The Freikorps
    Years
    1919-1923
“Acceptance of a high level of political violence
was a hallmark of the political culture of Germany
              between...
War after the War
Introduction        Border Strife

German Revolution   Münchner Räterepublik

Spartakus           Kapp P...
Introduction
                                        Freikorps , Volunteer Corps
                                         ...
This one-of-a-kind self propelled artillery team
demonstrates the improvised nature of Freikorps units
Variety

Left sources claim 1 million men -- 150,000 more generally
accepted

Jones lists 163 FK by name in 8 categories j...
German
  Revolution
October 28, 1918 - January, 1919
Anti-war speeches in the Reichstag, the
                             January, 1918 munition strike, even the
             ...
“Unter den Linden: Demonstration by Armed Navysoldiers”
            Postkarte Berlin, 9 November 1918
When the Kaiser learned of this his first reaction was “Treason!”
His considered reaction was abdication
WEINACHTSKÄMPFE 1918 • CHRISTMAS FIGHTING 1918
Spartakus
  January, 1919
What does Spartakus Want?
Fateful bargain




                                                   Kriegsminister Noske --
   SPD leader, acting
     ...
Karl
Liebknecht
     (1871-1919)

  son of SPD co-founder,
   Wilhelm Liebknecht,
anti-war SPD wing, 1916
 founds Spartaku...
Rosa
Luxemburg
      (1870-1919)
Russian Poland, philosophy
   major, Zurich,married
German, 1898, imprisoned
 for politic...
General Strike proclaimed, armed
radicals march to seize the liberal
     newspaper, “Vorwärts”
Spartakus Week, 5-12 Jan 19
Soldiers! Workers! Citizens!
The “Forwards” is taken!
          ...
  The position improves hour to hour
                 ...
Art imitates life
(in between, a lapel badge from 1910)
A Bloody End
• Freikorps forces re-take the streets, more
  than 1,000, mostly Reds, die
• Liebknecht and Luxemburg hide i...
Which Republic?
The German elections of January 19, 1919 selected
the National Assembly which created the constitution
of the Weimar Repub...
Peukert’s seven
  voting groups
Since there are more than forty parties, large and
small active in the Weimar period, he g...
Let’s look briefly at each,
    from Left to Right
KPD

   Communist Party of Germany
  Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands
•founded in 1919 by the Marxist wing of
the USPD &...
USPD
          Independent SPD
           Unabhängige SPD
•began as the anti-war wing of the SPD in
1914, officially in 191...
We Build the State




              SPD
German Social Democratic Party
Socialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands
          ...
Z
   (Catholic) Center Party
       Zentrumspartei
begun in 1870 as the expression of
  political Catholicism. Bismarck’s
...
BVP
      Bavarian Peoples’ Party
        Bayrische Volkspartei
• Bavarian branch of the Centre Party.
Broke off in 1919 t...
For every honorable work in city & countryside
                                                     Against
              ...
DVP
      German People’s Party
           Deutsche Volkspartei
• formed after the war from the old
National Liberal party...
DNVP
German National People’s Party
  Deutschnationale Volkspartei
• represented landowners & industrialists,
monarchist, ...
NSDAP
 National Socialist German Workers Party
   Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei
                        N...
Other Weimar Parties
•   Christian National Peasants and Rural Peoples Party

•   German Anti-Semitic League

•   German J...
first two elections
Frontschwein
(soldier who served at the Front)
We were a band of fighters
drunk with all the passions
  of the world...what we
 wanted, we did not know;
 what we knew, we...
Apostle and bard of the
   Freikorps Spirit
 cadet (age 12) in 1913

 FK in Baltic & Upper
 Silesia

 served 5 years for r...
Demobilization
a Europe-wide problem

1) Italy>fascisti di combatimento

2) France >Action Francaise

3) Britain>”Black an...
A New Sub-class,
the demobilized soldier
 brutalized

 unemployed

 alienated from peacetime life

 accustomed to authorit...
“Dolchstoßlegende”

Ebert, 10 Dec, at the
Brandenburg Gate:

  “No enemy has
  vanquished you....”

