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Political Progress in Western Europe, 1871-1914

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The 19th Century Europe class looks at the movement from liberalism to democracy in Western European states on the eve of World War I

The 19th Century Europe class looks at the movement from liberalism to democracy in Western European states on the eve of World War I


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  • 1. Nineteenth Century Europe part 2 1871-1914 session 4 FROM LIBERALISM TO DEMOCRACY: POLITICAL PROGRESS IN WESTERN EUROPE Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 2. GREAT BRITAIN Broadening the franchise-- Depression, Parties, & Parliament-- Toward a Labor Party--Revival & Relapse of Liberalism--The Irish Question from Gladstone to World War I--British Democracy in 1914 BELGIUM, THE NETHERLANDS, AND SWITZERLAND NORTHERN EUROPE Denmark, Norway, Sweden SOUTHERN EUROPE Spain, Portugal, Italy Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 3. Great Britain Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 4. The Broadening of the Franchise 1884--a new act extended the urban workers gains of 1867 to the countryside (farm tenants & agricultural laborers) 1885--the Redistribution Act increased the House of Commons to 607 members elected from districts of roughly equal size there was little more to ask for unless one believed women should have the vote that idea was already being pressed but would not prevail before the war Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 5. Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928) dynamic, ultimately successful, leader of women’s suffrage in Britain ca. 1913 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 6. The Long Depression, 1873-1896 continental financial panics in 1873 and 1882 triggered general economic downturns followed by partial recoveries at the end of each decade America had the “honors” for the”Panic of ’93” although the hard times had a long term beneficial effect: introduction of new technology and labor-saving devices rationalization of industry this provided scant solace to the working class who experienced great hardship Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 7. Charles Booth, social scientist born to a wealthy Unitarian ship- owning family in Liverpool after a prosperous international business career, he became a philanthropist he walked London with policemen collecting data on the poor he included his cousin Beatrice Potter in his labors Life and Labour of the People, 1889 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 8. Booth’s poverty map of London, 1898 good middling worse Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 9. Overdoing It Punch December 22, 1883 “What? Going already? Surely you’re not going to walk!” “Oh, dear no! Lord Archibald is going to take us to a dear little slum he’s found near the Minories--such a fearful place! Fourteen poor things sleeping in one bed and no window!--and the Mackintoshes are to keep out infection, you know, and hide one’s diamonds, and all that!” Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 10. the Webbs Sidney James Webb Beatrice Potter Webb 1859-1947 1858-1943 1st Baron Passfield cousin to Charles Booth The world is so full of a number of plebs I am sure we should all be as happy as Webbs Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 11. the Fabian Society--1884 took its name from Roman general Fabius Cunctator (Delayer), the victor over Hannibal in Italy “the inevitability of gradualism” was their slogan charter members: the Webbs and George Bernard Shaw (GBS) HG Wells, Graham Wallas, Virginia Woolf, Emmeline Pankhurst Annie Besant and future PM Ramsey MacDonald their socialism was non-Marxist, democratic in 1945 there were 230 Fabians in the House of Commons Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 12. How to address “the Social Question” (poverty) voluntarism or politics? similar to labor’s dilemma: direct action or politics? the Fabians and the Labour Party chose one route William and Catherine Booth (no relation to Charles) chose the other Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 13. from the Salvation Army’s website The Salvation Army began in 1865 when William Booth, a London minister, gave up the comfort of his pulpit and decided to take his message into the streets where it would reach the poor, the homeless, the hungry and the destitute. His original aim was to send converts to established churches of the day, but soon he realized that the poor did not feel comfortable or welcome in the pews of most of the churches and chapels of Victorian England. Regular churchgoers were appalled when these shabbily dressed, unwashed people came to join them in worship. Booth decided to found a church especially for them — the East London Christian Mission. The mission grew slowly, but Booth's faith in God remained undiminished. In May of 1878, Booth summoned his son, Bramwell, and his good friend George Railton to read a proof of the Christian Mission's annual report. At the top it read: THE CHRISTIAN MISSION is A VOLUNTEER ARMY. Bramwell strongly objected to this wording. He was not a volunteer: he was compelled to do God's work. So, in a flash of inspiration, Booth crossed out "Volunteer" and wrote "Salvation". The Salvation Army was born. Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 14. Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 15. GBS Deborah Kerr as Major Barbara in the 1941 film 1856-1950 Shaw’s 1905 play, Major Barbara, shocked audiences because it seemed to attack Christianity and the Salvation Army Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 16. iconoclast 1891--this extended essay began his public role as Devil’s advocate at the height of Victorian idealism, he proposed the following analogies: ideals = idols idealism = idolatry in the guise of analyzing the plays of Henrik Ibsen, he posed this attack on the most cherished beliefs of his age Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 17. The major parties made some attempt to correct the most obvious of these [social] ills. But their record of accomplishment was limited, partly because the were distracted by other issues, and more, perhaps, because the majority of their members did not agree that correction of these conditions [poverty] was a legitimate concern of the government. Craig, p. 288 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 18. Disraeli’s Tory Democracy (1874-1880) In the single year, 1875: liberalized laws against trade-union activities Sale of Food and Drugs Act Artisan’s Dwelling Act Public Health Act but Dizzy’s poor health limited his energy 1876, transferred to the House of Lords as Lord Beaconsfield after his death the party drifted away from Tory Democracy 1804-1881 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 19. The Primrose League, 1883-2004 said to be Disraeli’s favorite flower Randolph Churchill, one of its founders “to uphold God, Queen, and Country and the Conservative cause” “well over 1 million paid members by 1890” Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 20. the 1880s; the direction of the Tory Party Lord Randolph Churchill vs Robert Gascoyne Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury 3rd son of the 7th Duke of Marlborough Prime Minister; July 1885-Feb 1886, MP 1870-1886, Chancellor of the Aug 1886-Aug 1892, June 1895- July 1902 Exchequer, Aug-Dec, 1886 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 21. Gladstone & “the social question” the majority of the Liberal Party “never freed themselves from their old faith in laissez-faire” Gladstone’s own zeal for reform seemed satisfied with the Education Act of 1870 he concentrated on the Irish Question in his later ministries; 1880-85, 1886, & 1892-95 The G.O.M. 1809-1898 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 22. Joseph Chamberlain, Liberal Reformer the party’s outstanding advocate for the poor successful businessman, 1873, reform mayor of Birmingham, father of Neville and Austen Chamberlain 1876, MP--alarmed his fellow Liberals with his “radicalism” 1885, split over Irish policy, led out Liberal Unionists who cooperated with the Conservatives 1836-1914 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 23. the parties did improve social conditions regulated business practices dangerous to health and safety provided new social services and utilities facilitated the creation of public parks and libraries 1880, made elementary education compulsory, increased state subsidy to both private and public schools provided for the care of the mentally ill and seriously disabled “this would have staggered the generation of 1830” much of this was done reluctantly and to head off the radicals Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 24. Toward a Labor Party the 2007 logo Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 25. The Social Democratic Federation 1884, the SDF was founded, the first sizable socialist organization since Robert Owen’s time Hyndman had the support of Eleanor Marx and her dreadful lover, but not Engels his 1881 England for All failed to credit Marx no matter, the SDF’s appeal for revolution never caught on and by the late 1880s, the party was a spent force Henry Hyndman (1842-1921) Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 26. The Fabians’ “gas & water socialism” the 1840s saw cholera epidemics, “the Great Stink,” & miasmas the London death rate was greater than at any time since the Black Death reformers faced up to the need for urban planning for the first time Joseph Bazalgette constructed London’s first drainage system upgrade since Roman times Thomas Crapper made his famous contribution public health imperatives forced government Work on the Fleet Street Sewer, 1845 into areas which had formerly been left to from the Illustrated London News private enterprise Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 27. Fabians call for a Labor Party originally a middle class movement, the Fabians preach the inevitability of socialism frustrated by the deaf ear of the two parties, the Fabians despair of the middle class 1893, in an article in the Fortnightly Review, Sidney Webb and GBS call upon the working classes “to abandon Liberalism to form a Trade Union party of their own to raise £30,000 and sponsor 50 candidates for parliament” Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 28. Founding of the Independent Labour Party Hardie, miner, organized one of the first effective unions in Scotland 1893, he founded an organization to sponsor independent candidates for Parliament who would work for “the collective ownership and control of production, distribution and exchange” the ILP was hampered by the older unions’ distrust of both political action and socialism the newer more radical unions finally James Keir Hardie prevailed 1856-1915 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 29. Birth of the Labor Party 1899, a Trades Union Congress resolution calls for a conference to consider the question of parliamentary representation February, 1900 union delegates meet with Fabians, the ILP, the SDF they found a Labour Representation Committee (LRC,soon to be called the Labour Party) its secretary is J. Ramsay MacDonald (1866-1937) the purpose is to present a slate of candidates for future parliamentary