Russian History; 1796-1881

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This presentation depicts Russian history under four tsars; Paul, Alexander I, Nicholas I, and Alexander II. It describes the events which led up to the 20th century Russian Revolutions of 1905 and 1917.

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Russian History; 1796-1881

  1. 1. The Russian Revolution 1815-1924 Session II Nineteenth Century Russia 1796-1881 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  2. 2. Major Points of This Session • Tsar Paul, 1796-1801--A Question of Madness • Alexander I, 1801-1825--Reform and Reaction • Nicholas I, 1825-1855--Reaction, Plain and Simple • Alexander II, 1855-1881--Reform, then Reaction Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  3. 3. Introduction Internal Instability: 1796-1825 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  4. 4. Introduction Internal Instability: 1796-1825 The Battle of Borodino 1812 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  5. 5. Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  6. 6. During the period of the Napoleonic Wars and in the decade following them, Russia began to show signs of internal strain; the system of society and government bequeathed by Catherine II was beginning to lose its equipoise. Basic to the growing imbalance was the continuing peasant unrest, now becoming so extended that the institution of serfdom itself was being questioned…. Before long, wider attention was to be focused on the emerging question: could the existing system...be maintained indefinitely without fundamental change. Sidney Harcave, Russia, A History. p. 205 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  7. 7. The fatal flaw of enlightened despotism--everything depends upon the despot. RR Palmer Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  8. 8. Tsar Paul--A Question of Madness Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  9. 9. Tsar Paul--A Question of Madness 1754-1796-1801 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  10. 10. Tsar Paul’s Childhood • Catherine suggested that his father was her lover, Prince Saltykov • her court, with its intrigues and her sexual acting-out, was not a healthy place • his pug-nosed facial features in later life are attributed to an attack of typhus, from which he suffered in 1771 • he believed, with some basis, that his mother intended to murder him Paul I as a child Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  11. 11. Па́вел I Петро́вич -- 1754-1796-1801 • at Catherine’s death, he undid many of her measures • his positive accomplishments are forgotten because of the opprobrium over his eccentricities • he was fiercely hostile towards the nobility and their privileges. He publicly humiliated them. • during his five year reign he became more and more capricious and vindictive • his diplomacy during the Napoleonic Wars became increasingly erratic Statue before the Pavlovsk Palace Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  12. 12. the tsar’s Prussian militarism a parade before the Mikhailovsky Palace Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  13. 13. resentment leads to a crisis • the nobility became increasingly bitter and concerned as Paul seemed to become irrational and arbitrary. He alternated draconian punishments and lavish gifts. • the tsar’s fear of conspiracies helped produce them • Count Pahlen, military governor of St Petersburg, led a circle who planned to force Paul to abdicate in favor of his son Alexander • the twenty-three year old Tsarevich joined the conspirators • 23 March 1801, Paul suspected them and ordered his sons arrested • that night the conspirators went to the tsar with their demand that he abdicate • they were received, a quarrel followed, and Paul was strangled to death Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  14. 14. Alexander I--Reform and Reaction (1777-1801-1825) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  15. 15. Alexander I--Reform and Reaction (1777-1801-1825) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  16. 16. Alexander’s Upbringing Frédéric-César de La Harpe (1754-1838) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  17. 17. Alexander’s Upbringing • his grandmother, Catherine II, took charge of his and his younger brother Constantine’s education • there was talk that she planned to remove his father, Paul, from the succession • his Swiss republican tutor, La Harpe, implanted the philosophies of Plato, Descartes, Locke, and Rousseau • Catherine did permit Alexander contact with his parents. So he was torn between the two warring parties. Frédéric-César de La Harpe • “he learned to ride with the hounds and run with the hares”--Harcave (1754-1838) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  18. 18. His Character • he had earned Catherine’s praise by assimilating La Harpe’s instruction and Paul’s by displaying a love of Prussian military drill • “half a citizen of Switzerland and half a Prussian corporal” • “a weak and sly man”--Pushkin • “too weak to rule, too strong to be ruled”-- Prince Speransky • “No one knew his mind, and apparently he himself didn’t always know it”--Harcave Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  19. 19. Napoleon Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  20. 20. “Sword of the Revolution” or its destroyer? Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  21. 21. Wars of Napoleonic France Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  22. 22. Wars of Napoleonic France • Napoleon’s Italian campaigns (1797-99) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  23. 23. Wars of Napoleonic France • Napoleon’s Italian campaigns (1797-99) • Egyptian campaign & coup of 18 Brumaire(1798-99) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  24. 24. Wars of Napoleonic France • Napoleon’s Italian campaigns (1797-99) • Egyptian campaign & coup of 18 Brumaire(1798-99) • Third Coalition (1805) ends at Austerlitz Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  25. 25. Wars of Napoleonic France • Napoleon’s Italian campaigns (1797-99) • Egyptian campaign & coup of 18 Brumaire(1798-99) • Third Coalition (1805) ends at Austerlitz • “...even I will be good at [war] for only another five or six years” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  26. 26. Wars of Napoleonic France • Napoleon’s Italian campaigns (1797-99) • Egyptian campaign & coup of 18 Brumaire(1798-99) • Third Coalition (1805) ends at Austerlitz • “...even I will be good at [war] for only another five or six years” • Fourth Coalition (1806-07) ends with Russia’s defeat at Friedland Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  27. 27. Wars of Napoleonic France • Napoleon’s Italian campaigns (1797-99) • Egyptian campaign & coup of 18 Brumaire(1798-99) • Third Coalition (1805) ends at Austerlitz • “...even I will be good at [war] for only another five or six years” • Fourth Coalition (1806-07) ends with Russia’s defeat at Friedland • Fifth Coalition (1809) Britain’s Peninsular Campaign begins, Austria is beaten once again Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  28. 28. Wars of Napoleonic France • Napoleon’s Italian campaigns (1797-99) • Egyptian campaign & coup of 18 Brumaire(1798-99) • Third Coalition (1805) ends at Austerlitz • “...even I will be good at [war] for only another five or six years” • Fourth Coalition (1806-07) ends with Russia’s defeat at Friedland • Fifth Coalition (1809) Britain’s Peninsular Campaign begins, Austria is beaten once again • Sixth Coalition (1812-14)--Napoleon’s hubris Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  29. 29. Wars of Napoleonic France • Napoleon’s Italian campaigns (1797-99) • Egyptian campaign & coup of 18 Brumaire(1798-99) • Third Coalition (1805) ends at Austerlitz • “...even I will be good at [war] for only another five or six years” • Fourth Coalition (1806-07) ends with Russia’s defeat at Friedland • Fifth Coalition (1809) Britain’s Peninsular Campaign begins, Austria is beaten once again • Sixth Coalition (1812-14)--Napoleon’s hubris • Seventh Coalition (1815)--the Hundred Days & Waterloo Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  30. 30. Alexander wavers Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  31. 31. Alexander wavers • 1800-1801-hero worship, then scorn and hostility • LaHarpe first praised, then denounced Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  32. 32. Alexander wavers • 1800-1801-hero worship, then scorn and hostility • LaHarpe first praised, then denounced • 1803-1805-allies with Austria & Prussia against Napoleon • Austerlitz(1805) and Friedland (1807) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  33. 