Ludendorff-Malcolm
exc...
Versailles Diktat
   Paris Peace Conference
    January-June, 1919
Council of Four
Accept or...
SIGNING, 28.VI.19
SITE OF THE FOUNDING OF THE SECOND REICH, NOW
           DESTROYED BY THE DEFEAT
Border Strife
   •Poland
   •Baltic
   •Rhineland
   •Upper Silesia
The Freikorps fought and defeated the largest
 revolutionary leftist party in Western Europe;
 minimized territorial losse...
Poland

Poland reasserts herself
with uncertain borders

Grenzschutz Öst for
mixed border areas

authorized FKs for this
d...
Baltikum
German presence since
medieval Drang nach
Östen

occupied after Brest-
Litovsk, Dec,’17

“Red October” and civil
...
Enter the FK
FK Rossbach was formed
to fight for Wartheland
against Poland

moved to Latvia to
support von der Goltz

promi...
Eastern Border Wars
   the final phase
        1921
    Upper Silesia
Eastern Border Wars
              the final phase
                   1921
               Upper Silesia
• major econ importa...
Upper=
Silesian
protect your

Interest
   vote

German
YouTube film!
Present Annaberg Site

The Poles have removed
  the circular German
 Ehrenmal but kept the
 outdoor amphitheater
  and add...
Münchner
Räterepublik
  Munich Soviet Republic
 November,1918-May, 1919
Origins
 Kurt Eisner

1867-21 Feb 1919

SPD-->USPD, 1917

Munition Strike; January, 1918

overthrew Bavarian monarchy,
8 N...
ASSASSINATION SITE • ASSASSIN, ANTON VON ARCO -VALLEY
Räterepublik, 6.iv.19
TO THE BAVARIAN WORKING
          CLASS!

BAVARIA IS A
RÄTEREPUBLIK!

WHAT’S THE
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
THE SOVIET AND THE
LAN...
Eugen Levine
“The Bavarian Lenin”

          born, St Petersburg, 1883

          fought in 1905 Russian
          Revolut...
FK VON EPP • RED ARMY • KRUPP-DAIMLER PLATTFORMWAGEN
THE SAVIORS OF MUNICH • IDEALIZED & ACTUAL
HITLER’S ROLE?


A GOOD QUESTION!

ALMOST NOTHING KNOWN SO HE CONCEALED HIS
RECORD

PROBABLY TRIED TO PLAY BOTH SIDES (LUK...
Outcome
The Munich victory raised the Freikorps to a
zenith of prestige....From an army that had
seemed to be on the point...
Kapp Putsch
   March, 1920
WOLFGANG KAPP
                        (1858-1922)


BORN NYC, SON OF A ‘48ER”

1871 RETURNED TO BERLIN

TÜBINGEN LAW DEGRE...
WALTHER FREIHERR VON LÜTTWITZ
                   (1859-1942)

 CAREER OFFICER

 1916,“BLUE MAX”

 1919, LED SUPPRESSION
 O...
HERMANN EHRHARDT
                           (1881-1971)




1899,SEEKADET IN NAVY

DESTROYER CAPTAIN IN WAR

NOV,’18, FK “...
BERLIN, MARCH 1920
1. Korvettenkapitän Ehrhardt
2. Gefreiter, Freiw. Landesjäegerkorps
(Freikorps Maercker)
3. Machine gun...
CHRONOLOGY

1 OCT 19--SEEKT WARNS AGAINST LÜTTWITZ’ PUTSCH

JAN,’20--ALLIES PUSH GER TO DISBAND FK TO COMPLY
WITH VERSAILL...
THE LEAFLET
                                                   “NO MONARCHIST PUTSCH!
                                    ...
THINGS FALL APART


NOON OF DAY 1--CALL FOR GENERAL STRIKE

KAPP REGIME PROVES INCOMPETENT. BUREAUCRACY
REFUSES ORDERS

EH...
Red Army Ruhr
   March - April, 1920
The nail that sticks up gets
   hammered down.”