elections Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 30. Taff Vale, 1900-01 railwaymen on the South Wales line decided to strike the railroad brought suit against the union in 1901 the House of Lords awarded £ 23,000 in damages, bankrupting the union the case strengthened the LRC affiliation rose from 350,000 in 1901 to 850,000 in 1903 photo of a vintage engine on the Taff Vale line Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 31. Outcomes from the Taff Vale decision it seemed to wipe out Disraeli’s legislation of 1875 and effectively outlaw the strike as a weapon unions now realized that there had to be a political program as well as a direct action strategy the LRC had 29 successful candidates in the election of 1906 that year the Trade Disputes Act effectively revoked Taff Vale Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 32. Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 33. Jerusalem, Labor’s Anthem Among the leaders of the labor movement in the 1880s and the 1890s, there were a number of Methodist ministers and chapel members, a fact that may explain the moral fervor of the movement and their enthusiasm for William Blake’s moving hymn: Bring me my Bow of burning gold: Bring me my Arrows of desire: Bring me my Spear: O clouds unfold! Bring me my Chariot of fire. I will not cease from mental fight, Nor shall my Sword sleep in my hand, Till we have built Jerusalem In England’s green and pleasant land. Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 34. The Revival and Relapse of Liberalism Rich Fare-The Giant Lloyd-Gorgi-buster Fee, fi, fo, fat, I smell the blood of a plutocrat; Be he alive or be he dead, I’ll grind his bones to make my bread. Punch (April 28, 1909) Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 35. 1906 elections--end of Conservative dominance when Chamberlain’s Liberal Unionists went over to the Tories and the Radical wing turned to labor, it looked like the end for the Liberal Party after Gladstone’s last ministry, 1892-1895, the Conservatives (Unionists) seemed to govern indefinitely but, as always, the pendulum began to swing back the Boer War, 1899-1903, began to erode imperialism’s appeal the Education Act of 1902 angered the nonconformist base 1903, Chamberlain attacked free trade and split the Tories Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 36. The new Liberal cabinet, 1906 PM, Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, (d.1908) Chancellor of the Exchequer, H.H. Asquith (PM in 1908) Foreign Office, Sir Edward Grey War Minister, R.B. Haldane Bd of Trade, David Lloyd George (to the exchequer, 1908) Winston S. Churchill (succeeding DLG at the Bd of Trade) Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 37. DLG, “The Welsh Wizard” born to humble circumstances in the mine country known for his radical distrust of inherited wealth and privilege, his opposition to the Boer War and the Education Act of 1902 surprises everyone with constructive leadership Merchant Shipping Act of 1906--improved sailors’ working conditions created a Port of London Authority to supervise rational development of the harbor 1863-1945 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 38. The Haldane Army Reforms Haldane used his knowledge of French and German practice to address the weaknesses shown in the Boer War he had the good fortune of the king’s support in this area where it counted for much he restructured the army on continental lines and created an expeditionary force Britain now had its first General Staff modeled on Germany’s and filled with capable men: Sir Wm Robertson, R. B. Haldane (1856-1928) Henry Wilson & Douglas Haig Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 39. Admiral Fisher’s Navy Reforms unlike the Army reforms which actually saved money, the Anglo- German naval race was fiercely attacked by the Radicals the new battleship type, HMS Dreadnought, made all capital fleets obsolete overnight Britain had gone overnight from an overwhelming lead to 1 to 0 the result was a redoubling of efforts on both sides of the North Sea “Spy” caricature in Vanity Fair, 1902 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 40. laid down 2 Oct 1905, sea trials 3 Oct 1906 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 41. The Naval Scare of 1908 “The Admiralty requested six, the economizers countered with four, so we compromised with eight” Churchill Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 42. Background to the Constitutional Crisis of 1911 the Radicals biggest impediment was not military expenditures rather it was the relentless opposition of the House of Lords 1888-1892, not a single Conservative measure was defeated in the Lords but, 1892-1895, nearly every measure of the Liberal ministry which aimed at social reform was blocked by the upper house now the pattern was repeating after 1906 the final blow was the defeat of the Lloyd George budget of 1909 a civil war had been fought to secure the House of Commons control of the purse! Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 43. “The People’s Budget” when he became Chancellor of the Exchequer he decided to challenge the economic status quo “you must stir up public opinion by violent means, so that the public will react upon legislation” raised the income tax, especially on unearned income increased death duties (inheritance taxes) land taxes on “unearned increment” “a War Budget...against poverty and squalidness” DLG in 1908 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 44. The gauntlet thrown down... the Lords obliged DLG by defeating the budget, November, 1909 despite the best efforts of the Liberals to demagogue the issue they lost seats in the next two elections and had to rely on the Labor Party for a majority (so called “LibLab coalition”) Asquith demonstrated great skill in holding things together February, 1910, a bill was introduced to exclude the Lords from interfering with any money bill whatsoever, giving Commons the right to pass any measure into law, despite the Lords’ veto, by passing it in three successive parliamentary sessions this became the Reform Act of 1911, only with the new king’s threat to “pack” the House of Lords if they defeated it Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 45. National Insurance Act of 1911 the only significant social legislation passed before the war essentially conservative, modeled on Bismarck’s of the 1880s insured workers against accident, sickness, and unemployment funded by contributions of workers and employers the lack of bold social initiatives by the Liberals explains why Labor has replaced them DLG as Queen Victoria the Bystander’s displeasure Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 46. The Irish Question From Gladstone to World War I Sir Edward Carson signing the Ulster Solemn League and Covenant, 1912 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 47. Ireland’s Troubles the agricultural depression hit Irish tenants hard 1879, Michael Davitt founds the National Land League to promote peasant ownership 1880, 2110 families evicted, Capt. Boycott gives his name to the resistance practice 1881, Gladstone’s second ministry offered the “Three Fs”(fixity of tenure, fair rents & free sale) in a second Land Reform Act still, violent protests produced a coercion (Protection of Persons and Property) Act that same year Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 48. Founder and Leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party Irish Protestant landowner, nationalist political leader and Home Rule advocate contemporary appraisals Gladstone--the most remarkable person he had ever met HH Asquith--one of the three or four greatest men of the nineteenth century Lord Haldane--the strongest man the House of Commons had seen in 150 years son of a wealthy Anglo-Irish landowner in County Wicklow Charles Stewart Parnell (1846-1891) Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 49. Kilmainham Gaol Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 50. Kilmainham Gaol Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 51. Kilmainham Gaol Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 52. Kilmainham Gaol Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 53. The Kilmainham Treaty, 2 May 1882 Parnell, Davitt, and many of the Land League leaders were jailed under the 1881 act from jail they issued a No Rent Manifesto calling for a nationwide rent strike as protests continued Gladstone negotiated with Parnell Parnell agreed to revoke the manifesto in return for government’s pledge that 100,000 “rent arrears” cases could be appealed Parnell also went on record against violent protests Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 54. The Phoenix Park Murders, 6 May 1882 four days after the Kilmainham Treaty, six armed terrorists stabbed to death two high ranking British officials one, Lord Cavendish, arriving in Dublin that day, was married to Gladstone’s niece through the use of informants the murderers were arrested and hanged Parnell condemned the killings and became even more popular as a voice of moderation Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 55. Home Rule, the only answer when Gladstone formed his third ministry in 1886, he offered a bill for Irish Home Rule it called for an Irish parliament and executive in Dublin only military, foreign and fiscal policy would remain in British hands this provoked Joseph Chamberlain’s secession and that, the defeat of the bill Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 56. Parnell and Katharine O’Shea, 1890 despite Gladstone’s defeat, he continued to negotiate with Parnell over a Home Rule bill matters were disrupted by a divorce proceedings brought by Captain O’Shea naming Parnell as correspondent Gladstone felt compelled to break with him and Parnell’s own INL party split Irish Catholic authorities were divided he married Kathrine after the divorce only to die in her arms a year later of a heart attack at age 45 1846-1891 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 57. Gladstone’s Second Home Rule Bill in spite of the Parnell scandal, he persisted in his fourth ministry (1892-1894) the bill actually passed in Commons only to die in the House of Lords Gladstone’s zeal convinced many that Irish home Rule was inevitable it was only natural that it would be put forward again when the Liberals returned to power in 1906 Irish Loyalist Rally against Home Rule at the Royal Albert, 1893, ILN Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 58. John Edward Redmond Sean Eamonn Mac Reamoinn leader of the INL after the 1890 split leader of the Irish Parliamentary Party, 1900-1918 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 59. The Third Home Rule Bill, April, 1912 after 1906 the Liberal agenda had Home Rule as a low priority the 1910 election changed that. John Redmond’s Irish Nationalists held the balance of power in Commons Redmond’s help with the ’09 budget and the Lords bill of 1910 came at the price of Asquith’s introduction of the Third Home Rule Bill 25 May 1914, passed the 3rd time in Commons over the Lords’ dissent 18 Sept 1914, received the Royal Assent, put aside for no longer than the duration of the war Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 60. “Ulster will fight, and Ulster will be right!” after the Reform Act of 1911, unionists could no longer count on the Lords to defeat the Third Home Rule bill of 1912 instead arms were bought and distributed to the Ulster Volunteers in 1912 Carson spoke against the bill in Commons and across Ireland “Home Rule is Rome Rule! he was the first signer of the Ulster Covenant, September, 1912 Sir Edward Carson photo ca. 1900 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 61. Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 62. 1914--the conflict is joined The Irish Nationalist Party supported the Asquith Government. Redmond defined the nationalist position when he said: Ireland to-day is full of hope and expectation. Beware how you dash that hope to the ground. Rebellion is threatened. Rebellion is justified in high quarters. The rebellion of a portion of the population of four counties [lesser Ulster], because they disapprove of the act of the imperial parliament before any wrong has been done, and before any oppression has been attempted, would be a crime and a calamity. Rebellion by over three-fourths of a people of a country distracted, tortured and betrayed, deprived of the rights of freemen, and condemned to a barren policy of coercion, would be too horrible a thing to contemplate; and it is because this is so that I rejoice with all my heart to believe and to know that the future of this bill is safe, and that the future of Ireland is assured. Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 63. the Curragh, County Kildare Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 64. the Curragh, County Kildare Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 65. the Curragh, County Kildare Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 66. the Curragh, County Kildare Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 67. the Curragh, County Kildare Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 68. The Curragh “Mutiny”-- March , 1914 three armed forces existed in Ireland in the spring of 1914: the Ulster Volunteer Force, (UVF) as many as 100,000, well armed & drilled the [South]Irish National Force, lacking arms and training, the [British army]“Troops of the Irish Command”, under General Padget, stationed outside Dublin in the Curragh 16 March--Bonar-Law, leader of the Conservative opposition in Commons: “What about the army? If it is only a question of disorder, the army will and ought to obey, but if it is a question of civil war, the soldiers are citizens like the rest of the people. The army will be divided, and that force be destroyed on which we depend for our national safety.” 20 March--Asquith summoned Padget to London, ordered him to prepare for unrest 22 March--the British commander,”stern and pompous, smoking a cigar” summoned his officers as tensions rose and gave an ultimatum: any not willing to use force to keep order should resign his commission immediately 57 of the 70 accepted the invitation to resign. Many were Ulster Protestant Unionists. shocked at this, Asquith gave a “Guarantee” the army would “maintain order” not “crush political opposition in Ulster” Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 69. The Summer of 1914 most Britishers were focused on their vacation plans those who were not, were anxiously following developments in Ireland the assassination of an Austrian archduke in a place none had heard of passed virtually unnoticed when war suddenly came it seemed only reasonable to postpone the operation of the Home Rule Act the IRA thought otherwise as they would show on Easter, 1916 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 70. British Democracy in 1914 A suffragette addressing a crowd in Reading during the election of 1913 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 71. progress since 1867 movement “from the philosophy and institutions of liberalism to… political and economic democracy” the Lords could only delay, not block measures local government had been transformed from an aristocratic system to elected county, district and borough councils the welfare state of the Fabians seemed near finally, self government and dominion status came to Canada (1867) Australia (1900) New Zealand (1907) and the Union of South Africa (1909) Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 72. the dark side an increase in the size, function and cost--> bureaucratization organized groups “deliberately abandoned that reliance on law, reason and compromise… the heart of liberal philosophy” members in the House of Commons howled down the PM as he introduced the Parliament Bill in 1911 army officers refused to go to Ulster in 1914 workers in the years 1912-1914 listened to syndicalist leaders and conducted the bitterest strikes in memory the Women’s Suffrage Movement indulged in a frenzy of vandalism, personal assault, and exhibitionism in 1913-1914 “the civil and parliamentary systems under which [Englishmen] had dwelt so long seemed to be brought to the rude challenge of force [and] to be exposed to menace and brutality”--W.S. Churchill, 1914 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 73. Belgium The Netherlands Switzerland Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 74. The Belgian Democracy Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 75. three constitutional monarchs helped consolidate the neutral position in which his country had been placed by the great powers in 1831 by cultivating good relations with his neighbors Leopold I (1790-1831-1865) Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 76. three constitutional monarchs threw his abundant energies into economic enterprise and was the founder of Belgium’s rich colonial empire Leopold II (1835-1865-1909) Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 77. three constitutional monarchs perhaps the best