : tribesmen • TERMINAL EVENT: foundation of the River Kingdoms Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  168. 168. The Four Epochs • PRE-CLASSICAL • THESIS = OPPRESSORS: chiefs & shamans • ANTITHESIS = OPPRESSED : tribesmen • TERMINAL EVENT: foundation of the River Kingdoms • SYNTHESIS = CLASSICAL • priests and patricians • plebeans • fall of the Roman Empire (fifth century) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  169. 169. The Four Epochs • PRE-CLASSICAL • THESIS = OPPRESSORS: chiefs & shamans • ANTITHESIS = OPPRESSED : tribesmen • TERMINAL EVENT: foundation of the River Kingdoms • SYNTHESIS = CLASSICAL • priests and patricians • plebeans • fall of the Roman Empire (fifth century) • FEUDAL • clergy and lords • peasantry • Commercial, Industrial & Democratic Revolutions (16th-18th c) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  170. 170. The Four Epochs • PRE-CLASSICAL • THESIS = OPPRESSORS: chiefs & shamans • ANTITHESIS = OPPRESSED : tribesmen • TERMINAL EVENT: foundation of the River Kingdoms • SYNTHESIS = CLASSICAL • priests and patricians • plebeans • fall of the Roman Empire (fifth century) • FEUDAL • clergy and lords • peasantry • Commercial, Industrial & Democratic Revolutions (16th-18th c) • CAPITALIST • bourgeoisie • proletariat • World Revolution (1917-?) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  171. 171. “The bourgeoisie are preparing their own gravediggers” Marx & Engels, The Communist Manifesto • as industrialization spreads and replaces the agrarian economy, the “panics” will become deeper and longer • more small shopkeepers, farmers and artisans will be ruined and forced into the ranks of the proletariat • businesses become bigger and fewer • as the “immiseration of the working class” becomes greater, so will their numbers • the bourgeoisie richer, but fewer • finally, a tipping point is reached and the World Revolution breaks out, beginning in the most advanced industrialized states, Germany, Belgium, Britain Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  172. 172. Marx’s Critique of the Gotha Program, 1875 • 1891--not published until long after Marx’s death in 1883 • he criticised the SPD agenda at the Gotha Congress as not revolutionary enough • it is his only statement on the future: I.World Revolution II.“dictatorship of the proletariat” III.“the state shall wither away” IV.communism Marx and Lasalle Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  173. 173. Marxism Comes to Russia Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  174. 174. Marxism Comes to Russia Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  175. 175. Kazan Cathedral, Skt-Peterburg from a 19th century postcard Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  176. 176. Russia’s First Political Demonstration December 6, 1876 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  177. 177. Russia’s First Political Demonstration December 6, 1876 • organized and conducted by Zemlya i Volya and workers organizations Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  178. 178. Russia’s First Political Demonstration December 6, 1876 • organized and conducted by Zemlya i Volya and workers organizations • some 400 people gathered in the cathedral square and sang the Marsei"aise in Russian Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  179. 179. Russia’s First Political Demonstration December 6, 1876 • organized and conducted by Zemlya i Volya and workers organizations • some 400 people gathered in the cathedral square and sang the Marsei"aise in Russian • Georgi Plekhanov, organizer and chief speaker, indicted autocracy and defended the views of Chernishevsky, then in exile Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  180. 180. Russia’s First Political Demonstration December 6, 1876 • organized and conducted by Zemlya i Volya and workers organizations • some 400 people gathered in the cathedral square and sang the Marsei"aise in Russian • Georgi Plekhanov, organizer and chief speaker, indicted autocracy and defended the views of Chernishevsky, then in exile • a worker, Ia. Potapov, waived the red flag. The demonstrators offered resistance to the police. Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  181. 181. Russia’s First Political Demonstration December 6, 1876 • organized and conducted by Zemlya i Volya and workers organizations • some 400 people gathered in the cathedral square and sang the Marsei"aise in Russian • Georgi Plekhanov, organizer and chief speaker, indicted autocracy and defended the views of Chernishevsky, then in exile • a worker, Ia. Potapov, waived the red flag. The demonstrators offered resistance to the police. • 31 arrests; 5 sentenced to katorga 10-15 years, 10 to Siberian exile, 3 including Potapov to 5 years incarceration in a monastery Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  182. 182. Russia’s First Political Demonstration December 6, 1876 • organized and conducted by Zemlya i Volya and workers organizations • some 400 people gathered in the cathedral square and sang the Marsei"aise in Russian • Georgi Plekhanov, organizer and chief speaker, indicted autocracy and defended the views of Chernishevsky, then in exile • a worker, Ia. Potapov, waived the red flag. The demonstrators offered resistance to the police. • 31 arrests; 5 sentenced to katorga 10-15 years, 10 to Siberian exile, 3 including Potapov to 5 years incarceration in a monastery • it was at this demonstration that Vera Figner became radicalized Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  183. 183. The Father of Russian Marxism • switched from a military college to a mining institute. dropped after two years • Narodnik who continued to believe with them in mass movements rather than small revolutionary terrorist groups • 1880-after 2 arrests fled to Switzerland never to return until 1917 • 1883-with Vera Zasulich and Pavel Axelrod founded the Emancipation of Labor group, Russia’s first Marxists • 1885-developed the constitution for the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party • his most famous early follower was V.I. Lenin Georgi V. Plekhanov 1856-1918 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  184. 