                German proverb
For the first time in western European
history the state’s professional armies
were in confrontation with a properly
organi...
Volunteer,Akademischen
     Wehr, Munster




                           Things were so bad that
                         ...
Chronology

15-20.iii--Reds seize
control

24.iii--truce

3.iv--broken

8.iv--FKs restore
“order”
Consequences

total casualties never counted

bloodiest, most savage reprisals

political consequences for SPD & Noske

Se...
Underground FK
    the banned Freikorps
    divided into two paths

    1. regular Reichswehr

    2. underground


•   Ba...
Feme Murders
VEHMGERICHT

ORIGINATED IN MEDIEVAL WESTPHALIA

SECRET COURTS TO OPPOSE NEW PRINCELY REGIMES

19TH CENTURY GOTHIC ROMANCES...
“IN THE DAWN’S EARLY LIGHT” • ARTISTS DEPLORE THE MURDER WAVE
MATTHIAS ERZBERGER
                             (1875-1921)

JOURNALIST

1903,ELECTED TO REICHSTAG IN
ZENTRUM

1917, SPEEC...
o.c. (organization consul)
Wherever we conspirators set foot, in every city
and village, were found a few trusted men--
un...
“Schlagt tot den Walther
       Rathenau

   Die gottverfluchte
      Judensau!”
“Schlagt tot den Walther
       Rathenau

   Die gottverfluchte
      Judensau!”


    Walter Rathenau
  •born to wealth,d...
“WANTED “ POSTER • MURDER SCENE & FUNERAL POSTCARDS
Comemorative
   Stone
placed at the site of the
        crime.
Königsallee, Grünewald,
        Berlin.
         1946
quot;But as great as was the impact of
Rathenau’s death upon German
domestic politics, it left an even greater
mark upon t...
Beer Hall Putsch
    8-9 November 1923
MUSSOLINI’S BOGUS “MARCH ON ROME”
   LED TO THE COLLAPSE OF ITALIAN
  PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACY. THIS
ENCOURAGED SEVERAL GER...
1923 • FINAL FREIKORPS YEAR

JAN--EVIL “MARIANNE”
INVADES FOR A 3RD TIME

HYPERINFLATION GOES
THROUGH THE ROOF

SUMMER--SC...
NS PUTSCH, 9.XI.23
 IN ADDITION TO RÖHM’S SA, MANY OF WHOM WERE FK
ALUMS, OTHERS WERE “PURE” UNDERGROUND FK ALLIES
TRIUMPHANTLY POSED FOR THEIR TRIAL
“IT SEEMED TO BE ALL OVER FOR THE NAZI MOVEMENT, BUT
     IT WAS ONLY THE END OF THE BE...
Nazi Rise to Power, Part 4; The Freikorps Years, 1919-1923
Nazi Rise to Power, Part 4; The Freikorps Years, 1919-1923
Nazi Rise to Power, Part 4; The Freikorps Years, 1919-1923
Nazi Rise to Power, Part 4; The Freikorps Years, 1919-1923
Nazi Rise to Power, Part 4; The Freikorps Years, 1919-1923
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Nazi Rise to Power, Part 4; The Freikorps Years, 1919-1923

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A look at the "War after the War." How these groups of semi- and unofficial soldiers fanned the flames and contributed to the rise of the Nazis.

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  • • the mutiny spread quickly from Kiel to Bremen & Wilhelmshaven, then across the country.


  • •Volksmarine =Peoples Navy














  • • translate with pointer 1-Street fighting in Berlin; arty-Assault on Marstall 2-gp photo the peoples naval div in the palace courtyard 3-armored assault car in the palace courtyard






  • • notice the “heads” already cut down by the heroic proletarian, kaiser & older “Militarismus”


  • •point out who’s left


  • • look at lower rt corner, KPD =Spartacusbund


  • • Groener’s aide, Kurt Schleicher, suggests the plan to recruit FK from disbanding soldiers.










  • • note the machine gun


  • • Mass parade Sunday, 5 Jan > seizure of “commanding Hts” next day


  • • caption on postcard on lt,”Rev struggle in Berlin, Spartacus fighters in the newspaper quarter


  • • ‘Vorwärts” was the Maj SPDs newspaper














  • • descr of parties to follow, for now note top 3 =”Weimar Coalition”


  • • after the January elections the National Assembly met in Weimar,Berlin was still too hot to be trusted


  • • tree is pagan symbol? Wotan’s ordeal or the Ger oak, damaged but still standing?


































