Napoleon, session iv, Apogee
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Napoleon, session iv, Apogee

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This session depicts Napoleon at the height of his power, 1807-1809. There is the slightest hint that things might not last forever.

This session depicts Napoleon at the height of his power, 1807-1809. There is the slightest hint that things might not last forever.

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Napoleon, session iv, Apogee Napoleon, session iv, Apogee Presentation Transcript

  • Napoleon session iv Apogee
  • Napoleon session iv Apogee
  • The pope must be made to understandthat “I am Charlemagne, the swordof the Church, their emperor; that Imust be treated as such...if he doesnot acquiesce, I shall reduce thepapacy to the state that it occupiedbefore Charlemagne.” --Napoleon
  • major topics for this session! Eylau, 1807! Friedland, 1807! Tilsit! The Continental System! The Fifth Coalition! Wagram, 1809
  • 5 1807 campaign
  • 6 1809 campaign1807 campaign
  • 1807 campaign1809 campaign
  • Eylau, 1807
  • Eylau, 1807Napoléon on the field of Eylau by Antoine-Jean Gros, 1807
  • A general-in-chief should never allowany rest either to the conquerors orthe conquered. --Napoleon I received your letter in a tumble- down farm house where I have the mud, the wind and some straw for my bed. --Napoleon
  • After the stunning victory of Jena, “Napoleon was not finishedwith Prussia. A fast and furious pursuit in all directions capturedthousands of stunned troops.”In all, a total of 140,000 POWs were taken “ one half to work onroads and fields in France and as many as Prince Godoy wantedto Spain.”The Prussian officers who had sharpened their swords on thesteps of the French Embassy in Berlin “were marched past theFrench embassy to the secret delight of those Berlin citizens whohad not wanted war.” Robert Asprey, The Reign of Napoleon Bonaparte, pp. 35, 38
  • Russia Eylau a ssi RuBerlin Warsaw a ssi Ru
  • a romanticinterlude from war
  • a romantic interlude from war “...a raving beauty, blonde with beguiling blue eyes set off byexceptionally white skin and darkcurling eyelashes, soft inviting lips and an exquisitely slim, full- bosomed body” Asprey, p. 51
  • Patriotic Adultery! born to a wealthy Polish noble family! one of her tutors was Nicholas Chopin, the composer’s father! 1805-her mother and brothers forced the 17-year-old into a marriage to Count Athenasius Walewska who was four times her age!! January 1806-when Napoleon arrived in Warsaw, Talleyrand made sure that she came to his attention. He, as did the Polish patriots, wanted her to convince the Emperor that a Polish state should be resurrected Maria Countess Walewska (née !"czy#ska; 1786, – 1817)
  • Patriotic Adultery! born to a wealthy Polish noble family! one of her tutors was Nicholas Chopin, the composer’s father! 1805-her mother and brothers forced the 17-year-old into a marriage to Count Athenasius Walewska who was four times her age!! January 1806-when Napoleon arrived in Warsaw, Talleyrand made sure that she came to his attention. He, as did the Polish patriots, wanted her to convince the Emperor that a Polish state should be resurrected! she was at first reluctant. But when even her husband encouraged her, she gave Napoleon “three gorgeous weeks” in Warsaw--Asprey! she was 20, Bonaparte was 36, Joséphine was 42 and in Mainz Maria Countess Walewska (née !"czy#ska; 1786, – 1817)! Marie later followed him on campaign and back to Paris
  • Correspondence with JoséphineNapoleon has often been criticized for [this liaison with MarieWalewska], which is not altogether fair. Probably it would nothave happened had Joséphine been on hand but...Warsaw wasnot a suitable place for her. Even before he had met Marie hesympathized with Joséphine’s boredom at Mainz and advised herto return to Paris and enjoy herself.Joséphine did not take kindly to this advice and in short orderbecame a nagging pest. We don’t have her letters but judging fromhis replies they were scarcely soothing. “What you say to me ofyour sadness pains me,” he wrote in mid-January, “...I shall seeyou soon...show some character and fortitude….” Three dayslater: “I am told that you are always crying. For shame...I am verywell and love you very much; but if you are always crying I shallbelieve that you have no courage or character; I do not likecowards; an empress should have courage.” Asprey, p. 78-79
