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Nazi Rise to Power, Part 2; Soldat und Kunstler, Intellectual History
 

Nazi Rise to Power, Part 2; Soldat und Kunstler, Intellectual History

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This presentation traces the development of Nazi ideology.

This presentation traces the development of Nazi ideology.

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  • <br /> Der Deutscher hat zwei seele--Heine <br />
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  • <br /> under the Prussian Chancellor, Otto v Bismarck. Dennis Showalter argues that militarism really only took hold after this exhilarating series of events. <br />
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  • <br /> However, ever since the father of Frederick the Great, Frederick Wm I, the “Soldier King,” the Prussian Army has been called the school of the nation <br />
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  • <br /> Regarded as the greatest general of the 18th century, Fredr the Great, victor of Rossbach & Leuthen, fulfilled his father’s hopes for him. <br />
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  • <br /> Prussian militarism came to be a cliche. <br />
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  • <br /> • romanticized in the 1920s in a series of silent films <br />
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  • <br /> • painting by Anton Graf, the king aged 68, in 1780. <br />
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  • <br /> <br /> • <br /> . When Wilhelm II became Kaiser in 1888, he felt tremendous pressure to uphold the family and national tradition. His tutor insisted he become a skilled equestrian in spite of his handicap, so that he could lead on the battlefield. <br /> <br />
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  • <br /> • his campaign to have people call him “Wilhelm the Great” failed <br />
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  • <br /> • Kyffhäuser Denkmal on the mountain in where Barbarossa supposedly sleeps <br />
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  • <br /> • a current website photo encouraging tourism <br />
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  • <br /> • note the date stamp! People still flock there & put up websites extolling it <br />
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  • <br /> • one last loving look! ;-) <br />
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  • <br /> <br /> On the other hand, German <br /> Kultur <br /> had long maintained that the German <br /> Volk <br /> were a race of <br /> Dichter und Denker <br /> , poets and philosophers. So there was an inherent tension between this ethos of artist and that of the soldier. <br /> <br />
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  • <br /> <br /> • <br /> True enough, there is a branch of the warrior class, the Special Operator, which is creative and individualistic, producing “artists” in the art of war. But in the 18 <br /> th <br /> and 19 <br /> th <br /> century the connotation of “soldier” was entirely antithetical to this notion. Prussian militarism demanded “blind obedience.” <br /> <br />
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  • <br /> <br /> • <br /> So from the pinnacle of success, the Franco-Prussian War, that led to the German Reich, the stage was set for conflict between the two souls which Heinrich Heine had described. <br /> <br />
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  • <br /> • an artistic and literary movement beginning in the late 19th c. Fr Rev -->Terror <br />
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  • <br /> • anti-IR with its “dark Satanic mills”--Wordsworth <br />
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  • <br /> • anti-urban, glorified countryside, peasantry <br />
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  • <br /> <br /> Coalbrookdale by Night <br /> was painted by <br /> <br /> Philip James de Loutherbourg <br /> <br /> in <br /> <br /> 1801 <br /> <br /> . It depicts the Madeley Wood (or Bedlam) Furnaces, which belonged to the <br /> <br /> Coalbrookdale <br /> <br /> Company from 1776 to 1796. The picture has come to symbolize the birth of the <br /> <br /> Industrial Revolution <br /> <br /> in <br /> <br /> Ironbridge <br /> <br /> , <br /> <br /> England <br /> <br /> . It is held in the collections of the <br /> <br /> Science Museum <br /> <br /> in <br /> <br /> London <br /> <br /> . <br /> <br />