33. Alexander wavers • 1800-1801-hero worship, then scorn and hostility • LaHarpe first praised, then denounced • 1803-1805-allies with Austria & Prussia against Napoleon • Austerlitz(1805) and Friedland (1807) • 1807-treaties of Tilsit--Alexander and Napoleon now allies • unequal alliance with France, crushing peace for Prussia Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  34. 34. Alexander wavers • 1800-1801-hero worship, then scorn and hostility • LaHarpe first praised, then denounced • 1803-1805-allies with Austria & Prussia against Napoleon • Austerlitz(1805) and Friedland (1807) • 1807-treaties of Tilsit--Alexander and Napoleon now allies • unequal alliance with France, crushing peace for Prussia • 1812-invasion!--> unrelenting hostility toward the “greatest tyrant of the world” and “disturber of the peace of Europe” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  35. 35. scenes from the wars Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  36. 36. scenes from the wars Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  37. 37. scenes from the wars Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  38. 38. scenes from the wars Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  39. 39. scenes from the wars Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  40. 40. scenes from the wars Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  41. 41. scenes from the wars Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  42. 42. scenes from the wars Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  43. 43. scenes from the wars Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  44. 44. scenes from the wars Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  45. 45. scenes from the wars Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  46. 46. scenes from the wars Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  47. 47. Alexander and the Concert of Europe Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  48. 48. Alexander and the Concert of Europe Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  49. 49. Alexander and the Concert of Europe Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  50. 50. Alexander and the Concert of Europe Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  51. 51. Alexander and the Concert of Europe Kaiser Franz I Tsar Alexander Congress of Verona, 1822 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  52. 52. Count Mikhail Speransky (1772-1839) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  53. 53. Count Mikhail Speransky (1772-1839) • Alexander’s liberal advisor Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  54. 54. Count Mikhail Speransky (1772-1839) • Alexander’s liberal advisor • 1809-his constitutional plan, based on a series of dumas, never came to be Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  55. 55. Count Mikhail Speransky (1772-1839) • Alexander’s liberal advisor • 1809-his constitutional plan, based on a series of dumas, never came to be • 1812-a conspiracy of conservative aristocrats and clergy forced his dismissal Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  56. 56. Count Mikhail Speransky (1772-1839) • Alexander’s liberal advisor • 1809-his constitutional plan, based on a series of dumas, never came to be • 1812-a conspiracy of conservative aristocrats and clergy forced his dismissal • 1815-however he influenced the constitutions granted to Finland and Poland Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  57. 57. Count Mikhail Speransky (1772-1839) • Alexander’s liberal advisor • 1809-his constitutional plan, based on a series of dumas, never came to be • 1812-a conspiracy of conservative aristocrats and clergy forced his dismissal • 1815-however he influenced the constitutions granted to Finland and Poland • 1826-Nicholas I recalled him to codify Russia’s law codes, a task completed in 1833 with 35,933 enactments! Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  58. 58. Post-war Domestic Policy Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  59. 59. Post-war Domestic Policy • at the beginning of his reign Alexander had promised a codification of laws and a liberal constitution, neither was delivered Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  60. 60. Post-war Domestic Policy • at the beginning of his reign Alexander had promised a codification of laws and a liberal constitution, neither was delivered • new bodies, the State Council and Imperial Senate, theoretically powerful, “became slavish instruments of the tsar and his favorites of the moment” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  61. 61. Post-war Domestic Policy • at the beginning of his reign Alexander had promised a codification of laws and a liberal constitution, neither was delivered • new bodies, the State Council and Imperial Senate, theoretically powerful, “became slavish instruments of the tsar and his favorites of the moment” • 1818-a foolish plot to kidnap him on the way to the Congress of Aix- la-Chapelle by his own officers began his conversion to reaction Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  62. 62. Post-war Domestic Policy • at the beginning of his reign Alexander had promised a codification of laws and a liberal constitution, neither was delivered • new bodies, the State Council and Imperial Senate, theoretically powerful, “became slavish instruments of the tsar and his favorites of the moment” • 1818-a foolish plot to kidnap him on the way to the Congress of Aix- la-Chapelle by his own officers began his conversion to reaction • other influences: personal contacts with Metternich, the liberal revolutions of the 1820s, especially the Greek War for Independence Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  63. 63. Post-war Domestic Policy • at the beginning of his reign Alexander had promised a codification of laws and a liberal constitution, neither was delivered • new bodies, the State Council and Imperial Senate, theoretically powerful, “became slavish instruments of the tsar and his favorites of the moment” • 1818-a foolish plot to kidnap him on the way to the Congress of Aix- la-Chapelle by his own officers began his conversion to reaction • other influences: personal contacts with Metternich, the liberal revolutions of the 1820s, especially the Greek War for Independence • stirrings among the Russian peasantry, a constant theme which provoke an authoritarian response Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  64. 64. Count Alexey Andreyevich Arakcheyev (1769-1834) general, War Minister “That which ceases to grow begins to rot.” wartime reforms military settlements(1816) symbol of repression Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  65. 65. Beginnings of liberal aristocratic dissent • junior officers during the last years of the war and especially during the occupation of France came in contact with western ideas • 1816-a secret society arose in the Imperial Guards Regiment calling itself the Union of Salvation • a charter member, Col. Pavel Pestel, even drew up a republican constitution modeled on that of the United States • 1820-after a misfired uprising, most drifted away • the “hard core’ formed the Northern Society in St. Petersburg and the Southern Society in Tulchin, Ukraine Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  66. 66. a strange death Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  67. 67. a strange death • 1825-Alexander travelled south for his wife’s health Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  68. 68. a strange death • 1825-Alexander travelled south for his wife’s health • he caught typhus and died in the seaport of Taganrog. His body was shipped back for burial in the fortress of Petropavlovsk Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  69. 69. a strange death • 1825-Alexander travelled south for his wife’s health • he caught typhus and died in the seaport of Taganrog. His body was shipped back for burial in the fortress of Petropavlovsk • almost immediately rumors began, he hadn’t really died • he had staged his death, retired incognito to a Siberian monastery • a soldier was buried in his place or the grave was empty (Soviets in 1925!) • the British ambassador had seen him board a ship Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  70. 