  • The Grand Duchy of Warsaw 1807-1815
  • The Grand Duchy of Warsaw 1807-1815
  • Polish patriots from the richest nobles to the poorest peasantswere rebelling against Prussian and Russian rule and wereallegedly raising an army sixty thousand strong. Asprey, Reign, p. 40
  • Napoleon’s Polish Troops ! 1791-95--like so many patriotic Poles, Dombrowski fought both Prussians and Russians who came to partition his land ! when this effort failed, he and many others emigrated to revolutionary France and formed a Polish army in exile ! 1796-97-commanded the 1st & 2nd Polish legions of the Army of Italy ! 1798-commanded the auxiliary troops of the Cisalpine Republic ! 1807-raised another Polish legion, this time in his native land! He took part in the siege of Danzig and the battle ofGeneral Jan-Henryk Dombrowski Friedland 1755-1818 ! thereafter, he and his fellow Poles would rank among Napoleon’s most loyal allied troops until the first abdication in 1814
  • Napoleon’s Polish Troops ! 1791-95--like so many patriotic Poles, Dombrowski fought both Prussians and Russians who came to partition his land ! when this effort failed, he and many others emigrated to revolutionary France and formed a Polish army in exile ! 1796-97-commanded the 1st & 2nd Polish legions of the Army of Italy ! 1798-commanded the auxiliary troops of the Cisalpine Republic ! 1807-raised another Polish legion, this time in his native land! He took part in the siege of Danzig and the battle ofGeneral Jan-Henryk Dombrowski Friedland 1755-1818 ! thereafter, he and his fellow Poles would rank among Napoleon’s most loyal allied troops until the first abdication in 1814
  • Winter Quarters! from time immemorial Europe’s armies began to settle down in the late fall and await the spring thaws to begin fighting again! Napoleon ordered his forces in Eastern Prussia to make no forward movement until the spring! 27 January-he received the disturbing news that Russian General Bennigsen had taken the offensive! Russians, of course, were more accustomed to the harsh climate of this part of the world than were the French, let alone their allied Spanish troops! but Napoleon was further shocked to learn that his own Marshal Ney’s troops might have triggered the fighting! ordered to forage for food, some had tired of trying to dig up frozen potatoes and had attacked the Russian outposts to plunder their depots
  • Course of the Lower Alle River
  • Course of the Lower Alle River Friedland Eylau
  • “...the shivering and half-starved French soldiers [were] fortunatethat they were unable to foresee the sufferings the future held instore for them as their pursuing columns, enveloped in a haze ofhuman breath, hurried forward…. For down the road lay the fieldof Eylau.” Chandler, p. 535
  • ! 7 February-the previous afternoon, an outpost skirmish had escalated into a battle as both sides wanted to spend the freezing night in the town. Napoleon was almost captured! ! continuous snowstorms on both days added to the troops’ misery ! 8 February-when Ney’s and Davout’s corps 67,000 would arrive in the afternoon the French strength would reach 75,000 ! Lestocq’s Prussians would bring Bennigsen’s forces to 76,000. Already, the Russian artillery45,000 was far stronger, 400 guns to the French 300 ! so Napoleon’s plan was to hold out until his two corps would make for a fairly even fight ! 10 a.m.-Soult and Augereau were ordered to make a pinning attack after Chandler, p. 539 FRENCH in DARK GRAY RUSSIANS in LIGHT GRAY
  • ! 7 February-the previous afternoon, an outpost skirmish had escalated into a battle as both sides wanted to spend the freezing night in the town. Napoleon was almost captured! ! continuous snowstorms on both days added to the troops’ misery ! 8 February-when Ney’s and Davout’s corps 67,000 would arrive in the afternoon the French strength would reach 75,000 ! Lestocq’s Prussians would bring Bennigsen’s forces to 76,000. Already, the Russian artillery45,000 was far stronger, 400 guns to the French 300 ! so Napoleon’s plan was to hold out until his two corps would make for a fairly even fight ! 10 a.m.-Soult and Augereau were ordered to make a pinning attack after Chandler, p. 539 FRENCH in DARK GRAY ! 1130-Murat’s cavalry rode through the RUSSIANS in LIGHT GRAY Russian lines and back again