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  • <br /> • musical revolution <br />
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  • <br /> • anti-Semite <br />
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  • <br /> <br /> The <br /> Rütlischwur <br /> is a legendary <br /> <br /> oath <br /> <br /> of the <br /> <br /> Old Swiss Confederacy <br /> <br /> • COMPARE TO DAVID’S painting, OATH OF THE HORATII <br /> <br />
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  • <br /> <br /> The oath is notably featured in the <br /> <br /> Wilhelm Tell drama <br /> <br /> of 1804 by <br /> <br /> Friedrich Schiller <br /> <br /> . <br /> <br />
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  • <br /> <br /> This story about the oath on the <br /> <br /> Rütli <br /> <br /> , a meadow above <br /> <br /> Lake Lucerne <br /> <br /> near <br /> <br /> Seelisberg <br /> <br /> , is first mentioned in the <br /> White Book of <br /> <br /> Sarnen <br /> <br /> ( <br /> <br /> 1470 <br /> <br /> ). Its canonical form is that of the 16th century <br /> <br /> Chronicon Helveticum <br /> <br /> of <br /> <br /> Aegidius Tschudi <br /> <br /> . According to Tschudi, the three oath-takers ( <br /> <br /> Eidgenossen <br /> <br /> ) were <br /> <br /> Werner Stauffacher <br /> <br /> for <br /> <br /> Schwyz <br /> <br /> , <br /> <br /> Walter Fürst <br /> <br /> for <br /> <br /> Uri <br /> <br /> and Arnold of Melchtal for <br /> <br /> Unterwalden <br /> <br /> . Tschudi dates the event to 8 November, <br /> <br /> 1307 <br /> <br /> . Its historicity is uncorrobated, <br /> <br />
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  • <br /> • Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus is an 1818 novel written by Mary Shelley at the age of 19, first published anonymously in London, but more often known by the revised third edition of 1831 under her own name. It is a novel infused with some elements of the Gothic novel and the Romantic movement. It was also a warning against the \"over-reaching\" of modern man and the Industrial Revolution, alluded to in the novel's subtitle, The Modern Prometheus. <br />
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  • <br /> <br /> Romantic nationalism <br /> (also <br /> National Romanticism <br /> , <br /> organic nationalism <br /> , <br /> identity nationalism <br /> ) is the form of <br /> <br /> nationalism <br /> <br /> in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs. This includes, depending on the particular manner of practice, the <br /> <br /> language <br /> <br /> , <br /> <br /> race <br /> <br /> , <br /> <br /> culture <br /> <br /> , <br /> <br /> religion <br /> <br /> and <br /> <br /> customs <br /> <br /> of the \" <br /> <br /> nation <br /> <br /> \" in its primal sense of those who were \"born\" within its culture. This form of nationalism arose in reaction to dynastic or imperial <br /> <br /> hegemony <br /> <br /> , which assessed the legitimacy of the state from the \"top down\", emanating from a monarch or other authority, which justified its existence. Such downward-radiating power might ultimately derive from a god or gods <br /> <br />
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  • <br /> <br /> • Ossian, Beowulf, Sir Walter Scott, <br /> <br />
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  • <br /> <br /> • <br /> \"The Bard\" by <br /> <br /> John Martin <br /> <br /> : a romantic vision of a single Welsh bard escaping a massacre ordered by <br /> <br /> Edward I of England <br /> <br /> , intended to destroy Welsh culture <br /> <br />
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  • <br /> • expel all jews from Ger. citizens only if one managed “to cut off all their heads in one night, and to set new ones on their shoulders, which should contain not a single Jewish idea” <br />
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  • <br /> • In 1839, construction was started on a massive statue of Arminius, known as the \"Hermannsdenkmal\", on a hill near Detmold in the Teutoburg Forest; it was completed and dedicated during the early years of the Second German Empire in the wake of the German victory over France in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871. The monument has been a major tourist attraction ever since, <br />