loved of Belgian sovereigns, was the soldier king who vainly tried to stem the German invasion of his country in 1914 Albert I (1875-1909-1934) Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 78. Belgian economic development--closest to Britain’s like Britain, the movement was from laissez faire capitalist liberalism to trade union and socialist demands for democracy the original constitution had placed power in the hands of a bourgeois oligarchy with a franchise based on wealth 1893 saw universal suffrage for 25 year old males with supplementary votes for the most highly educated and taxed the Catholic party dominated and by 1914 the Socialists outnumbered the Liberals Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 79. Belgian economic development--closest to Britain’s 1899, proportional representation was introduced to assure the representation of all shades of opinion the year before saw the Flemish language given equal status with French, the language of the majority elementary education was extended to the masses in the 1880s 1890, factory regulation began 1900, old age pensions 1903, workman’s compensation for accidents Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 80. The Netherlands Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 81. Slower progress towards democracy Perhaps because its economy remained predominantly agricultural and commercial rather than industrial, as in the case of Belgium, or because, in contrast to Great Britain, its prosperity was more continuous throughout these years, Holland’s progress… was slower…. ! no constitution until 1849 ! William III (1849-1890) retained considerable power throughout his long reign ! suffrage was severely limited. Even after reforms (1887, 1896) only 14%of the male population could vote ! education was contested between the Liberals who favored free secular elementary schools and the religious parties, Protestant and Catholic ! no significant Labor or Socialist parties before the war Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 82. Switzerland Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 83. mountains induce love of liberty Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 84. Löwendenkmal (Lion monument) Lucerne postcard, 1900 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 85. The Battle of Sempach, 9 July 1386 There was a man in that small band of patriots who had the courage to accept certain death for his country, one of those rare souls who appear from time to time in the centuries and win undying fame by an act of self-martyrdom. Arnold of Winkelried was his name, a name which history is not likely soon to forget, for by an impulse of the noblest devotion this brave patriot saved the liberties of his native land. Seeing that there was but one hope for the Swiss, and that death must be the lot of him who gave them that hope, he exclaimed to his comrades, in a voice of thunder, — "Faithful and beloved confederates, I will open a passage to freedom and victory! Protect my wife and children!" With these words, he rushed from his ranks, flung himself upon the enemy's steel-pointed line, and seized with his extended arms as many of the hostile spears as he was able to grasp, burying them in his body, and sinking dead to the ground. Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 86. Direct Democratic Tradition Swiss mercenaries had a reputation for valor and honor since medieval times their fight for freedom from the Habsburg HRE began the tradition of neutrality the love of liberty began the political tradition of direct democracy the initiative and referendum exist at the federal and cantonal levels Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 87. The Swiss Confederation 1814-48 (Boundaries of the [26] Cantons established by the Congress of Vienna) Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 88. Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 89. Early 19th Century Developments strong democratic movements in the cantons produced: extension of popular liberties widening of the franchise reform of local justice demands for a stronger central power were resisted by the Catholic Sonderbund (special or particular league) the result was the Sonderbundkrieg of 1847 and a new federal constitution in 1848 the Jesuits were banished from Switzerland postcard ca 1890 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 90. Battle of Geltwil, 12 November 1847 The war only lasted from 3-29 November, produced fewer than 100 casualties. General Dufour ordered his troops to spare the injured, anticipating the founding of Red Cross in which he participated, 1859. Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 91. Constitutional Revision, 1874 enlarged the powers of the central government to include providing free elementary education referenda on the national as well as cantonal levels introduced compulsory military service, structured so as to protect Swiss democracy foreign commentary remarked that this neither threatened domestic liberty nor the general peace of Europe One for all All for one Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 92. Industrialization Leads to Socialism after 1870 industrialism grew: watchmaking, textiles, luxury goods and confections as socialist politics advanced, Swiss liberty attracted political refugees, as had England’s and Belgium’s before anarchism headquartered here, the German socialists during Bismarck’s persecution, Lenin on the eve of the war international organizations were attracted as well: International Red Cross (1863), International Postal Union (1874), and the International Telegraph Union (1865) Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 93. Northern Europe Denmark Norway Sweden Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 94. Denmark Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 95. Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 96. 19th Century History Denmark suffered two major reductions in territory: 1815--The Congress of Vienna took away Norway and gave it to Sweden 1864--Schleswig and Holstein were lost in the war with Germany progress toward liberalism and democracy was retarded: most of the population were peasants, i.e.,conservative in political matters King Christian IX (1863-1906) resisted genuine parliamentary government Denmark was the scene of a constitutional conflict like Prussia’s of the 1860s: the issue was military spending the king successfully defied the constitution and the lower house Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 97. Belated Democratic Reform, 1915 by the turn of the century democratic pressures had built: urban middle classes, Social Democrats, a youth movement, and prosperous farmers the new constitution, delayed until 1915, provided for: extension of the suffrage to all men and most women widening of the competence of the lower house by measures similar to England’s in 1911--effective abolition of the veto of the upper house Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 98. Norway Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 99. Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 100. Norway and Sweden--A Stormy Relationship 1814, Sweden voluntarily relinquishes Finland to Russia on the understanding that Norway would be ceded to her Marshall Bernadotte, the Swedish regent, was forced to take Norway by conquest he found it necessary to recognize Norway’s Fundamental Law, based on the liberal Spanish constitution of 1812 so Norway claimed to be “free, indivisible, and independent” even though united with Sweden but Sweden had a feudal, aristocratic government, committed to the royal prerogative Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 101. Norway and Sweden--No Community of Interests Sweden, especially after 1870, moved rapidly to industrial maturity (Rostow’s Stage 4) maritime Norway remained predominantly agricultural and commercial as her carrying trade grew, the Storting (parliament) insisted on a separate consular service from Sweden’s decades of acrimony led to a unilateral declaration of independence in 1905 confirmed by a plebiscite Norway became an independent constitutional monarchy 1907, Norway became the first nation to give the vote to women Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 102. Sweden Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 103. Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 104. Sweden’s Road to Democracy Bernadotte ruled as Charles XIV (1818-1844) his royal absolutism gradually gave way under Oscar I (1844-1859) and Charles XV (1859-1872) the constitutional laws of 1864 abolished the old estated and set up a bicameral legislature with considerable power 1909, universal manhood suffrage was introduced, followed in later years by woman suffrage and proportional representation as in other countries, advancing industrialization brought power to the socialist parties Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 105. 1908 – The Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm, Sweden's national stage for "spoken drama", opened with playwright August Strindberg's play Master Olof. (from Wikiʼs Main Page, 18 Feb 2009) Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 106. Southern Europe Spain Portugal Italy Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 107. In… the countries discussed [so far], substantial progress toward democracy had been made by 1914 and, even where there was a tendency toward an increased use of violence in politics, it was not so marked as to threaten the existing political regimes…. None of this was true of the states of southern Europe, where progress towards democracy was minimal, violence uncontrolled, and the stability of established governments always in question. Craig, p. 398 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 108. Spain Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 109. Incompetence or Worse at the Top we’ve already noted Fernando VII (1813-1833) and Isabella II (1833-1868), deposed by a military coup 1870, the failed Hohenzollern Candidature was followed by an invitation to Amadeo, second son of Victor Emanuel of Italy after two years of renewed Carlist wars, Amadeo abdicated a brief republican interval (Feb, 1873-Dec, 1874) when on Christmas Eve the army declared for Isabella’s son Alfonso XII the ruling classes ignored the peasant masses and both Marxism and anarchy, along with Basque and Catalonian separatism were the beneficiaries Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 110. Imperial Decline beginning with the Napoleonic period, Spain’s rich New World empire began its independence wars by the time of the Monroe Doctrine (1823) only Cuba and Puerto Rico remained from the 1860s on, Cuban rebellions added to Spain’s problems war with America (1898) cost Spain the Philippines and Guam as well the conservatism of the Spanish church added anticlericalism to the devil’s brew of Marxism, anarchy, and separatism Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 111. Portugal Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 112. “...different [from Spain] though equally violent” first half century, wars between rival claimants to the throne and frequent insurrections the reigns of Pedro V (1853-1861) and Louis I (1861-1889) seemed to be moving toward liberal parliamentary government Carlos I (1889-1908) changed that his self-indulgent, absolutist