184. Russian Social Democratic Labor Party • created to oppose narodnichestvo, the revolutionary populism of the narodniki • based on Marxism, the party ignored Russia’s agrarian economy and based its faith on the role of Russia’s then small industrial proletariat • illegal throughout its early years, all nine delegates to the first congress were arrested by the imperial police • the second congress in Brussels/London would become famous for the Bolshevik/Menshevik split Minutes of the Second Congress • members thereafter would describe their party of the RSDLP allegiance as the RSDLP (B) or RSDLP (M) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  185. 185. The Development of Socialism Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  186. 186. The Development of Socialism Socialist band marching through Hyde Park, 1896 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  187. 187. The First Workingman’s International, 1864-1876 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  188. 188. The First Workingman’s International, 1864-1876 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  189. 189. International Workingmen’s Association (1864-1876) • Marx gave the inaugural address and statement of principles in London • subsequent congresses were held in : • Geneva(1866)--the 8 hour day becomes a fundamental demand • Lausanne (1867)--Proudonhists vs Blanquists • Brussels (1868)--Marx gains supporters • the Hague/New York(1872--showdown with the Anarchists • Philadelphia (1876)--disagreements led to disbandment • prominent but not dominant, Marx had to vie with Mikhail Bakunin • both agreed on the need for a revolutionary elite, but on little else Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  190. 190. The Internationale Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  191. 191. The Internationale • June,1871-the original lyrics were composed by Eugene Pottier, a survivor of the Paris Commune • he intended them to be sung to the tune of the Marse"aise • Its original French refrain is C'est la lutte finale/ Groupons-nous et demain/ L'Internationale/ Sera le genre humain. (Freely translated: "This is the final struggle/ Let us group together and tomorrow/ The Internationale/ Will be the human race.") • 1888-the current melody was composed by Pierre De Geyter, in time for it to become the anthem of the Second International • the anarchists also claimed it • it is sung with the right fist clenched and raised, a salute of the Left which predates the Fascists’ and Nazis’ • 1902-Arkady Kots translated to Russian in time for the Revolution of 1905 • C'est la lutte finale/ Groupons-nous et demain/ L'Internationale/ Sera le genre humain Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  192. 192. Bakunin addressing a meeting of the IWA in Basel, 1869 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  193. 193. How Ukrainian students learned this material in 1972 a page from 10th grade text, Novaya Historia (Modern History) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  194. 194. How Ukrainian students learned this material in 1972 • Oct-Dec, 1972--I was an exchange teacher in the Ukrainian city of Vinnitsa a page from 10th grade text, Novaya Historia (Modern History) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  195. 195. How Ukrainian students learned this material in 1972 • Oct-Dec, 1972--I was an exchange teacher in the Ukrainian city of Vinnitsa • I observed classes from kindergarten- 10th grade (then, the final year) a page from 10th grade text, Novaya Historia (Modern History) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  196. 196. How Ukrainian students learned this material in 1972 • Oct-Dec, 1972--I was an exchange teacher in the Ukrainian city of Vinnitsa • I observed classes from kindergarten- 10th grade (then, the final year) • this textbook was the same, nationwide a page from 10th grade text, Novaya Historia (Modern History) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  197. 197. How Ukrainian students learned this material in 1972 • Oct-Dec, 1972--I was an exchange teacher in the Ukrainian city of Vinnitsa • I observed classes from kindergarten- 10th grade (then, the final year) • this textbook was the same, nationwide • by high school all history and political science instruction was in Russian regardless of the local language a page from 10th grade text, Novaya Historia (Modern History) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  198. 198. How Ukrainian students learned this material in 1972 • Oct-Dec, 1972--I was an exchange teacher in the Ukrainian city of Vinnitsa • I observed classes from kindergarten- 10th grade (then, the final year) • this textbook was the same, nationwide • by high school all history and political science instruction was in Russian regardless of the local language • the level, if not the veracity, of the historical material being presented was much more demanding than what we were presenting in America a page from 10th grade text, Novaya Historia (Modern History) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  199. 199. Anarchism Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  200. 200. Anarchism Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  201. 201. Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (1814-1876) • noble birth, a junior officer in the army, resigned his commission in 1835 • studied philosophy in Moscow, influenced by Westernizers, especially Alexander Herzen • 1842-left for Dresden, then Paris where he met George Sand, Proudhon, and Marx • deported from France for criticizing Russia’s oppression of Poland • 1849-arrested in Dresden for his participation in the Czech revolution of 1848, handed over to Russia, imprisoned • 1857-sent to a Siberian labor camp, katorga the young Bakunin • 1861-escaped to western Europe Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  202. 