  • ! 7 February-the previous afternoon, an outpost skirmish had escalated into a battle as both sides wanted to spend the freezing night in the town. Napoleon was almost captured! ! continuous snowstorms on both days added to the troops’ misery ! 8 February-when Ney’s and Davout’s corps 67,000 would arrive in the afternoon the French strength would reach 75,000 ! Lestocq’s Prussians would bring Bennigsen’s forces to 76,000. Already, the Russian artillery45,000 was far stronger, 400 guns to the French 300 ! so Napoleon’s plan was to hold out until his two corps would make for a fairly even fight ! 10 a.m.-Soult and Augereau were ordered to make a pinning attack after Chandler, p. 539 FRENCH in DARK GRAY ! 1130-Murat’s cavalry rode through the RUSSIANS in LIGHT GRAY Russian lines and back again
  • ! 1 p.m.-3 p.m.--Davout’s III Corps hits the Russian left flank. Friant’s division takes Kutschitten, Gudin’s, Anklappen45,000 Chandler, p. 549 RUSSIANS in RED & RED FRENCH in BLACK & GRAY
  • ! 1 p.m.-3 p.m.--Davout’s III Corps hits the Russian left flank. Friant’s division takes Kutschitten, Gudin’s, Anklappen ! the solid marks show the effect of these attacks by 4 p.m.45,000 Chandler, p. 549 RUSSIANS in RED & RED FRENCH in BLACK & GRAY
  • ! 1 p.m.-3 p.m.--Davout’s III Corps hits the Russian left flank. Friant’s division takes Kutschitten, Gudin’s, Anklappen ! the solid marks show the effect of these attacks by 4 p.m. ! 4:30 p.m.-Lestocq’s Prussian corps arrives. He stops Davout from completely enveloping the Russians45,000 Chandler, p. 549 RUSSIANS in RED & RED FRENCH in BLACK & GRAY
  • ! 1 p.m.-3 p.m.--Davout’s III Corps hits the Russian left flank. Friant’s division takes Kutschitten, Gudin’s, Anklappen ! the solid marks show the effect of these attacks by 4 p.m. ! 4:30 p.m.-Lestocq’s Prussian corps arrives. He stops Davout from completely enveloping the Russians ! Although this denies Bonaparte his decisive destruction of the Allies, it is not enough to reverse the battle’s momentum45,000 Chandler, p. 549 RUSSIANS in RED & RED FRENCH in BLACK & GRAY
  • ! 1 p.m.-3 p.m.--Davout’s III Corps hits the Russian left flank. Friant’s division takes Kutschitten, Gudin’s, Anklappen ! the solid marks show the effect of these attacks by 4 p.m. ! 4:30 p.m.-Lestocq’s Prussian corps arrives. He stops Davout from completely enveloping the Russians ! Although this denies Bonaparte his decisive destruction of the Allies, it is not enough to reverse the battle’s momentum45,000 ! 7 p.m.-Ney’s VI Corps drives into the Russian right Chandler, p. 549 RUSSIANS in RED & RED FRENCH in BLACK & GRAY
  • ! 1 p.m.-3 p.m.--Davout’s III Corps hits the Russian left flank. Friant’s division takes Kutschitten, Gudin’s, Anklappen ! the solid marks show the effect of these attacks by 4 p.m. ! 4:30 p.m.-Lestocq’s Prussian corps arrives. He stops Davout from completely enveloping the Russians ! Although this denies Bonaparte his decisive destruction of the Allies, it is not enough to reverse the battle’s momentum45,000 ! 7 p.m.-Ney’s VI Corps drives into the Russian right ! this forced Bennigsen to withdraw to the position shown by faint red symbols behind Chandler, p. 549 the road to Königsberg. RUSSIANS in RED & RED FRENCH in BLACK & GRAY
  • ! 1 p.m.-3 p.m.--Davout’s III Corps hits the Russian left flank. Friant’s division takes Kutschitten, Gudin’s, Anklappen ! the solid marks show the effect of these attacks by 4 p.m. ! 4:30 p.m.-Lestocq’s Prussian corps arrives. He stops Davout from completely enveloping the Russians ! Although this denies Bonaparte his decisive destruction of the Allies, it is not enough to reverse the battle’s momentum45,000 ! 7 p.m.-Ney’s VI Corps drives into the Russian right ! this forced Bennigsen to withdraw to the position shown by faint red symbols behind Chandler, p. 549 the road to Königsberg. RUSSIANS in RED & RED FRENCH in BLACK & GRAY ! both sides are exhausted