70. a strange death • 1825-Alexander travelled south for his wife’s health • he caught typhus and died in the seaport of Taganrog. His body was shipped back for burial in the fortress of Petropavlovsk • almost immediately rumors began, he hadn’t really died • he had staged his death, retired incognito to a Siberian monastery • a soldier was buried in his place or the grave was empty (Soviets in 1925!) • the British ambassador had seen him board a ship • confusion regarding the order of succession • Nicholas was younger than Alexander’s more liberal brother, Constantine • liberal army officers, the Dekabristi, tried to stage a coup Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  71. 71. “The Decembrists on Senate Square” Picture by painter Karl Kolman (1786-1846). Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  72. 72. Nicholas I--Reaction, Pure and Simple Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  73. 73. Nicholas I--Reaction, Pure and Simple Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  74. 74. December 14--Nicholas puts in the cavalry Picture by painter Vasily F. Timm (1820-1895) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  75. 75. Aftermath of the Dekabristi Revolt • December 14--the afternoon’s demonstration of the Northern Society was quelled by loyal army troops (9,000 vs 3,000) The ringleaders were arrested. • when many fled across the frozen Neva River, artillery fired at them and opened up the river. Dead and wounded met their end that way. • 3 January 1826--the Southern Society suffered a significant defeat in its effort to raise a rebellion. By January 10 all resistance was overcome. Ringleaders were sent to the capital for trial. • 24 July 1826--five were sentenced to be hanged, the remaining 116 were sentenced to katorga in Siberia or reduced to private and sentenced to spend the rest of their lives in the army at that rank. • Nicholas began his reign with a harsh repression of this abortive attempt to bring constitutional government to the empire. Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  76. 76. Gallows Humor Kondraty Ryleyev, was one of the five sentenced at first to be quartered. Nicholas commuted the sentence to hanging. As the trap dropped all five fell to the ground when the ropes parted. Bruised and battered, Ryleyev rose and said “In Russia they don’t know how to do anything properly, not even how to make a rope.” An accident of this sort usually resulted in a pardon, so a messenger was sent to the Iron Tsar to know his pleasure. Nicholas asked “What did he say?” “Sire, he said that in Russia they don’t even know how to make a rope properly.” “Well, let the contrary be proved.” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  77. 77. Gallows Humor Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  78. 78. Life of the Decembrists in Siberia Paintings from the online Decembrist Museum Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  79. 79. Life of the Decembrists in Siberia Paintings from the online Decembrist Museum Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  80. 80. Life of the Decembrists in Siberia Paintings from the online Decembrist Museum Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  81. 81. Life of the Decembrists in Siberia Paintings from the online Decembrist Museum Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  82. 82. Life of the Decembrists in Siberia Paintings from the online Decembrist Museum Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  83. 83. Life of the Decembrists in Siberia Paintings from the online Decembrist Museum Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  84. 84. Life of the Decembrists in Siberia Paintings from the online Decembrist Museum Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  85. 85. Life of the Decembrists in Siberia Paintings from the online Decembrist Museum Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  86. 86. Nicholas was deeply affected Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  87. 87. Nicholas was deeply affected “...he dedicated himself to the task of providing lasting protection from the threat of another revolution. As a first step he spent several months investigating the antecedents of the revolt, questioning suspects as to the programs and the membership of the secret societies…. In itself the revolt was petty….It was essentially a movement of young noble officers...who represented neither the nobility nor the lower classes. Its importance lay in the fact that it was the beginning of organized revolutionary protest against the regime.” Harcave, p.225 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  88. 88. “...a round peg in a round hole.” • in contrast to his older brother Alexander, he had no doubts about himself or his duties • not raised to be tsar; he, like Kaiser Wilhelm of Prussia, another younger brother, was raised for the army • his tutors main concern was the inculcation of respect for autocracy, orthodoxy, and military discipline • at twenty-nine, when he gained the throne, he was a well-integrated person • “He is stern and severe--with fixed principles of duty which nothing on earth will make him change; very clever I do not think him…” in front of St. Isaac’s Cathedral, 1859 --Queen Victoria, 1844 the 1st in the world with only the two back legs connected to the pedestal Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  89. 89. Nicholas’ army parading in the capital Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  90. 90. Nicholas’ army parading in the capital Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  91. 91. Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  92. 92. Here [in the army] there is order, there is a strict unconditional legality, no impertinent claims to know all the answers, no contradiction, all things flow logically one from the other; no one commands before he has himself learned to obey, no one steps in front of anyone else without lawful reason; ever ything is subordinated to one definite goal, everything has its purpose. That is why I feel so well among these people, and why I shall always hold in honor the calling of a soldier. I consider the entire human life to be merely service, because everybody serves. NICHOLAS I quoted in Riasonovski, vol. i, p. 301 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  93. 93. Nicholas reacts to the revolutions of 1830 • July--first France, then Belgium, experience real revolution, several German states attempt to follow their example • Nicholas’ older brother, Grand Duke Constantine, governor of “Congress Poland,” makes plans to ignore the Polish constitution and use Polish troops to suppress the revolutionary disturbances in central Europe • liberal Polish officers use this provocation to rebel against Russian rule and seek independence based on the pre-1772 borders • 29 November 1830--Polish cadets seize Warsaw and the Polish army follows their example • Lithuania, Belarus (White Russia), and the Western Ukraine join the revolt Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  94. 94. The Polish November Uprising 1830-1831 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  95. 95. The Polish November Uprising 1830-1831 Emilia Plater Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  96. 96. The Polish November Uprising 1830-1831 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  97. 97. The Polish November Uprising 1830-1831 The Lithuanian Joan of Arc Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  98. 98. The Polish November Uprising 1830-1831 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  99. 99. The Polish November Uprising 1830-1831 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  100. 100. The Polish November Uprising 1830-1831 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  101. 101. The Polish November Uprising 1830-1831 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  102. 102. The Polish November Uprising 1830-1831 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  103. 103. The Polish November Uprising 1830-1831 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  104. 104. Sergei Sergeivich Uvarov (1765-1855) Education Minister (1833-1849) by Orest Kiprensky, 1815-16 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  105. 105. Sergei Sergeivich Uvarov (1765-1855) Education Minister (1833-1849) ПРАВОСЛАВИЕ (pravoslavieye) САМОДЕРЖАВИЕ (samoderzhavieye) НАРОДНОСТЬ (narodnost) Orthodoxy Autocracy Nationality by Orest Kiprensky, 1815-16 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  106. 106. чиновство (chi•NOVST•vuh= bureaucracy) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  107. 107. чиновство (chi•NOVST•vuh= bureaucracy) • beginning as early as Ivan III, while Moscovy was gobbling up other principalities, a new class of nobles was being rewarded with lands Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  108. 