202. Anarchism in the late 19th century the first self-proclaimed anarchist was Pierre Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865). It was his Philosophy of Poverty that Marx ridiculed in 1847. but the great leader of the anarchists now was Mikhail Bakunin his group called themselves Mutualists and approved of “propaganda of the deed,” terrrorism they believed such acts by hard core revolutionaries would inspire the masses of proletarians to seize “the means of production” they applauded the assassination of Alexander II and encouraged similar acts against rulers and industrialists Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  203. 203. Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  204. 204. Marx versus Bakunin each detested the other personally Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  205. 205. Marx versus Bakunin each detested the other personally Bakunin hated Marx’s authoritarianism Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  206. 206. Marx versus Bakunin each detested the other personally Bakunin hated Marx’s authoritarianism he saw correctly that a successful Marxist revolution would leave the political and economic institutions which he hated untouched, even if they were in other hands Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  207. 207. Marx versus Bakunin each detested the other personally Bakunin hated Marx’s authoritarianism he saw correctly that a successful Marxist revolution would leave the political and economic institutions which he hated untouched, even if they were in other hands he believed that the dictatorship of the proletariat would be as oppressive as the bourgeois order and that the state would never “wither away” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  208. 208. Marx versus Bakunin each detested the other personally Bakunin hated Marx’s authoritarianism he saw correctly that a successful Marxist revolution would leave the political and economic institutions which he hated untouched, even if they were in other hands he believed that the dictatorship of the proletariat would be as oppressive as the bourgeois order and that the state would never “wither away” Marx was contemptuous of the lack of system and general “wooliness” of the anarchists’ declarations Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  209. 209. Marx versus Bakunin each detested the other personally Bakunin hated Marx’s authoritarianism he saw correctly that a successful Marxist revolution would leave the political and economic institutions which he hated untouched, even if they were in other hands he believed that the dictatorship of the proletariat would be as oppressive as the bourgeois order and that the state would never “wither away” Marx was contemptuous of the lack of system and general “wooliness” of the anarchists’ declarations he had a genuine horror of the ill-prepared acts of individual terrorism that the anarchists admired Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  210. 210. Anarchism after the First International 1873, expulsion from the First International, engineered by Marx: the International, weakened by the conflict, broke up in 1876 the anarchist philosophy continued to attract individuals French socialists, dissatisfied with caution after 1871, were attracted to “propaganda of the deed” to avenge the bloody suppression of the Paris Commune Italy and Spain, where rural classes were the most depressed and backward in western Europe, were especially open to the creed German-American anarchist, Johann Most, “Dynamost,” inspired Emma Goldman and her lover, Alexander Berkman, to gain fame during the Homestead Strike, 1892 a series of heads of state were assassinated by anarchists, including McKinley, 1901 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  211. 211. Syndicalism Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  212. 212. Syndicalism Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  213. 213. Georges Sorel (1847-1922) • French Syndicalist founder bourgeois, engineer graduate of the Ecole Polytechnique, director of public works 1892, retiring to write, favored Bakunin’s anarcho-collectivism over Marxism believed that force and “direct action” e.g., the strike, boycotts and sabotage, were necessary for change to occur anti-nationalist, anti-capitalist, he admired Charles Maurras, Action Française, Lenin and Mussolini for attacking bourgeois democracy most famous for Reflections on Violence, 1908 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  214. 214. Revisionism Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  215. 215. Revisionism Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  216. 216. Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  217. 217. Despite the anarcho-syndicalist preference for direct action as opposed to political maneuver, the main tendency in European socialism was political, and, by the 1890s, Socialist parties had been organized in most countries, were vying for popular support in national and local elections, and...were having considerable success. Most of these parties were Marxist….[This] did not mean that the parties … were … united and harmonious, for they often developed splinter groups…[E]ven before Engels’s death in 1895 a profound division was looming …. Craig, p.283 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  218. 218. the revisionist controversy for some time leading socialist and trade union leaders had been uneasy there was a gap between Marx’s predictions and the realities of European economic development “Peasants do not sink; Burgertum (the bourgeoisie) does not disappear; crises do not grow ever longer; misery and serfdom do not increase.”-- Eduard Bernstein the co"apse of the capitalist system was not imminent the Socialist parties must change their tactics if not their goals “… rescue socialism 'om the barricades”--G.B. Shaw Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  219. 219. Eduard Bernstein (1850-1932) German social democratic politician, SPD member, founder of evolutionary socialism Tuesday, September 29, 2009
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