  • ! 1 p.m.-3 p.m.--Davout’s III Corps hits the Russian left flank. Friant’s division takes Kutschitten, Gudin’s, Anklappen ! the solid marks show the effect of these attacks by 4 p.m. ! 4:30 p.m.-Lestocq’s Prussian corps arrives. He stops Davout from completely enveloping the Russians ! Although this denies Bonaparte his decisive destruction of the Allies, it is not enough to reverse the battle’s momentum45,000 ! 7 p.m.-Ney’s VI Corps drives into the Russian right ! this forced Bennigsen to withdraw to the position shown by faint red symbols behind Chandler, p. 549 the road to Königsberg. RUSSIANS in RED & RED FRENCH in BLACK & GRAY ! both sides are exhausted
  • A Russian Map French in “enemy” red Russians in green Prussians in blue showing the situation at about 6 p.m.PR. EYLAU
  • Fortunately for Napoleon, his adversary’s nerve broke first. Ateleven that night Bennigsen held a council of war...to decide onthe best course of action. Several generals pleaded with him tohold his ground and reopen the struggle the next morning, butBennigsen had already spent many hours in the saddle and hisendurance was at an end…. from midnight onward the Russiancolumns began to draw away covered by a rear guard of cossacks….there was no question of mounting an immediate pursuit. TheFrench army was in no condition to move another yard. Chandler, p. 548
  • So ended the grisly and inconclusive battle of Eylau. The lossesand suffering had been horrific. Napoleon claimed that the GrandeArmée had lost 1,900 killed and 5,700 wounded, but this is a caseof blatant propaganda, justifying the cynical phrase, “to lie like abulletin.” Even the most optimistic French commentators put theFrench losses at 10,000 men, but this would still appear to be fartoo conservative…. The havoc wrought by the cannonballs, sabersand bayonets of the Russian soldiers will never be known, but itmay have been … 25,000 casualties, or one man in three. TheRussians had suffered rather less...probably 15,000 troops….Nevertheless, it had been the most gory struggle for many a year,and Napoleon was hard put to represent the outcome as a Frenchvictory in spite of the propaganda machinery at his disposal. Chandler, Ibid.
  • Friedland, 1807
  • Charge of the French Cuirassiers at Friedland on 14 June 1807- by Meissonier Friedland, 1807
  • [After Eylau] both sides returned to winter quarters to recoverfrom the carnage, with the renewal of hostilities planned for thespring.Bennigsen and Napoleon each planned to assume the offensive,but when the former advanced first, the Emperor stopped him atHeilsberg on 10 June. Four days later the decisive encounter ofthe campaign took place at Friedland... Fremont-Barnes, Napoleon, pp. 27-28
  • Eylau FriedlandBerlin Warsaw
  • Situation on the 14th about 6 pm
  • The Battle of Friedland 14 June 1807In June 1807, field artillery came into its own as a combat arm,becoming the equal of infantry and cavalry. No longer wouldartillery be a mere supporting service: it would now be asupported arm in that it could be the main force with the supportof infantry. It could not only lead attacks but, in certaincircumstances, could be the main attack. This development wasthe work of French General Sénarmont who…, acting as the ICorps artillery chief under General Claude Victor…, organizedand led, on his own initiative, an artillery attack against theRussian centre, annihilating it through close-range rapid artilleryfire and opening the way for a decisive victory. Michael F. Pavlovic in, Fighting Techniques, p. 190
  • The Battle of Friedland 14 June 1807 In June 1807, field artillery came into its own as a combat arm, becoming the equal of infantry and cavalry. No longer would artillery be a mere supporting service: it would now be a supported arm in that it could be the main force with the support of infantry. It could not only lead attacks but, in certain circumstances, could be the main attack. This development was the work of French General Sénarmont who…, acting as the I Corps artillery chief under General Claude Victor…, organized and led, on his own initiative, an artillery attack against the Russian centre, annihilating it through close-range rapid artillery fire and opening the way for a decisive victory. Michael F. Pavlovic in, Fighting Techniques, p. 190Sénarmont’s horse artillery--”Get close, fire fast!”