108. чиновство (chi•NOVST•vuh= bureaucracy) • beginning as early as Ivan III, while Moscovy was gobbling up other principalities, a new class of nobles was being rewarded with lands • their titles were conditional , not hereditary, based on service, either military or administrative; hence, service nobility Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  109. 109. чиновство (chi•NOVST•vuh= bureaucracy) • beginning as early as Ivan III, while Moscovy was gobbling up other principalities, a new class of nobles was being rewarded with lands • their titles were conditional , not hereditary, based on service, either military or administrative; hence, service nobility • Peter I created a table of noble rank with 12 grades (чин-chin) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  110. 110. чиновство (chi•NOVST•vuh= bureaucracy) • beginning as early as Ivan III, while Moscovy was gobbling up other principalities, a new class of nobles was being rewarded with lands • their titles were conditional , not hereditary, based on service, either military or administrative; hence, service nobility • Peter I created a table of noble rank with 12 grades (чин-chin) • Paul, with his admiration for things Prussian, modeled his civil bureaucracy on that of Frederick the Great’s Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  111. 111. чиновство (chi•NOVST•vuh= bureaucracy) • beginning as early as Ivan III, while Moscovy was gobbling up other principalities, a new class of nobles was being rewarded with lands • their titles were conditional , not hereditary, based on service, either military or administrative; hence, service nobility • Peter I created a table of noble rank with 12 grades (чин-chin) • Paul, with his admiration for things Prussian, modeled his civil bureaucracy on that of Frederick the Great’s • Alexander began and Nicholas completed the reform and centralization of the Russian state machinery Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  112. 112. чиновство (chi•NOVST•vuh= bureaucracy) • beginning as early as Ivan III, while Moscovy was gobbling up other principalities, a new class of nobles was being rewarded with lands • their titles were conditional , not hereditary, based on service, either military or administrative; hence, service nobility • Peter I created a table of noble rank with 12 grades (чин-chin) • Paul, with his admiration for things Prussian, modeled his civil bureaucracy on that of Frederick the Great’s • Alexander began and Nicholas completed the reform and centralization of the Russian state machinery • there was equivalency between civil and military ranks, with a uniform and honorific for each Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  113. 113. Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  114. 114. • the Table of 1834 set up the equivalences among officials of the civil service, the armed forces and the court Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  115. 115. • the Table of 1834 set up the equivalences among officials of the civil service, the armed forces and the court • the rank of Privy Councillor in the civil service = Lieutenant General in the army = Master of the Hounds at court. Each was addressed as “Excellency” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  116. 116. • the Table of 1834 set up the equivalences among officials of the civil service, the armed forces and the court • the rank of Privy Councillor in the civil service = Lieutenant General in the army = Master of the Hounds at court. Each was addressed as “Excellency” • a civil official Actual Councillor of State = major general. Addressed as “High Born” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  117. 117. • the Table of 1834 set up the equivalences among officials of the civil service, the armed forces and the court • the rank of Privy Councillor in the civil service = Lieutenant General in the army = Master of the Hounds at court. Each was addressed as “Excellency” • a civil official Actual Councillor of State = major general. Addressed as “High Born” • Collegiate Secretary = midshipman in the navy (near the bottom of the hierarchy) rating only the address of “Well-born” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  118. 118. • the Table of 1834 set up the equivalences among officials of the civil service, the armed forces and the court • the rank of Privy Councillor in the civil service = Lieutenant General in the army = Master of the Hounds at court. Each was addressed as “Excellency” • a civil official Actual Councillor of State = major general. Addressed as “High Born” • Collegiate Secretary = midshipman in the navy (near the bottom of the hierarchy) rating only the address of “Well-born” • below the officials of the civil service were the numerous rank-and-file personnel, like military enlisted people, also in uniform and hierarchically organized Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  119. 119. • the Table of 1834 set up the equivalences among officials of the civil service, the armed forces and the court • the rank of Privy Councillor in the civil service = Lieutenant General in the army = Master of the Hounds at court. Each was addressed as “Excellency” • a civil official Actual Councillor of State = major general. Addressed as “High Born” • Collegiate Secretary = midshipman in the navy (near the bottom of the hierarchy) rating only the address of “Well-born” • below the officials of the civil service were the numerous rank-and-file personnel, like military enlisted people, also in uniform and hierarchically organized • the чиновники (chi•NOV•ni•ki) had all the evils: arrogance, “red tape,”timidity, rigidity, we associate with the worst bureaucracies today Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  120. 120. Defects of the System • given its size it’s remarkable that it did as well as it did, holding together an empire ruling one-eighth the surface of the earth • however, its defects came from many interacting forces: • the great expanse of the Russian land, the political immaturity and cultural diversity of its people, and the backwardness of its economy • the nature of its personnel: they lacked training and a proper interest in ther work. Nicholas expanded the university system, but the majority lacked a good education • Nicholas tried to control things through reports, “complaints books” and forms for everything • those who dealt with the public expected “tips” (bribes) for services • obedience to the state had been created by force and was maintained by force or the threat of force • there was no tradition of respect for the law apart from fear. Subjects tried to “beat the system” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  121. 121. Count Alexander von Benckendorff (1783-1844) warned of the Decembrists, created the secret police called the Third Section (Третье Урок) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  122. 122. Censorship • begun under Alexander, the severity of centralized press censorship expanded after 1826 • several agencies had overlapping power and now the Third Section joined the process • periodicals which criticized the country or the state were suspended • one printed an article by Peter Chaadayev comparing Russian development to the west unfavorably: • the publication was suspended, the editor exiled • Chaadayev, a nobleman and retired guards officer, was officially declared insane and confined to his home Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  123. 123. Autocratic Public Works Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  124. 124. Pavel Petrovich Melnikov (1804-1880) Minister of Transport Communications, the St Petersburg-Moscow Railroad (1842-1851) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  125. 125. The Myth of the Tsar’s Finger Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  126. 126. The Myth of the Tsar’s Finger the railroad was constructed in an almost straight line Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  127. 127. The Myth of the Tsar’s Finger the railroad was constructed in an almost straight line through swamps, hills, valleys at great cost in human (serf) life Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  128. 128. The Myth of the Tsar’s Finger the railroad was constructed in an almost straight line through swamps, hills, valleys at great cost in human (serf) life lamented by Nekrasov in his poem “The Railway” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  129. 129. The Myth of the Tsar’s Finger the railroad was constructed in an almost straight line through swamps, hills, valleys at great cost in human (serf) life lamented by Nekrasov in his poem “The Railway” the 17 km bend was [falsely] attributed to the tsar drawing a straight line with a ruler, the bump was caused by his finger Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  130. 