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  • <br /> <br /> • <br /> Arminius <br /> (also <br /> Armin <br /> , <br /> <br /> 18 BC <br /> <br /> / <br /> <br /> 17 BC <br /> <br /> - <br /> <br /> 21 <br /> <br /> AD) was a chieftain of the <br /> <br /> Cherusci <br /> <br /> who defeated a <br /> <br /> Roman army <br /> <br /> in the <br /> <br /> Battle of the Teutoburg Forest <br /> <br /> . His tribal coalition against the <br /> <br /> Roman Empire <br /> <br /> successfully blocked the efforts of <br /> <br /> Germanicus <br /> <br /> , nephew of Emperor <br /> <br /> Tiberius <br /> <br /> , to reconquer the Germanic territories east of the Rhine, although there is debate among historians about the outcome of several inconclusive battles ( <br /> <br /> Tacitus <br /> <br /> , Annals 2.22, <br /> <br /> Suetonius <br /> <br /> , Caligula 1.4). And although Arminius was ultimately unsuccessful in forging unity among the <br /> <br /> Germanic tribes <br /> <br /> , his upset victory had a far-reaching effect on the subsequent history of both the ancient Germanic tribes, of the Roman Empire, and ultimately, of Europe. <br /> <br />
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  • <br /> • 1st Google website for Hermannsdenkmal <br />
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  • <br /> • Ernst v Bandel--Fr indemnity helped fund the completion! <br />
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  • <br /> • from the German Wiki site <br />
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  • <br /> • Nineteenth century philologist Karl Lachmann, Der Nibelunge Noth und die Klage nach der ältesten Überlieferung mit Bezeichnung des Unechten und mit den Abweichungen der gemeinen Lesart (Berlin: Reimer, 1826). <br />
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  • <br /> • (Viennese) poet, journalist, writer, businessman and dealer of leather goods, mountaineer, hiker, dramatist, playwright, and rower, but was most notable as an occultist and völkisch author who is seen as one of the most important figures in Germanic revivalism, Germanic mysticism, Runic Revivalism and Runosophy <br />
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  • <br /> • The row of 18 so-called \"Armanen runes\", also known as the \"Armanen futharkh\" came to List while in an 11 month state of temporary blindness after a cataract operation on both eyes in 1902. This vision in 1902 allegedly opened what List referred to as his \"inner eye\", via which he claimed the \"Secret of the Runes\" was revealed to him. <br />
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  • <br /> • Tarnhari =the concealed lord. During WW I a follower urged him to reveal himself during Ger’s hour of need <br />
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  • <br /> • note the Jerusalem Cross on his surplice <br />
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  • <br /> • claimed Sicilian birth 2 yrs early of noble parentage--fact Adolf Jos Lanz, son of Johann, suburban Viennese schoolteacher. <br />
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  • <br /> • The Occult Roots of Nazism, p.174 <br />
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  • <br /> This famous painting by Delacrois, “Liberty Leading the People” (28 July 30), commemorated the recent ascendence of Louis Phillippe. <br />
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  • <br /> In the 19th century conservatism, personified by Prince Metternich meant opposition to the middle class reformers who wanted to limit the power of monarchs. 19th c.liberalism wanted less democracy than Republicans and certainly were not socialists! Their class interest was bourgeois, i.e., capitalist. <br />
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  • <br /> • 1820s Spain, It, Russ “Decembrists” <br />
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  • <br /> • Fr--LP replaces Chas X <br />
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  • <br /> •48 “Paris sneezed & Eur cought cold” everywhere but Br. (already lib enough) & Russ (too autocratic) <br />
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  • <br /> • alienation. Ger “Entseelung” cf Mx “Entseelung des Arbeit” <br />