  • ! born the same year as Bonaparte, commissioned in the same branch, artillery, and in the same year, 1786 ! 1800-he won recognition both for how he brought the artillery of the Reserve Army over the Alps and his handling of the guns at Marengo ! 1806-as brigadier general of Victor’s corps, he also fought at Jena and in 1807 at Eylau ! 1807-for his part at Friedland he was created at baron and in 1808 promoted on the battlefield to general of division in SpainAlexandre-Antoine Hureau de Sénarmont 1769 – 1810 ! 1810-he was killed in the siege of Cadiz
  • Friedland is on a loop in the Alle River…. Thecommander of the main Russian army,Bennigsen (1745-1826), discovered thatMarshal Lannes’ corps was on the westernbank of the river overlooking the town. Lannesapparently being unsupported, Bennigsendecided to cross the river and destroy his force.By deciding on this course of action, Bennigsencommitted himself to fight with a river at hisback. Further, he had his pontonniers constructthree bridges leading into Friedland andnowhere else, though he also had a civilianbridge at his disposal. This limited his ability towithdraw quickly if necessary. Lannes immediately sent couriers galloping off tofind Napoleon and the main French army and proceeded to fight an expertdelaying action against the Russians. [Remember the Corps d’Armée system?] Henever had more than 26,000 men at his disposal to face 60,000 Russians. Not onlydid Bennigsen fail to destroy Lannes’ corps, he deployed almost his entire forceagainst it. When Napoleon arrived at about 5 p.m. on the afternoon of 14 June, hecould not believe the opportunity with which the Russian commander hadpresented him. Pavlovic, Ibid.
  • Lannes ranks with Louis Nicolas Davout and André Masséna as the ablest of all of Napoleons marshals. He was continually employed in tasks requiring the utmost resolution and daring, and more especially when the emperors combinations depended upon the vigour and self- sacrifice of a detachment or fraction of the army. It was thus with Lannes at Friedland and at Aspern as it was with Davout at Austerlitz and Auerstädt, and Napoleons estimate of his subordinates capacities can almost exactly be judged by the frequency with which he used them to prepare the way for his own shattering blow. Routine generals with the usual military virtue, or careful and exact troop leaders like Soult and Macdonald, Napoleon kept under his own hand for the final assault which he himself launched, but the long hours of preparatory fighting against odds of two to one, which alone made the final blow possible, he entrusted only to men of extraordinary courage and high capacity for command. In his own words, he found Lannes a pygmy, and left him a giant. Lanness place in his affections was never filled.Jean Lannes, 1st Duc de Montebello, 1st Sovereign Prince de Sievers 1769 – 31 May 1809
  • Lannes ranks with Louis Nicolas Davout and André Masséna as the ablest of all of Napoleons marshals. He was continually employed in tasks requiring the utmost resolution and daring, and more especially when the emperors combinations depended upon the vigour and self- sacrifice of a detachment or fraction of the army. It was thus with Lannes at Friedland and at Aspern as it was with Davout at Austerlitz and Auerstädt, and Napoleons estimate of his subordinates capacities can almost exactly be judged by the frequency with which he used them to prepare the way for his own shattering blow. Routine generals with the usual military virtue, or careful and exact troop leaders like Soult and Macdonald, Napoleon kept under his own hand for the final assault which he himself launched, but the long hours of preparatory fighting against odds of two to one, which alone made the final blow possible, he entrusted only to men of extraordinary courage and high capacity for command. In his own words, he found Lannes a pygmy, and left him a giant. Lanness place in his affections was never filled.Jean Lannes, 1st Duc de Montebello, 1st Sovereign Prince de Sievers 1769 – 31 May 1809
  • Napoleon overlooks the battlefield at Friedland, by James Walker“[He] reached the scene somewhere around noon reminding one and all that this wasthe anniversary of Marengo.” --Asprey, p. 71 .