financial mismanagement and defiance of parliament led to his assassination a republic was proclaimed in 1910 a constitution modeled on the Third French Republic couldn’t make up for social and economic challenges and “quarrelsome political parties more intent on plotting revolts than solving problems” Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 113. Italy Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 114. Agostino Depretis (1813-1887) born in Lombardy, colleague of Mazzini, Garibaldi & Cavour Minister of the Navy during the defeat at Lissa, 1866 headed a Sinistra (Left) cabinet, 1873 until his death, in and out of power four times began the policy of Trasformismo (Transformation) undermined fiscal policy with extravagant public works began Italy’s imperialist venture in 1885 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 115. Trasformismo the method by which a politician could prolong the life of parliament and his own hold on power by disregarding party labels, making bargains with deputies, left or right, for whatever votes they could command, and thus piecing together parliamentary majorities it atomized existing political groups and turned parliament into an amorphous mass of deputies led by a ministry whose members changed constantly coherence and continuity of policy were impossible Depretis and Crispi raised it to an art form Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 116. This system could be made to work only by avoiding the big questions about which differences of opinion were inevitable. There were lots of these. Sicily and southern Italy were underdeveloped and needed many reforms to become economically viable. Italy wanted to industrialize but lacked the coal and iron which would ease this transition. Industry needed a literate working class but Italy’s educational level was the lowest in western Europe. It’s rate of population increase, on the other hand, was the highest. Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 117. Francesco Crispi (1819-1901) returned to his native Sicily with the Thousand in 1860, friend of Mazzini and Garibaldi twice PM (1887-1891) and (1893-1896) in his first government also Foreign Minister, chose Germany over France led to a tariff war with prolonged depression for Italy his second political downfall in 1896 resulted from economic hard times plus the humiliation of Adowa in Ethiopia Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 118. a 40% drop in Italian exports, the result of the tariff war with France, created agricultural depression in Italy public works and railway construction plummeted between 1880 and 1920 four million Italians immigrated to the United States in 1893 peasant unrest led to attacks on manor houses and police stations resulting in bloodshed the silk industry in the north also suffered, leading to urban unrest repression provoked anarchist acts, cf. King Umberto’s assassination Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 119. Umberto I (1844-1878-1900) Umberto Ranieri Carlo Emanuele Giovanni Maria Ferdinando Eugenio di Savoia, called il Buono (the Good) but no friend of liberalism deeply loathed in far left circles, especially among anarchists, because of his conservatism and support of the Milanese Bava-Beccaris massacre in 1898 there were two previous attempts on his life finally killed by anarchist Gaetano Bresci Leon Czolgosz carried and frequently read a newspaper account of the deed. He used the assassination of Umberto as his inspiration to kill William McKinley in September, 1901 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 120. Giovanni Giolitti (1842-1928) Piedmontese, six times Interior Minister five times Prime Minister his first government, between Crispi’s two terms was marred by scandal after the king’s assassination there was hope for a “liberal spring” and a renewal of the Sinistra the anarchists were strong in the rural south but the Marxists were becoming revisionists and willing to seek political solutions from 1903-15 he dominated the scene Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 121. Giolitti’s Parliamentary Dictatorship he often held the Interior Ministry as well as the PM’s portfolio during this time “Italy soon relapsed into the empty acrobatics of trasformismo” in 1911 all males over the age of 30 gained the vote “But Giolitti proceeded to demonstrate that the new electorate could be manipulated by fraud and violence…” some measure of necessary reform: factory laws, legalization of unions and collective bargaining state aid for agricultural cooperatives Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 122. Undesired Consequences Giolitti’s unsavory methods destroyed Cavour’s connubio of the 1850s. He brought disrepute to the liberal center this gave new life to the extremist parties which now--thanks to Giolitti’s franchise legislation-- could win mass support 1912, the left wing socialists, including Mussolini, revolted against the revisionists. “democracy a bourgeois experiment” they would dominate the party for the next 12 years until Mussolini would destroy it the right would preach themes which would echo in years to come in the Fascist state the poet and adventurer Gabriele d’Annunzio appealed to Italy’s youth to seek life in violent action Wednesday, November 11, 2009
  • 123. On the eve of the war, therefore, the confident voices in Italian politics… were those of the extremists of the right and left, all proclaiming the imminent destruction of a regime that had been unable to make any genuine progress toward a viable democracy and whose political processes seemed now to be affected by creeping paralysis. Craig, p.315 Wednesday, November 11, 2009