130. The Myth of the Tsar’s Finger the railroad was constructed in an almost straight line through swamps, hills, valleys at great cost in human (serf) life lamented by Nekrasov in his poem “The Railway” the 17 km bend was [falsely] attributed to the tsar drawing a straight line with a ruler, the bump was caused by his finger Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  131. 131. St. Isaac’s Cathedral, St. Petersburg (1818-1858) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  132. 132. St. Isaac’s Cathedral, St. Petersburg (1818-1858) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  133. 133. St. Isaac’s Cathedral, St. Petersburg (1818-1858) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  134. 134. St. Isaac’s Cathedral, St. Petersburg (1818-1858) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  135. 135. St. Isaac’s Cathedral, St. Petersburg (1818-1858) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  136. 136. St. Isaac’s Cathedral, St. Petersburg (1818-1858) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  137. 137. The Intelligentsia “...not the ‘brain’ of the nation, they are the ‘feces’ of the nation.” V.I. Lenin Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  138. 138. Russia’s long period of intellectual apprenticeship to the West was coming to an end by the middle years of the nineteenth century, and her thinkers and creators were becoming masters in their own right. The attainment of relatively advanced intellectual status among the few ser ved to emphasize the relative backwardness in other aspects of Russian life. And the recognition of that backwardness could not fail to affect the direction and cast of the intellectual activity of the period. Harcave, p. 243 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  139. 139. Alexander Pushkin 1799-1837 the Golden Age of Russian Poetry Evgenie Onegin, published serially, 1825-1832 by Vasili Tropinin, 1827 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  140. 140. Nikolai Gogol (1809-1852) • 1830s-both Pushkin and the poet Lermontov try their hands at prose • Gogol is the premier prose writer of the first half of the century • a Russified Ukrainian, he uses both traditions • his two masterpieces: • The Government Inspector (Revisor) 1835 • Dead Souls 1842 by Alexandr Ivanov Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  141. 141. Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  142. 142. Why use the foreign-sounding “intelligentsia” when the English language has the word “intellectuals”? The answer is that one needs different terms to designate different phenomena--in this case, to distinguish those who passively contemplate life from activists who are determined to reshape it. Marx succinctly stated the latter position when he wrote: “the philosophers have only interpreted the world in various ways; the point, however, is to change it.” The term “intelligentsia” describes intellectuals who want power in order to change the world. Pipes, p.21 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  143. 143. types of inte%igenti • “repentant nobles”--the Dekabristi were the earliest such • “persons of various ranks” разночинтси (raznochintsi)--objects of Nicholas’ special wrath • “circles” кружоки (kruzhoki) • at Moscow University: the Slavophils • at various homes in Skt-Peterburg: the Westernizers • the Petrashevsky circle Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  144. 144. The Кружок (kru•ZHOK) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  145. 145. The Кружок (kru•ZHOK) with its endless discussions over endless glasses of tea, became one of the seminal influences in Russian thought. Harcave, p.247 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  146. 146. Slavophils • the fate of the Dekabristi initiated, motivated, inspired the first study groups at Moscow University in the 1830s • German philosophy, Hegel, Kant, and Feuerbach reigned supreme • both like and unlike Uvarov’s official narodnost • some parts of their doctrine Aleksey Khomyakov were useful to both revolutionaries and reactionaries Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  147. 147. Slavophils • the fate of the Dekabristi initiated, motivated, inspired the first study groups at Moscow University in the 1830s • German philosophy, Hegel, Kant, and Feuerbach reigned supreme • both like and unlike Uvarov’s official narodnost • some parts of their doctrine were useful to both Ivan Kireevsky revolutionaries and reactionaries Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  148. 148. Slavophils • the fate of the Dekabristi initiated, motivated, inspired the first study groups at Moscow University in the 1830s • German philosophy, Hegel, Kant, and Feuerbach reigned supreme • both like and unlike Uvarov’s official narodnost • some parts of their doctrine were useful to both Konstantin Aksakov revolutionaries and reactionaries Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  149. 149. Slavophils • the fate of the Dekabristi initiated, motivated, inspired the first study groups at Moscow University in the 1830s • German philosophy, Hegel, Kant, and Feuerbach reigned supreme • both like and unlike Uvarov’s official narodnost • some parts of their doctrine were useful to both revolutionaries and Vladimir Solovyov reactionaries Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  150. 150. Slavophils • the fate of the Dekabristi initiated, motivated, inspired the first study groups at Moscow University in the 1830s • German philosophy, Hegel, Kant, and Feuerbach reigned supreme • both like and unlike Uvarov’s official narodnost • some parts of their doctrine You wouldn't understand Russia just using were useful to both the intellect / You couldn't measure her using revolutionaries and the common scale / She has a special kind of grace / You can only believe in her. reactionaries Fyodor Tutchev Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  151. 151. Westernizers (Западники) • 1830s-at the same time an opposing group was forming • their hero was Peter the Great • rationalistic, anticlerical • Stankevich’s circle--Hegelian • Herzen’s--French utopian socialist • Belinsky--a “person[s] of various ranks” (raznochinik) • exiles and willing émigrés Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  152. 152. Westernizers (Западники) • 1830s-at the same time an opposing group was forming • their hero was Peter the Great • rationalistic, anticlerical • Stankevich’s circle--Hegelian • Herzen’s--French utopian socialist • Belinsky--a “person[s] of various ranks” (raznochinik) • exiles and willing émigrés Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  153. 153. Westernizers (Западники) • 1830s-at the same time an opposing group was forming • their hero was Peter the Great • rationalistic, anticlerical • Stankevich’s circle--Hegelian • Herzen’s--French utopian socialist • Belinsky--a “person[s] of various ranks” (raznochinik) • exiles and willing émigrés Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  154. 154. Westernizers (Западники) • 1830s-at the same time an opposing group was forming • their hero was Peter the Great • rationalistic, anticlerical • Stankevich’s circle--Hegelian • Herzen’s--French utopian socialist • Belinsky--a “person[s] of various ranks” (raznochinik) • exiles and willing émigrés Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  155. 155. Westernizers (Западники) • 1830s-at the same time an opposing group was forming • their hero was Peter the Great • rationalistic, anticlerical • Stankevich’s circle--Hegelian • Herzen’s--French utopian socialist • Belinsky--a “person[s] of various ranks” (raznochinik) • exiles and willing émigrés Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  156. 156. Russia’s only domestic experience of the Revolution of 1848 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  157. 157. Some of the Petrashevsky Circle Russia’s only domestic experience of the Revolution of 1848 Petrashevsky Dostoyevsky picture from 1872 “civic execution” a mock execution in 1849 Count Benckendorff Nechayev Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  158. 158. 1850--”The Gendarme of Europe” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  159. 159. 1850--”The Gendarme of Europe” • Nicholas was furious at the revolutions in Prussia and Austria Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  160. 160. 1850--”The Gendarme of Europe” • Nicholas was furious at the revolutions in Prussia and Austria • he feared that they would spread to Poland Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  161. 