  • •”Von roten Ketten macht Euch frei/ Allein de Deutsche Volkspartei”














  • • 1919--to choose the NA, 1920--to fill the Reichstag seats & make up the cabinet, so-called “Weimar Coalition” SPD + DDP + Z


  • • The Weimar Coalition is the name given to the coalition of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), the German Democratic Party (DDP), and the Catholic Centre Party, who together had a large majority of the delegates to the Constituent Assembly which met at Weimar in 1919, and were the principal groups which designed the constitution of Germany's Weimar Republic. These three parties were seen as the most committed to Germany's new democratic system, and together governed Germany until the elections of 1920, when the first elections under the new constitution were held, and both the SPD and especially the DDP lost a considerable share of their votes. Although the Coalition was revived in the ministry of Joseph Wirth from 1921 to 1922, the pro-democratic elements never truly had a majority in the Reichstag from this point on, and the situation gradually grew worse with the continued weakening of the DDP. This meant that any pro-republican grouping which hoped to attain a majority would need to form a \"Grand Coalition\" with the more conservative German People's Party.



  • Nevertheless, the grouping remained at least theoretically important as the grouping of parties most supportive of republican government in Germany, and continued to act in coalition in the government of

    Prussia

    and other states until as late as

    1932

    .











  • [

    edit

    ]




  • Chronology




  • •13. February 1919 – 20. June 1919: chancellor: Philipp Scheidemann (SPD)




  • •21. June 1919 – 26. March 1920: chancellor: Gustav Bauer, (SPD)




  • •27. March 1920 – 8. June 1920: chancellor: Hermann Müller, (SPD)