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  • <br /> • pantheism, glorification of natural vs man-made, “Naturmenschen” nudism & hippies <br />
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  • <br /> • Ger penchant to theorize, academicise-->speculation <br />
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  • <br /> Geography determines the character of a Volk. cf. Lyell & birth of Geology <br />
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  • <br /> • “Berlin is the domain of the Jews” <br />
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  • <br /> • cities are the “Graben des Deutschtum” <br />
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  • <br /> • Fontane became particularly interested in the Mark Brandenburg region. He was especially proud of its past achievements and delighted in the growth of its capital city, Berlin. His fascination with the countryside surrounding Berlin may be seen in his delightfully picturesque Wanderungen durch die Mark Brandenburg (1862-1882, 5 vols.) in which he successfully transposed his former fascination with British historical matters to his native soil. <br />
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  • <br /> • Inspired by pre- and post-Christian folklore and history, his most famous novel is Der Wehrwolf (The Warwolf - 1910), an alternately heart-warming and heart-rending chronicle of a North German farming community suffering tragedies and ultimate triumph during the harrowing period of the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648). <br />
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  • <br /> <br /> At the age of 48 he volunteered for service in the German Army in the <br /> <br /> First World War <br /> <br /> , and was shot dead during a patrol at <br /> <br /> Loivre <br /> <br /> in France just three weeks after joining the army. As in some of his writings he showed nationalistic ideas he was later considered by the Nazis as one of their writers - despite the fact that Löns' life style didn't match the Nazi ideals. On request of <br /> <br /> Adolf Hitler <br /> <br /> Löns was exhumed and reburied in the Lüneburg Heath near the city <br /> <br /> Walsrode <br /> <br /> . <br /> <br />
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  • <br /> • a German biblical scholar and orientalist. He also took some part in politics. He belonged to the Prussian Conservative party, and was a violent antisemite. The bitterness which he felt appeared in his writings. His Deutsche Schriften (1878-81) became a nationalist text. <br />
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  • <br /> • the Liberals were “their firmest champions” <br />
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  • <br /> • e.g. Mx family, Reform movement, c.f.,Cinti & Wise <br />
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  • <br /> • rel kept Jews separate, esp after “failure of ‘48” <br />
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  • <br /> • PdL “unfamiliar w/ latest devs in [racial] science” <br />
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  • <br /> • Eugen Diederichs (coiner of New Romanticism) publicist of PdL “the finest” <br />
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  • <br /> • 27 yrs jr to PdL, corresponded, admired, like him academic “gypsy” <br />
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Nazi Rise to Power, Part 2; Soldat und Kunstler, Intellectual History Nazi Rise to Power, Part 2; Soldat und Kunstler, Intellectual History Presentation Transcript

  • Soldat oder Kunstler ? German Intellectual History 1815-1930
  • German Intellectual History 1815-1930
  • Zwei Seele hat der Deutscher... Heinrich Heine “The German has two souls, the Soldier and the Artist.”
  • Militarism vs the Artist’s Way
  • Militarism vs the Artist’s Way • Romanticism • Expressionism • Nationalism • Anti-war art • Liberalism • Kino • Völkisch Ideology • Neue Sachlichkeit • Racism • Jugendbewegung
  • Germany was created by the Wars of Unification, 1864-71
  • Germany was created by the Wars of Unification, 1864-71
  • Friedrich Wilhelm I 1688-1740 der Soldatenkönig “The army is the school of the nation.”
  • Friedrich II 1712-1786 Frederick the Great
  • The base of the preceding statue