161. 1850--”The Gendarme of Europe” • Nicholas was furious at the revolutions in Prussia and Austria • he feared that they would spread to Poland • he offered his army and General Paskevich who had crushed the Poles in 1831 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  162. 162. 1850--”The Gendarme of Europe” • Nicholas was furious at the revolutions in Prussia and Austria • he feared that they would spread to Poland • he offered his army and General Paskevich who had crushed the Poles in 1831 • Frederick William declined but the young Franz Josef welcomed Russian aid in subduing the Hungarians Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  163. 163. 1850--”The Gendarme of Europe” • Nicholas was furious at the revolutions in Prussia and Austria • he feared that they would spread to Poland • he offered his army and General Paskevich who had crushed the Poles in 1831 • Frederick William declined but the young Franz Josef welcomed Russian aid in subduing the Hungarians • liberal forces throughout Europe began to equate Russia with exporting repression Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  164. 164. Foreign Policy Stability versus Expansion The Caucasus War 1817-1864 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  165. 165. Staunch Conservative The Original “Gendarme of Europe” • 1822-for the next forty years this Baltic German diplomat shaped Russian foreign policy as Foreign Minister or Chancellor to Alexander I, Nicholas I, and Alexander II • backed the Congress System and the Holy Alliance • used Russian troops to help crush the revolutions of 1830-31 and 1848-49 • despite his support for legitimacy and cooperation between the Great Powers, he sought to expand Russian influence in the Balkans and the Black Sea • this put Russia at odds with Britain, France, and Sardinia-Piedmont who all wished to Count Karl Robert Nesselrode preserve the Ottoman (Turkish) Empire 1780-1862 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  166. 166. The Eastern Question • [Turkey was] “a sick man...gravely ill”--Nicholas I in 1853 • the Balkans • the Straits • Transcaucasia • the Holy Land Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  167. 167. Dismembering the Ottoman Empire Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  168. 168. Dismembering the Ottoman Empire Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  169. 169. Dismembering the Ottoman Empire Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  170. 170. Dismembering the Ottoman Empire Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  171. 171. “The Great Game” Arthur Conolly, 6th Bengal Light Cavalry • the British and Russian empires were both expanding into central Asia during the second quarter of the nineteenth century • Persia and “the Stans”, unlike the Ottoman Empire, were not exactly pushovers for the western imperialists • Britain was primarily playing “defense” as she had the more to lose from Russia’s awakening expansionism • Afghanistan, then as now, was tremendously difficult terrain, a severe challenge for conquest • it was the focal point for British-Russian imperial rivalry Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  172. 172. The Russian Bear vs the British Lion Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  173. 173. The Russian Bear vs the British Lion Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  174. 174. The Russian Bear vs the British Lion Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  175. 175. The Russian Bear vs the British Lion Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  176. 176. Alexander II--Reform, then Reaction Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  177. 177. Alexander II--Reform, then Reaction 1818-1855-1881 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  178. 178. the reluctant soldier Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  179. 179. the reluctant soldier • firstborn son of a passionate militarist father Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  180. 180. the reluctant soldier • firstborn son of a passionate militarist father • his mother, Charlotte of Prussia Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  181. 181. the reluctant soldier • firstborn son of a passionate militarist father • his mother, Charlotte of Prussia • educated by the liberal poet Vasily Zhukovsky Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  182. 182. the reluctant soldier • firstborn son of a passionate militarist father • his mother, Charlotte of Prussia • educated by the liberal poet Vasily Zhukovsky • took little personal interest in military affairs Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  183. 183. the reluctant soldier • firstborn son of a passionate militarist father • his mother, Charlotte of Prussia • educated by the liberal poet Vasily Zhukovsky • took little personal interest in military affairs “gave evidence of a kind disposition and a warmheartedness which were considered out of place in one destined to become a military autocrat” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  184. 184. Coronation August, 1856 at the Dormition Cathedral, Moscow Kremlin Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  185. 185. Александр II Николаевич (1818-1855-1881) his predisposition was that of a reformer his situation was that of autocrat his intelligence saved him from utopian advisers became Tsar in the middle of the Crimean War Russia’s wretched performance, especially that of their serf conscripts, convinced all of the need for reform known as the Tsar Liberator for freeing the serfs, after five years of planning, in 1861 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  186. 186. Alexander to an assembly of nobles in Moscow, March, 1856 “[announced that] the existing order of ruling over living souls cannot remain unchanged. It is better to abolish bondage from above than to wait for the time when it will begin to abolish itself from below.” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  187. 187. Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  188. 188. Чтение Положения 19 февраля 1861 года Reading of the manifesto of February 19, 1861 (on abolition of serfdom in Russia) by Grigori Myasoedov, 1873 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  189. 189. the difference between serfdom and slavery Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  190. 190. the difference between serfdom and slavery European Serfdom Trans-Atlantic Slavery • lasts from late Roman Empire to 1861 (Russia) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  191. 191. the difference between serfdom and slavery European Serfdom Trans-Atlantic Slavery • lasts from late Roman Empire to 1861 (Russia) •serfs were attached to the land-- could be rented but not sold Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  192. 192. the difference between serfdom and slavery European Serfdom Trans-Atlantic Slavery • lasts from late Roman Empire to 1861 (Russia) •serfs were attached to the land-- could be rented but not sold •under feudalism there were degrees of serfdom Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  193. 193. the difference between serfdom and slavery European Serfdom Trans-Atlantic Slavery • lasts from late Roman Empire to •lasts from 16th century to 1888 (Brazil) 1861 (Russia) America (1619-1865) •serfs were attached to the land-- could be rented but not sold •under feudalism there were degrees of serfdom •like so many other reforms, the end of serfdom spread eastward beginning in the late Middle ages Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  194. 194. the difference between serfdom and slavery European Serfdom Trans-Atlantic Slavery • lasts from late Roman Empire to •lasts from 16th century to 1888 (Brazil) 1861 (Russia) America (1619-1865) •serfs were attached to the land-- •slaves were chattels, personal; could be sold could be rented but not sold “downriver” •under feudalism there were degrees of serfdom •like so many other reforms, the end of serfdom spread eastward beginning in the late Middle ages Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  195. 195. the difference between serfdom and slavery European Serfdom Trans-Atlantic Slavery • lasts from late Roman Empire to •lasts from 16th century to 1888 (Brazil) 1861 (Russia) America (1619-1865) •serfs were attached to the land-- •slaves were chattels, personal; could be sold could be rented but not sold “downriver” •under feudalism there were degrees •slavery varied from country to country, state of serfdom to state •like so many other reforms, the end of serfdom spread eastward beginning in the late Middle ages Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  196. 