  • Nazi Rise to Power, Part 4; The Freikorps Years, 1919-1923

    1. 1. The Freikorps Years 1919-1923
    2. 2. “Acceptance of a high level of political violence was a hallmark of the political culture of Germany between the wars.” Kershaw, Hitler, p.170
    3. 3. War after the War Introduction Border Strife German Revolution Münchner Räterepublik Spartakus Kapp Putsch Which Republic? Ruhr Red Army Frontschwein Fememorde Versailles Diktat Beer Hall Putsch
    4. 4. Introduction Freikorps , Volunteer Corps from Freiwillige, Ger. for volunteer. Abbr., FK. Used as early as the Middle Ages, the most recent usage dated from the nationalist Aufbruck (Awakening) against Napoleon. Its usage was to evoke that sense of national purpose against a foreign enemy. Lt Rossbach, Freiw. Sturmabteilung Rossbach, late 1919
    5. 5. This one-of-a-kind self propelled artillery team demonstrates the improvised nature of Freikorps units
    6. 6. Variety Left sources claim 1 million men -- 150,000 more generally accepted Jones lists 163 FK by name in 8 categories just for “the major groups, 1919-1920” not counting air units! Caballero Jurado describes three categories: 1. largest formations, raised by generals or colonels,brigade or divisional strength--moderate aims 2. those raised in cities or regions to keep local order 3. led by junior officers, battalion or smaller--most radical
    7. 7. German Revolution October 28, 1918 - January, 1919
    8. 8. Anti-war speeches in the Reichstag, the January, 1918 munition strike, even the “Black Day of the German Army” didn’t begin the revolution. But when the High Seas Fleet mutinied on October 28, 1918 the revolution can be said to have begun. Matrose (sailor), Volksmarine Division
    9. 9. “Unter den Linden: Demonstration by Armed Navysoldiers” Postkarte Berlin, 9 November 1918
    10. 10. When the Kaiser learned of this his first reaction was “Treason!”
    11. 11. His considered reaction was abdication
    12. 12. WEINACHTSKÄMPFE 1918 • CHRISTMAS FIGHTING 1918
    13. 13. Spartakus January, 1919
    14. 14. What does Spartakus Want?
    15. 15. Fateful bargain Kriegsminister Noske -- SPD leader, acting “Of course. Someone chancellor, Ebert -- must become the “I hate the Social bloodhound. I won’t Revolution like sin.” shirk the responsibility.” Army Chief Groener -- “The army will support the government against the Reds.”
    16. 16. Karl Liebknecht (1871-1919) son of SPD co-founder, Wilhelm Liebknecht, anti-war SPD wing, 1916 founds Spartakusbund, 1918, proclaims “free socialist republic” 2 hours after Scheidemann
    17. 17. Rosa Luxemburg (1870-1919) Russian Poland, philosophy major, Zurich,married German, 1898, imprisoned for political activities, left wing of SPD,founded “Die Rote Fahne,”pamphlets signed Spartakus,
    18. 18. General Strike proclaimed, armed radicals march to seize the liberal newspaper, “Vorwärts”
    19. 19. Spartakus Week, 5-12 Jan 19
    20. 20. Soldiers! Workers! Citizens! The “Forwards” is taken! ... The position improves hour to hour ... Join with all who support Democracy and socialism, against those who favor Dictatorship and blood soaked preaching!
    21. 21. Art imitates life (in between, a lapel badge from 1910)
    22. 22. A Bloody End • Freikorps forces re-take the streets, more than 1,000, mostly Reds, die • Liebknecht and Luxemburg hide in Weding • betrayed, they are arrested, beaten and shot • Luxemburg’s body found four months later in the Landwehr Canal
    23. 23. Which Republic?
    24. 24. The German elections of January 19, 1919 selected the National Assembly which created the constitution of the Weimar Republic. Electoral turnout 83% Vote Percentage Seats Social Democratic Party (SPD) 37.9% 163 Center Party (Z) 19.7% 91 German Democratic Party (DDP) 18.6% 75 Ger Natl Peoples Party (DNVP) 10.3% 44 Independent SPD (USPD) 7.6% 22 German Peoples Party (DVP) 4.4% 19 Bavarian Peasants’ League (BBB) 0.9% 4 others (3) 0.7% 1@ 100% 421 Democratic
    25. 25. Peukert’s seven voting groups Since there are more than forty parties, large and small active in the Weimar period, he groups them as follows, roughly left to right: •KPD/USPD •SPD •Centre (Z)/ BVP •DDP/DVP •DNVP •NSDAP (NAZI) •others