  • der alte Fritz
  • Kaiser Wilhelm II 1859-1941
  • Wilhelm built this monument to his soldier grandfather
  • Another period illustration
  • Kyffhäuser Denkmal this detail of the monument shows the equestrian Wilhelm I below him is the medieval emperor Frederick Barbarossa
  • Wanderer above the sea of Fog, 1818 Kaspar David Friedrich (1774-1840)
  • Wanderer above the sea of Fog, 1818 Kaspar David Friedrich (1774-1840)
  • SEAL training exercise
  • Sedan-- 1 September 1870
  • Romanticism
  • Romanticism tended toward the irrational & emotional
  • Romanticism tended toward the irrational & emotional rationalism had been discredited, 1789-94
  • Romanticism tended toward the irrational & emotional rationalism had been discredited, 1789-94 “the heart, not the head”
  • Romanticism tended toward the irrational & emotional rationalism had been discredited, 1789-94 “the heart, not the head” pantheism, search for roots in nature
  • Romanticism tended toward the irrational & emotional rationalism had been discredited, 1789-94 “the heart, not the head” pantheism, search for roots in nature mysticism
  • Coalbrookdale by Night, 1801
  • Friedrich Schlegel (1772-1829) • poet, philologist, historian • search for the Ursprache • Über die Sprache u. Weisheit der Indier (1808) “...beauty, antiquity & philosophical clarity of Sanscrit” • “...a new masterful race....” • by 1819--the Aryan myth
  • Richard Wagner (1813-1883)
  • Belgian Revolution of 1830
  • Swiss Rütlischwur legendary oath of the old Swiss Confederacy Wilhelm Tell drama of Friedrich Schiller (1804)
  • Frankenstein; or the Modern Prometheus (1818) written by Mary Shelley, age 19 a warning against the “over- reaching” of modern man in the Industrial Revolution
  • Gothic Revival
  • Nationalism Herder, Hegel, & Fichte Brothers Grimm National Epic
  • Johann Gottfried Herder (1744-1803) philosopher, literary critic mystic Volk & Volksgeist nationalism
  • Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) idealist philosopher Hegelian dialectic Weltgeist
  • Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814) idealist philosopher “bridge” between Kant & Hegel “father of German nationalism” Addresses to the German Nation, 1807-1808 anti-Semite
  • 19th c. Multinational States Russia--Poles, Ukrainians, Balts, Germans, Georgians &c Habsburg Empire--Magyars, Czechs, Poles, South Slavs &c Britain--Irish, Scots, Welsh, colonial subjects &c
  • Nation States (mostly) France Spain Portugal Netherlands Swiss Confederation
  • Multistate Nationalities Germany Italy Poles Balkan peoples
  • Ancient Germans Rediscovered von Ranke & the modern discipline of history wie es eigentlich gewesen Kleist’s Hermannsschlacht, (1808) Felix Dahn, Kampf um Rom, 1867 runes, solar occultism, Norse deities -- revived public interest
  • History lives!
  • Begun in the 1830s, only finished after 1871
  • Would you believe this from the Hermannsdenkmal website?
  • Niebelungenlied
  • Niebelungenlied the German Iliad ?
  • Niebelungenlied the German Iliad ? Wagner’s Ring Cycle
  • Niebelungenlied the German Iliad ? Wagner’s Ring Cycle Fritz Lang silent film
  • Niebelungenlied the German Iliad ? Wagner’s Ring Cycle Fritz Lang silent film Sci Fi Channel, 2004
  • Niebelungenlied the German Iliad ? Wagner’s Ring Cycle Fritz Lang silent film Sci Fi Channel, 2004 http://omacl.org/ Nibelungenlied/ adventure2.html
  • Guido von List (1848-1919) Viennese journalist, alpinist, rower, novelist occultist, mystic & volkish Pan German Runic Revivalism, millinarianism & Runosophy
  • Runic Circle of the Armanen Futharkh a cataract operation in 1902 11 months of temp blindness a vision revealing The Secret of the Runes (1908) G. v List Society “Tarnhari” (crook & swindler) publishes Swastika Letter,Leipzig
  • Tarnhari (Ernst Lauterer) letter to List, 1911 posed as reincarnated chieftain of prehistoric tribe confirms List’s speculations established publishing houses ties to Dietrich Eckart, Hitler’s mentor
  • Jörg Lanz von Liebenfels (1874-1954) middle class Viennese Cistercian, 1893-99 theozoologist, anti-Semite, occultist, new Templar Ostara, 1905 claimed to be a precursor of Nazi ideology
  • ... the widespread interest among certain sections of German and Austrian society for all manners of health cures, revelations, reassurances, and techniques of self-realization in troubled times.