196. the difference between serfdom and slavery European Serfdom Trans-Atlantic Slavery • lasts from late Roman Empire to •lasts from 16th century to 1888 (Brazil) 1861 (Russia) America (1619-1865) •serfs were attached to the land-- •slaves were chattels, personal; could be sold could be rented but not sold “downriver” •under feudalism there were degrees •slavery varied from country to country, state of serfdom to state •like so many other reforms, the end •the French Revolution began the end of New of serfdom spread eastward World slavery beginning in the late Middle ages Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  197. 197. shortcomings of the emancipation edict Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  198. 198. shortcomings of the emancipation edict the nobility was generously compensated with rents collected by the peasant village governments (miri, singular, mir) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  199. 199. shortcomings of the emancipation edict the nobility was generously compensated with rents collected by the peasant village governments (miri, singular, mir) the plan was to give individual allotments of land once the nobles were compensated Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  200. 200. shortcomings of the emancipation edict the nobility was generously compensated with rents collected by the peasant village governments (miri, singular, mir) the plan was to give individual allotments of land once the nobles were compensated close to half the allotments were too small to provide subsistence living Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  201. 201. shortcomings of the emancipation edict the nobility was generously compensated with rents collected by the peasant village governments (miri, singular, mir) the plan was to give individual allotments of land once the nobles were compensated close to half the allotments were too small to provide subsistence living former serfs, no longer bound to their lords, were required to get permission from their mir to leave! Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  202. 202. shortcomings of the emancipation edict the nobility was generously compensated with rents collected by the peasant village governments (miri, singular, mir) the plan was to give individual allotments of land once the nobles were compensated close to half the allotments were too small to provide subsistence living former serfs, no longer bound to their lords, were required to get permission from their mir to leave! state peasants (former serfs to the tsar) had slightly less burdensome terms for repayment and emigration Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  203. 203. Sti% Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  204. 204. Sti% “...one writer has called [it] the greatest single piece of state-directed social engineering in modern European history before the twentieth century…” Craig, loc. cit Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  205. 205. Zemstvo Law, 1864 Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  206. 206. Zemstvo Law, 1864 a step towards representative government Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  207. 207. Zemstvo Law, 1864 a step towards representative government created an elective council (zemskoye sobranye) and appointive board (zemskaya uprava) at the lowest level: mir (village) and volost (rural district) Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  208. 208. Zemstvo Law, 1864 a step towards representative government created an elective council (zemskoye sobranye) and appointive board (zemskaya uprava) at the lowest level: mir (village) and volost (rural district) the voting, of course, was “stacked to ensure upper class control” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  209. 209. Zemstvo Law, 1864 a step towards representative government created an elective council (zemskoye sobranye) and appointive board (zemskaya uprava) at the lowest level: mir (village) and volost (rural district) the voting, of course, was “stacked to ensure upper class control” 74% of the zemstvo members were noblemen, even though nobles were 1.3% of the population Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  210. 210. Zemstvo Law, 1864 a step towards representative government created an elective council (zemskoye sobranye) and appointive board (zemskaya uprava) at the lowest level: mir (village) and volost (rural district) the voting, of course, was “stacked to ensure upper class control” 74% of the zemstvo members were noblemen, even though nobles were 1.3% of the population naturally, this first step didn’t satisfy Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  211. 211. Many Other Reforms Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  212. 212. Many Other Reforms 1864 -a new judicial administration based on the French model Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  213. 213. Many Other Reforms 1864 -a new judicial administration based on the French model a new penal code & greatly simplified civil and criminal procedure Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  214. 214. Many Other Reforms 1864 -a new judicial administration based on the French model a new penal code & greatly simplified civil and criminal procedure the second country in the world (after Portugal) to abolish capital punishment Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  215. 215. Many Other Reforms 1864 -a new judicial administration based on the French model a new penal code & greatly simplified civil and criminal procedure the second country in the world (after Portugal) to abolish capital punishment 1870-local government for large towns modeled on the Zemstvo Law Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  216. 216. Many Other Reforms 1864 -a new judicial administration based on the French model a new penal code & greatly simplified civil and criminal procedure the second country in the world (after Portugal) to abolish capital punishment 1870-local government for large towns modeled on the Zemstvo Law 1874 -army and naval reforms based on Prussia’s Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  217. 217. Russia--”Prison House of Nations”--attr. to Lenin “No dreams” warning to the non-Russian peoples, 1855 Poland, the January Rising, 1863-1864 thousands executed, tens of thousands sent to Siberia Polish, Lithuanian, Ukrainian and Belorussian languages outlawed from printed texts Polish language, oral as well as written, banned from all territories except Congress Poland there it was limited to private conversations Finland, loyal during the uprising, was rewarded by generous treatment Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  218. 218. Katorga--Precursor to the Gulag “Farewell to Europe” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  219. 219. Katorga--Precursor to the Gulag “Farewell to Europe” The subject of the painting is the Siberian exile of Poles after their defeated January Uprising (1863) against the Russian Empire. The painting depicts the stop of the exiled convoy by the obelisk that marks the border between Europe and Asia. The artist himself is among the exiled here, near the obelisk, on the right Katorga was a system of penal servitude of the prison farm type in Imperial Russia . Prisoners were sent to remote camps in vast uninhabited areas of Siberia—where voluntary laborers were never available in satisfactory numbers—and forced to perform hard labor. Katorga began in the 17th century, and was taken over by the Bolsheviks after the Russian Revolution of 1917, eventually transforming into the Gulag labor camps. Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  220. 220. The Last Years of Alexander II Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  221. 221. The Last Years of Alexander II Первомартовцы The First of Marchers (Those who did something [assassinate Alexander II] on the first of March) by Nicolai Kibalchick Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  222. 222. From Tsar Liberator to Samoderzhavets assassination attempts, beginning in 1866, had their effect the army reforms of War Minister D.A. Miliutin were both needed and progressive--a general staff, merit, length of service reduced from 25 years to 6, compulsory service for all able males, &c. still, these were a necessary exception to the general turn to the right Count Dimitry Tolstoy, Education Minister, 1866-1880 ended academic freedom, required professors to give reports to the police, controlled curriculum to eliminate “dangerous” studies Alexander came to rely upon ultra reactionary advisors Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  223. 