    26. 26. Let’s look briefly at each, from Left to Right
    27. 27. KPD Communist Party of Germany Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands •founded in 1919 by the Marxist wing of the USPD & Spartakusbund •drew inspiration and aid from Soviet Russia •Leftist intellectuals & some workers •outlawed after 1933
    28. 28. USPD Independent SPD Unabhängige SPD •began as the anti-war wing of the SPD in 1914, officially in 1915 •supported Räterepublik •lost members to more militant KPD •insignificant after 1924
    29. 29. We Build the State SPD German Social Democratic Party Socialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands 1863-1918 largest socialist party of Second Reich 1919 majority party of the republic until the depression
    30. 30. Z (Catholic) Center Party Zentrumspartei begun in 1870 as the expression of political Catholicism. Bismarck’s Kulturkampf established it as a force lasting through the Weimar era Poster from 1924 promising a homecoming (Heimkehr) for the Ruhr Germans
    31. 31. BVP Bavarian Peoples’ Party Bayrische Volkspartei • Bavarian branch of the Centre Party. Broke off in 1919 to be more conservative, more Catholic & more Bavarian. Still, voted with Zentrum in the Reichstag.
    32. 32. For every honorable work in city & countryside Against Dictatorship By the Left and Right DDP German Democratic Party •left-liberal, committed to democracy. Attacked as the party of Jews and professors. Part of Weimar Coalition, resigned over Versailles Treaty, then returned. Declined with the Republic.
    33. 33. DVP German People’s Party Deutsche Volkspartei • formed after the war from the old National Liberal party, led by Gustav Stresemann. Represented the Industrialist interest. Anti-Weimar Coalition, then in government with others, finally in right opposition.
    34. 34. DNVP German National People’s Party Deutschnationale Volkspartei • represented landowners & industrialists, monarchist, opposed Versailles & the “Weimar System.” After 1928 Alfred Hugenberg took the party hard to the right & into cooperation with the Nazis
    35. 35. NSDAP National Socialist German Workers Party Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei Nazi • nationalists, volkish groups, ex-soldiers, unemployed, small businessmen, anti- communists, anti-Semites
    36. 36. Other Weimar Parties • Christian National Peasants and Rural Peoples Party • German Anti-Semitic League • German Justice Party • German Völkish Freedom Party • German People’s League • National Bolsheviks • People’s National Reich Association • Wirtschaftspartei Economic Party ...
    37. 37. first two elections
    38. 38. Frontschwein (soldier who served at the Front)
    39. 39. We were a band of fighters drunk with all the passions of the world...what we wanted, we did not know; what we knew, we did not want. Ernst von Salomon (1902-72) Die Geächteten (The Outlaws)
    40. 40. Apostle and bard of the Freikorps Spirit cadet (age 12) in 1913 FK in Baltic & Upper Silesia served 5 years for role in Rathenau’s murder Jewish wife, no Nazi challenged U.S. right to deNazify Germany
    41. 41. Demobilization a Europe-wide problem 1) Italy>fascisti di combatimento 2) France >Action Francaise 3) Britain>”Black and Tans” most returning soldiers knew no other life political danger of Bolshevik Third Internationale economic post-war slump and urban unrest
    42. 42. A New Sub-class, the demobilized soldier brutalized unemployed alienated from peacetime life accustomed to authoritarian structures bitter and unaccepting of defeat
    43. 43. “Dolchstoßlegende” Ebert, 10 Dec, at the Brandenburg Gate: “No enemy has vanquished you....” Ludendorff-Malcolm exchange (?)
    44. 44. Versailles Diktat Paris Peace Conference January-June, 1919
    45. 45. Council of Four
    46. 46. Accept or...
    47. 47. SIGNING, 28.VI.19 SITE OF THE FOUNDING OF THE SECOND REICH, NOW DESTROYED BY THE DEFEAT
    48. 48. Border Strife •Poland •Baltic •Rhineland •Upper Silesia
    49. 49. The Freikorps fought and defeated the largest revolutionary leftist party in Western Europe; minimized territorial losses on their country’s borders; and prevented national disintegration. Carlos Caballero Jurado The German Freikorps, 1918-1923