  • ... the widespread interest among certain sections of German and Austrian society for all manners of health cures, revelations, reassurances, and techniques of self-realization in troubled times. Nicholas Goodrick-Clark
  • Want more on this topic? a source I found after the reading list went to press originally published in 1985 scholarly, not a Nazi exploitation book Publ library has 2 copies
  • Liberalism Liberal Revolutions Bourgeois Constitutionalist materialist
  • Liberal Revolutions
  • Liberal Revolutions 1820s
  • Liberal Revolutions 1820s
  • Liberal Revolutions 1820s 1830
  • Liberal Revolutions 1820s 1830
  • Liberal Revolutions 1820s 1830 1848
  • März 1848 Berlin
  • Völkisch Ideology
  • Völkisch Ideology “Chap 1. From Romanticism to the Volk” -- Mosse
  • Völkisch Ideology “Chap 1. From Romanticism to the Volk” -- Mosse Industrial Revolution > alienation (Entseelung)
  • Völkisch Ideology “Chap 1. From Romanticism to the Volk” -- Mosse Industrial Revolution > alienation (Entseelung) search for “rootedness” in Nature
  • Völkisch Ideology “Chap 1. From Romanticism to the Volk” -- Mosse Industrial Revolution > alienation (Entseelung) search for “rootedness” in Nature Volkskunde or Cultural Anthropology
  • Wilhelm Heinrich Riehl (1823-97) journalist, novelist, folklorist Land und Leute (Land & People) v. 1 of 4(1854) “modernity is nature contrived by man and thus devoid of that genuiness to which living nature alone gives meaning.” the Jew’s Volk was without territory, i.e. “rootless”
  • Theodor Fontane (1819-1898) novelist & poet many works of historical fiction Wanderungen durch die Mark Brandenburg (1862-1882, 5 vols.) “required reading for the Jugendbewegung” -- Mosse
  • Hermann Löns (1866-28 Sept 1914) originator of the Heimat novel The Wehrwolf (1910) “accepted the rapine & pillage of Thirty Years War as ‘normal’ “ --Mosse
  • Paul Anton de Lagarde (1827-1891) scripture scholar, orientalist taught at a Berlin Gymnasium founder, völkische Bewegung virulent anti-Semite Deutsche Schriften (1878-81)
  • Lagarde’s Spiritual Ideas
  • Lagarde’s Spiritual Ideas “Germanism lies not within the blood but in the character”
  • Lagarde’s Spiritual Ideas “Germanism lies not within the blood but in the character” quest for a German faith to replace materialism
  • Lagarde’s Spiritual Ideas “Germanism lies not within the blood but in the character” quest for a German faith to replace materialism Christianity has become stifled by laws, traditions, & practices
  • Lagarde’s Spiritual Ideas “Germanism lies not within the blood but in the character” quest for a German faith to replace materialism Christianity has become stifled by laws, traditions, & practices search for “original Christianity”
  • Lagarde’s Spiritual Ideas “Germanism lies not within the blood but in the character” quest for a German faith to replace materialism Christianity has become stifled by laws, traditions, & practices search for “original Christianity” apostles were Christ’s Volk, the Kingdom of God
  • Lagarde’s Spiritual Ideas “Germanism lies not within the blood but in the character” quest for a German faith to replace materialism Christianity has become stifled by laws, traditions, & practices search for “original Christianity” apostles were Christ’s Volk, the Kingdom of God nostalgia for the Middle Ages
  • Judenfrage (Jewish Question) Jewish emancipation (1) 1812 (2) 1848 (3) 1918 Reform > assimilation in 19th c. Liberal-Jewish symbiosis > “materialism” label Lagarde -- “short memorable phrases” e.g., “exterminate...like bacillae!”
  • Julius Langbehn (1851-1907) vol, age 19, Franco- War, 2nd Lt in reserve sought PhD art history theosophist, mystic, Swedenborgian Rembrandt as Educator, 1890 convinced anti-Semite
  • Racism notions of ethnic superiority are quite old 18th century classification of peoples scientific racism emerged in the 19th century Gobineau’s Inequality of the Human Races (1853) Galton’s Hereditary Genius (1870)
  • Aristotle’s Politics, 4th c BCE “Some from the hour of their birth are destined to be masters; others, slaves.” Politics, bk i natural masters--”those who possess reason to a high degree” = most Greeks natural slaves--”those who can apprehend reason, but cannot originate it” =most barbarians, i.e. non-Greeks
  • Carolus Linnaeus [Karl Linne](1707-78) father of modern taxonomy subcategories of homo sapiens--Americanus, Asiaticus, Africanus, & Europeanus unilinealism or polygenesis?