223. Нихилизм (Ni•hil•EZM-nihilism) term coined by Turgenev in Fathers and Sons (1861) his anti-hero, Bazarov, was such this student “extreme realism,” visible throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, did reject the present order but it hardly constituted a threat to the regime more serious about reform were the student narodniki (populists) Ilya Repin. Student-Nihilist. 1883. Oil on canvas. The Far East Fine Arts Museum, Khabarovsk, Russia. Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  224. 224. Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  225. 225. This is the final word of our young camp: What can be broken, we should break. Whatever will stand the blow--is of use; whatever will be smashed to pieces--is rubbish. At any rate smash right and left, no harm may come of this. Dmitry Pisarov a nihilist propagandist Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  226. 226. An Uncanny Parallel 1840s & ‘50s 1860s 1870s unparalleled access nihilists Narodnaya to higher education narodniki Volya • more secondary schools •upper and middle • a hard core of disillusioned & universities class sons and daughters narodniki turn to violence • to staff the bureaucracy “go to the people” & •their cause? social justice & the industrial revolution the countryside •their method? assassinations • access for “persons of •idealized view of the & bombings other ranks” peasantry Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  227. 227. An Uncanny Parallel 1840s & ‘50s 1860s 1870s unparalleled access nihilists Narodnaya to higher education narodniki Volya • more secondary schools •upper and middle • a hard core of disillusioned & universities class sons and daughters narodniki turn to violence • to staff the bureaucracy “go to the people” & •their cause? social justice & the industrial revolution the countryside •their method? assassinations • access for “persons of •idealized view of the & bombings other ranks” peasantry 1940s & ‘50s Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  228. 228. An Uncanny Parallel 1840s & ‘50s 1860s 1870s unparalleled access nihilists Narodnaya to higher education narodniki Volya • more secondary schools •upper and middle • a hard core of disillusioned & universities class sons and daughters narodniki turn to violence • to staff the bureaucracy “go to the people” & •their cause? social justice & the industrial revolution the countryside •their method? assassinations • access for “persons of •idealized view of the & bombings other ranks” peasantry 1940s & ‘50s unparalleled access to higher education Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  229. 229. An Uncanny Parallel 1840s & ‘50s 1860s 1870s unparalleled access nihilists Narodnaya to higher education narodniki Volya • more secondary schools •upper and middle • a hard core of disillusioned & universities class sons and daughters narodniki turn to violence • to staff the bureaucracy “go to the people” & •their cause? social justice & the industrial revolution the countryside •their method? assassinations • access for “persons of •idealized view of the & bombings other ranks” peasantry 1940s & ‘50s unparalleled access to higher education • more secondary schools & universities Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  230. 230. An Uncanny Parallel 1840s & ‘50s 1860s 1870s unparalleled access nihilists Narodnaya to higher education narodniki Volya • more secondary schools •upper and middle • a hard core of disillusioned & universities class sons and daughters narodniki turn to violence • to staff the bureaucracy “go to the people” & •their cause? social justice & the industrial revolution the countryside •their method? assassinations • access for “persons of •idealized view of the & bombings other ranks” peasantry 1940s & ‘50s unparalleled access to higher education • more secondary schools & universities • the G.I. Bill Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  231. 231. An Uncanny Parallel 1840s & ‘50s 1860s 1870s unparalleled access nihilists Narodnaya to higher education narodniki Volya • more secondary schools •upper and middle • a hard core of disillusioned & universities class sons and daughters narodniki turn to violence • to staff the bureaucracy “go to the people” & •their cause? social justice & the industrial revolution the countryside •their method? assassinations • access for “persons of •idealized view of the & bombings other ranks” peasantry 1940s & ‘50s unparalleled access to higher education • more secondary schools & universities • the G.I. Bill • access for “persons of other ranks” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  232. 232. An Uncanny Parallel 1840s & ‘50s 1860s 1870s unparalleled access nihilists Narodnaya to higher education narodniki Volya • more secondary schools •upper and middle • a hard core of disillusioned & universities class sons and daughters narodniki turn to violence • to staff the bureaucracy “go to the people” & •their cause? social justice & the industrial revolution the countryside •their method? assassinations • access for “persons of •idealized view of the & bombings other ranks” peasantry 1940s & ‘50s 1960s unparalleled access to higher education • more secondary schools & universities • the G.I. Bill • access for “persons of other ranks” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  233. 233. An Uncanny Parallel 1840s & ‘50s 1860s 1870s unparalleled access nihilists Narodnaya to higher education narodniki Volya • more secondary schools •upper and middle • a hard core of disillusioned & universities class sons and daughters narodniki turn to violence • to staff the bureaucracy “go to the people” & •their cause? social justice & the industrial revolution the countryside •their method? assassinations • access for “persons of •idealized view of the & bombings other ranks” peasantry 1940s & ‘50s 1960s unparalleled access “beatniks” & to higher education “hippies” • more secondary schools & universities • the G.I. Bill • access for “persons of other ranks” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  234. 234. An Uncanny Parallel 1840s & ‘50s 1860s 1870s unparalleled access nihilists Narodnaya to higher education narodniki Volya • more secondary schools •upper and middle • a hard core of disillusioned & universities class sons and daughters narodniki turn to violence • to staff the bureaucracy “go to the people” & •their cause? social justice & the industrial revolution the countryside •their method? assassinations • access for “persons of •idealized view of the & bombings other ranks” peasantry 1940s & ‘50s 1960s unparalleled access “beatniks” & to higher education “hippies” • more secondary schools •upper and middle & universities class sons and daughters • the G.I. Bill “go to the people” & • access for “persons of the countryside other ranks” Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  235. 235. An Uncanny Parallel 1840s & ‘50s 1860s 1870s unparalleled access nihilists Narodnaya to higher education narodniki Volya • more secondary schools •upper and middle • a hard core of disillusioned & universities class sons and daughters narodniki turn to violence • to staff the bureaucracy “go to the people” & •their cause? social justice & the industrial revolution the countryside •their method? assassinations • access for “persons of •idealized view of the & bombings other ranks” peasantry 1940s & ‘50s 1960s unparalleled access “beatniks” & to higher education “hippies” • more secondary schools •upper and middle & universities class sons and daughters • the G.I. Bill “go to the people” & • access for “persons of the countryside other ranks” •idealized view of the lower classes Tuesday, September 29, 2009
  236. 236. An Uncanny Parallel 1840s & ‘50s 1860s 1870s unparalleled access nihilists Narodnaya to higher education narodniki Volya • more secondary schools •upper and middle • a hard core of disillusioned & universities class sons and daughters narodniki turn to violence • to staff the bureaucracy “go to the people” & •their cause? social justice & the industrial revolution the countryside •their method? assassinations • access for “persons of •idealized view of the & bombings other ranks” peasantry 1940s & ‘50s 1960s 1968-early ‘70s unparalleled access “beatniks” & to higher education “hippies” • more secondary schools •upper and middle & universities class sons and daughters • the G.I. Bill “go to the people” & • access for “persons of the countryside other ranks” •idealized view of the lower classes Tuesday, September 29, 2009

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