    50. 50. Poland Poland reasserts herself with uncertain borders Grenzschutz Öst for mixed border areas authorized FKs for this defense Josef Pilsudski
    51. 51. Baltikum German presence since medieval Drang nach Östen occupied after Brest- Litovsk, Dec,’17 “Red October” and civil war--> chaos Ger 8th Army, Gen’l von der Goltz, to keep order
    52. 52. Enter the FK FK Rossbach was formed to fight for Wartheland against Poland moved to Latvia to support von der Goltz promise of farms! many other FKs come seesaw, multi-faction struggle
    53. 53. Eastern Border Wars the final phase 1921 Upper Silesia
    54. 54. Eastern Border Wars the final phase 1921 Upper Silesia • major econ importance, mixed population • 1919 -- Poles tried to seize, FKs resist •Feb,1920--Allied Commission occupies prior to plebiscite, French troops predominate • Mar, 1920 --60% vote to be German, commission begins to draw boundaries • both sides arm •2 May1921--general strike & Polish uprising • Allied troops do nothing (exception, It.) • 5 May--Poles control all east of the Oder • 21 May--Annaberg counteroffensive
    55. 55. Upper= Silesian protect your Interest vote German
    56. 56. YouTube film!
    57. 57. Present Annaberg Site The Poles have removed the circular German Ehrenmal but kept the outdoor amphitheater and added a granite monument to the Polish defenders
    58. 58. Münchner Räterepublik Munich Soviet Republic November,1918-May, 1919
    59. 59. Origins Kurt Eisner 1867-21 Feb 1919 SPD-->USPD, 1917 Munition Strike; January, 1918 overthrew Bavarian monarchy, 8 Nov 1918 First President, Bavarian Republic
    60. 60. ASSASSINATION SITE • ASSASSIN, ANTON VON ARCO -VALLEY
    61. 61. Räterepublik, 6.iv.19
    62. 62. TO THE BAVARIAN WORKING CLASS! BAVARIA IS A RÄTEREPUBLIK! WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE SOVIET AND THE LANDTAG(PARLIAMENT )? SIGNED ERNST TOLLER
    63. 63. Eugen Levine “The Bavarian Lenin” born, St Petersburg, 1883 fought in 1905 Russian Revolution member, KPD executed Stadelheim Prison, July, 1919
    64. 64. FK VON EPP • RED ARMY • KRUPP-DAIMLER PLATTFORMWAGEN
    65. 65. THE SAVIORS OF MUNICH • IDEALIZED & ACTUAL
    66. 66. HITLER’S ROLE? A GOOD QUESTION! ALMOST NOTHING KNOWN SO HE CONCEALED HIS RECORD PROBABLY TRIED TO PLAY BOTH SIDES (LUKACS) TOOK NO PART IN THE MAY “LIBERATION” CHOSEN (19 MAY) TO INVESTIGATE HIS BATTALION’S ROLE IN THE RÄTEREPUBLIK
    67. 67. Outcome The Munich victory raised the Freikorps to a zenith of prestige....From an army that had seemed to be on the point of evaporation after the Armistice, an effective military force had been created. However, that effort to rebuild the army would be checked by the Treaty of Versailles. Carlos Caballero Jurado
    68. 68. Kapp Putsch March, 1920
    69. 69. WOLFGANG KAPP (1858-1922) BORN NYC, SON OF A ‘48ER” 1871 RETURNED TO BERLIN TÜBINGEN LAW DEGREE FINANCE MINISTRY 1917, WITH TIRPITZ, FOUNDS DVP, 1919-->DNVP ELECTED TO REICHSTAG AS A MONARCHIST
    70. 70. WALTHER FREIHERR VON LÜTTWITZ (1859-1942) CAREER OFFICER 1916,“BLUE MAX” 1919, LED SUPPRESSION OF SPARTAKUS WEEK COMMANDER “GRUKO” I WANTED PUTSCH, JUNE, 1919, AT VERSAILLES TREATY SIGNING CHIEF FK LEADERS BALK
    71. 71. HERMANN EHRHARDT (1881-1971) 1899,SEEKADET IN NAVY DESTROYER CAPTAIN IN WAR NOV,’18, FK “BRIGADE EHRHARDT” --”THE BEST”-JONES 1919, CRUSHED THE MUNICH RÄTEREPUBLIK & OTHER CENTRAL GERMAN RED REGIMES 1920--KAPP-LÜTTWITZ UNDERGROUND IN BAVARIA
    72. 72. BERLIN, MARCH 1920 1. Korvettenkapitän Ehrhardt 2. Gefreiter, Freiw. Landesjäegerkorps (Freikorps Maercker) 3. Machine gunner, II Marine Brigade Wilhelmshaven (Brigade Ehrhardt) 4. MG 08/15 42 pounds 100 rd steel drum of 7.92 mm ammunition
    73. 73. CHRONOLOGY 1 OCT 19--SEEKT WARNS AGAINST LÜTTWITZ’ PUTSCH JAN,’20--ALLIES PUSH GER TO DISBAND FK TO COMPLY WITH VERSAILLES LIMIT OF 100,000 MAN ARMY 1 MAR--LÜTTWITZ BRINGS EHRHARDT IN 10 MAR --NOSKE TRIES TO FORESTALL 13 MAR--EHRHARDT MARCHES ON BERLIN, CABINET FLEES TO DRESDEN, LUDENDORFF WELCOMES “REAL SOLDIERS” --BLOODLESS COUP
    74. 74. THE LEAFLET “NO MONARCHIST PUTSCH! ... REICHSCHANCELLOR KAPP. KAPP-PUTSCHISTS DISTRIBUTE LEAFLETS IN FRONT OF THE REICHS CHANCELLERY