  • Craniometry and Physical Anthropology Phrenology was a pseudo science attempting to describe human character by the shape of the skull It ushered in a host of bogus theories such as racial intelligence from cranial capacity (Morton) Nott's and Gliddon's Indigenous races of the earth (1857) used misleading imagery to suggest that quot;Negroesquot; ranked between whites and chimpanzees.
  • Charles Darwin (1809-1882) Origin of Species (1859) --no mention of man Descent of Man (1871) --not a racist viewpoint but popularizers create: Social Darwinism
  • Social Darwinism “evolution” + “natural selection” > “survival of the fittest”--Herbert Spencer (1864) Francis Galton > “eugenics”
  • Jugendbewegung There were many German youth organizations but most famous were the Wandervögeln. Begun as a hiking club at the end of the 19th century, they grew to tens of thousands before the war, hundreds of thousands after it.
  • Hugo Höppener, Fidus (1868-1948) • favorite artist of the Wandervögeln • subscribed to the beliefs: romanticism, revolt against modernity, “back to nature” vegetarianism, nudism, sun worship, theosophy, idealized peasant life
  • Early Works 1900 Wandervögels Abschied (Farewell) (Vegetarian Restaurant)
  • In search of Volkstum Pictured here with his Munich Art Academy professor in 1887. He gave him the name, Fidus, for serving a brief jail term for nudity. Both were Naturmenschen.
  • Lichtgebet (Light Prayer) 1913 His most famous work was displayed on adolescent walls before World War I, just as Raven or Johnny Depp might be today. The youthful Nordic sun worshiper forms the “life rune” (Y) with his arms.
  • Sun Worshipers Freibad (nude bathing) Nacktkultur
  • Expressionism distorts reality for an emotional effect painting, literature, theater, film, architecture and music often implies emotional angst
  • The Scream, Edvard Munch (1893)
  • Otto Dix eager volunteer in 1914 fought in the Somme, 1916 seriously wounded several times Iron Cross (EK) 2nd class “Self Portrait as Target” 1915 suffered recurring nightmares
  • George Grosz, Metropolis (1916-1917)
  • Wassily Kandinsk, Der Blaue Reiter (1903)
  • Anti-war Art
  • Anti-war Art
  • Anti-war Art
  • Peter Gay, Weimar Culture; the Outsider as Insider. (1968) • Weimar style predates the Weimar Republic • cosmopolitan, Futurist • Dada born during the war in Zurich • post-war Paris • finally, Berlin
  • • “most insistent question revolved around the need for man’s renewal” • “most urgent and practically insoluble by: 1. disappearance of God 2. threat of the machine” 3. the incurable stupidity of the upper classes 4. & the helpless philistinism of the bourgeoisie from the introduction, pp 5-7
  • play > opera > film > DVD •Georg Büchner, 1837 •Alban Berg, 1925 “Wozzek” •Werner Herzog, 1979
  • George Grosz 1893-1959 “The Hero” n.d.
  • George Grosz 1893-1959 “The Hero” n.d.
  • Eric Heckel 1883-1970 Heckel belonged to the Die Brücke group of the German Expressionist movement.
  • Eric Heckel 1883-1970 Heckel belonged to the Die Brücke group of the German Expressionist movement.
  • Eric Heckel 1883-1970 Heckel belonged to the Die Brücke group of the German Expressionist movement.
  • “Springtime,the Sower” -- Albert Hahn
  • Walter Gropius “This is more than just a lost war. A world has come to an end. We must seek a radical solution to our problems.” --1918
  • Erwin Piscator (1893-1966) Volksbühne (1924-27) experimental techniques, film & still projections, scaffolds & stairs collaboration with Brecht
  • Bertold Brecht (1898-1956) theater as a forum for political ideas life-long Marxist collaborates on “Schweik”
  • “The Good Soldier Schweik”
  • “The Good Soldier Schweik”
  • “The Good Soldier Schweik”
  • “The Good Soldier Schweik” A sort of Catch 22 set in the Austrian army during WW I. Hasek was him- self a Czech veteran. The story has become a classic anti-war, anti- authority fable.