    75. 75. THINGS FALL APART NOON OF DAY 1--CALL FOR GENERAL STRIKE KAPP REGIME PROVES INCOMPETENT. BUREAUCRACY REFUSES ORDERS EHRHARDT’S MEN DEMAND PAY NO COORDINATION COUNTRYWIDE AFTER FIVE DAYS KAPP GOES INTO EXILE
    76. 76. Red Army Ruhr March - April, 1920
    77. 77. The nail that sticks up gets hammered down.” German proverb
    78. 78. For the first time in western European history the state’s professional armies were in confrontation with a properly organized revolutionary army. Within five days [3/15-20], the Ruhr workers had managed to organize their own force of fifty thousand armed and determined men....This scratch force had succeeded in defeating Government militias, police, FKs, and the regular Reichswehr and were in possession of Germany’s main industrial region. Nigel Jones
    79. 79. Volunteer,Akademischen Wehr, Munster Things were so bad that even the “useless generation,” those too young for the war, were called upon. Most were eager to follow their elders.
    80. 80. Chronology 15-20.iii--Reds seize control 24.iii--truce 3.iv--broken 8.iv--FKs restore “order”
    81. 81. Consequences total casualties never counted bloodiest, most savage reprisals political consequences for SPD & Noske Seekt purges army, creates “Black Reichswehr” French occupy Ruhr, 2nd time
    82. 82. Underground FK the banned Freikorps divided into two paths 1. regular Reichswehr 2. underground • Bayern was most welcoming to the latter “hardcore” Arbeitsgemeindschaft
    83. 83. Feme Murders
    84. 84. VEHMGERICHT ORIGINATED IN MEDIEVAL WESTPHALIA SECRET COURTS TO OPPOSE NEW PRINCELY REGIMES 19TH CENTURY GOTHIC ROMANCES GLAMORIZE GUIDO VON LIST LEGITIMIZES FOR VÖLKISH NATIONALISTS AFTER FKS WERE SUPPRESSED MEMBERS CARRIED ON THE FIGHT AGAINST THE WEIMAR “SYSTEM” UNDERGROUND
    85. 85. “IN THE DAWN’S EARLY LIGHT” • ARTISTS DEPLORE THE MURDER WAVE
    86. 86. MATTHIAS ERZBERGER (1875-1921) JOURNALIST 1903,ELECTED TO REICHSTAG IN ZENTRUM 1917, SPEECH RENOUNCING ANNEXATIONS, CALLING FOR PEACE TALKS 11.11.18 HEAD OF ARMISTICE DELEGATION JUNE,’19 FINANCE MINISTER, ENDORSED SIGNING, “FULFILLMENT” 26 AUG 21 MURDERED BY O.C.
    87. 87. o.c. (organization consul) Wherever we conspirators set foot, in every city and village, were found a few trusted men-- unconditionally able fanatics. Soldiers of the Great War in whom the fire of battle still burned, freebooters who had fought with Maercker in Saxony, or under Awaloff- Bermondt in the Baltic ... these were the men who formed the nucleus. Friedrich Wilhelm Heinz
    88. 88. “Schlagt tot den Walther Rathenau Die gottverfluchte Judensau!”
    89. 89. “Schlagt tot den Walther Rathenau Die gottverfluchte Judensau!” Walter Rathenau •born to wealth,director AEG •by 1910 “Germany’s preeminent industrialist and financier” •created War Raw Materials Dept •Foreign Minister, 1920 •24 June 1922, assassinated
    90. 90. “WANTED “ POSTER • MURDER SCENE & FUNERAL POSTCARDS
    91. 91. Comemorative Stone placed at the site of the crime. Königsallee, Grünewald, Berlin. 1946
    92. 92. quot;But as great as was the impact of Rathenau’s death upon German domestic politics, it left an even greater mark upon the economic scene. Now the tumble of the mark could not be stopped. The dollar, still under 350 on the day of the murder, climbed to 670 by the end of July, to 2000 in August, and to 4500 by the end of October.quot; Erich Eyck
    93. 93. Beer Hall Putsch 8-9 November 1923
    94. 94. MUSSOLINI’S BOGUS “MARCH ON ROME” LED TO THE COLLAPSE OF ITALIAN PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACY. THIS ENCOURAGED SEVERAL GERMAN RIGHT WING GROUPS TO CONTEMPLATE A SIMILAR “MARCH ON BERLIN” TO CAUSE THE HATED WEIMAR “SYSTEM” TO FALL. FASCISTI SEIZE GOVERNMENT, OCTOBER, 1922
    95. 95. 1923 • FINAL FREIKORPS YEAR JAN--EVIL “MARIANNE” INVADES FOR A 3RD TIME HYPERINFLATION GOES THROUGH THE ROOF SUMMER--SCHLAGETER HOOPLA > END OF “PASSIVE RESISTANCE SEPT--“BLACK REICHSWEHR” MAJ BUCHRUCHER STAGES THWARTED COUP
    96. 96. NS PUTSCH, 9.XI.23 IN ADDITION TO RÖHM’S SA, MANY OF WHOM WERE FK ALUMS, OTHERS WERE “PURE” UNDERGROUND FK ALLIES
    97. 97. TRIUMPHANTLY POSED FOR THEIR TRIAL “IT SEEMED TO BE ALL OVER FOR THE NAZI MOVEMENT, BUT IT WAS ONLY THE END OF THE BEGINNING.” -- JONES

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