  • Hintergrund (Backdrop)
  • Hintergrund (Backdrop) Piscator’s adaptation of “Schweik” called for a painted cloth backdrop which was rolled behind the players Grosz was chosen to execute it this climactic panel caused an uproar the caption read “Shut your trap and soldier on!!” Grosz was tried for blasphemy
  • Fear, drawing by Arthur Stadler, 1915
  • Ernst Barlach (1870-1938)
  • Ernst Barlach (1870-1938) Expressionist sculptor & printmaker
  • Ernst Barlach (1870-1938) Expressionist sculptor & printmaker volunteered for WW I, Fronterlebnis, 1915-16
  • Ernst Barlach (1870-1938) Expressionist sculptor & printmaker volunteered for WW I, Fronterlebnis, 1915-16 became pacifist
  • Käthe Kollwitz (1867-1945)
  • Käthe Kollwitz (1867-1945)
  • Käthe Kollwitz (1867-1945)
  • Käthe Kollwitz (1867-1945)
  • Kino new at the end of the 19th century rapid pre-war growth German film industry nationalized for the war German cinema became a world leader in the “golden ‘20s”
  • Das Cabinet des Dr. Caligari (1920)
  • Caligari’s somnambulist abducts the heroine
  • Dr. Mabuse the Gambler (1922) evil genius, hypnotist, master of disguises metaphor for the stock market “swindlers”
  • Die Nibelungen (1922-24) Lang, no Wagnerian, reverts to the original text. Technically innovative, drenched in volkish romantic nationalism, Hitler & Goebbels loved it!
  • Siegfried with dwarf
  • Siegfried Kracauer scorned this film by Fritz Lang. Too superficial treatment of class issues for his Social Democrat ideology. But the masses loved it! UFA Babelsberg Studios Reichsmark 7 million 1927
  • mad inventor Rotwang & the “false Maria”
  • The Blue Angel (1930) first major German sound film launched Marlene Dietrich international success banned by Nazis after 1933
  • M (1931) Lang’s first sound film. Peter Lorre as the child murderer is burdened by his success. There is a “league of beggars” like Brecht’s contemporaneous“Three Penny Opera”
  • The Testament of Dr. Mabuse (1933) • Lang’s 2nd sound film • Most popular of 3 Mabuse film series • Nazis felt Mabuse’s gang was a metaphor for them! •Lang emigrates to Hollywood
  • Neue Sachlichkeit “New Objectivity” reaction against Expressionism Bauhaus Paul Hindemith foreign influence--Dali, Buñuel, & Grant Wood
  • George Grosz “Republican Automatons” (1920)
  • George Grosz “Republican Automatons” (1920) “Their vehement form of realism distorted appearances to emphasize the ugly, as ugliness was the reality these artists wished to expose.”
  • “Pillars of Society” (1926)
  • “Pillars of Society” (1926) • the officer
  • “Pillars of Society” (1926) • the officer • the Lutheran minister
  • “Pillars of Society” (1926) • the officer • the Lutheran minister • the industrialist
  • “Pillars of Society” (1926) • the officer • the Lutheran minister • the industrialist • the journalist
  • “Pillars of Society” (1926) • the officer • the Lutheran minister • the industrialist • the journalist • the university Nazi
  • “Pillars of Society” (1926) • the officer • the Lutheran minister • the industrialist • the journalist • the university Nazi all ignoring the building burning down behind them
  • The Neues Bauen movement flourished 1924-1933
  • The Depression Grosz’s social commentary continues his contempt for the Weimar “System” Both Left and Right agree on this much!
  • Another Grosz picture of the Depression’s effect this one aptly titled “Hunger” (1930)
  • Socialist Realism
  • And now the stage is set for a rejected artist who had become a soldier and at the age of 31 discovered a new medium of expression.