  • French 4th Hussars at the Battle of Friedland. "Vive lEmpereur!" by Édouard Detaille, 1891
  • Charge of the Russian Leib Guard into the field by Viktor Mazurovsky, 1912
  • Sénarmont took the responsibility of ordering his 36 guns forwardagainst the Russian centre. They advanced by bounds, openingfire on the Russians at approximately 450 yards….The Russianinfantry stood firm. After firing five or six salvoes, Sénarmontordered his companies forward, stopping at 250 yards to open fireagain. Ordering his guns to cease firing, he again ordered themforward, this time to 150 yards (some sources say to 60 yards!).Just over 20 minutes later, more than 4,000 Russians littered thefield and the Russian centre was destroyed. This was the decisiveaction of the battle…. Sénarmont was counterattacked by thecavalry of the Russian Guard, and his artillery companies changedfront and gave the horsemen two volleys of canister, shatteringtheir charge. Ibid., pp. 191-192
  • Sénarmont took the responsibility of ordering his 36 guns forwardagainst the Russian centre. They advanced by bounds, openingfire on the Russians at approximately 450 yards….The Russianinfantry stood firm. After firing five or six salvoes, Sénarmontordered his companies forward, stopping at 250 yards to open fireagain. Ordering his guns to cease firing, he again ordered themforward, this time to 150 yards (some sources say to 60 yards!).Just over 20 minutes later, more than 4,000 Russians littered thefield and the Russian centre was destroyed. This was the decisiveaction of the battle…. Sénarmont was counterattacked by thecavalry of the Russian Guard, and his artillery companies changedfront and gave the horsemen two volleys of canister, shatteringtheir charge. Ibid., pp. 191-192
  • It had been a famous victory and a bloody fight.The forcesactually engaged had been remarkably equal [app. 65,000 Frenchagainst app. 60,000 Russian]--at least 15,000 French (most of theGuard and two divisions of the I Corps) never having beenengaged. The best figures on the French show 1,372 killed, 9,108wounded, 55 prisoners. Russian casualties are obscured by poorrecords, much straggling after the battle, and a considerablenumber of deaths by drowning. Some 11,000 dead were left on thefield; 7,000 wounded are recorded. The French captured 80cannon, but had few unwounded prisoners, most of the Russianspreferring drowning to surrendering. The effect of the battle onthe Russians, however, went far beyond the number of actualcasualties…. Bennigsen had casually led Russia’s best field armyinto a trap; it had fought with extreme bravery and stubbornness,but had barely escaped. It was now thoroughly disorganized andshaken; much of its equipment and weapons were gone; and it hadlost confidence in itself and its commanders. Esposito, Military History and Atlas of the Napoleonic Wars, commentary on MAP 82
  • It had been a famous victory and a bloody fight.The forcesactually engaged had been remarkably equal [app. 65,000 Frenchagainst app. 60,000 Russian]--at least 15,000 French (most of theGuard and two divisions of the I Corps) never having beenengaged. The best figures on the French show 1,372 killed, 9,108wounded, 55 prisoners. Russian casualties are obscured by poorrecords, much straggling after the battle, and a considerablenumber of deaths by drowning. Some 11,000 dead were left on thefield; 7,000 wounded are recorded. The French captured 80cannon, but had few unwounded prisoners, most of the Russianspreferring drowning to surrendering. The effect of the battle onthe Russians, however, went far beyond the number of actualcasualties…. Bennigsen had casually led Russia’s best field armyinto a trap; it had fought with extreme bravery and stubbornness,but had barely escaped. It was now thoroughly disorganized andshaken; much of its equipment and weapons were gone; and it hadlost confidence in itself and its commanders. Esposito, Military History and Atlas of the Napoleonic Wars, commentary on MAP 82
  • Napoleon at the battle of Friedland 14 June 1807. Gen Oudinot, bareheaded, is on theemperor’s left, and Russian prisoners are on the emperor’s right. Captured Russianstandards are in the background. The battle is noteworthy in that French artillery generalSénarmont employed innovative artillery tactics.
  • Five days after the battle Murat’s cavalry entered Tilsit. CzarAlexander now asked for an armistice to be followed by a meetingof the two emperors and the opening of peace negotiations.Sensing that he was about to win a new and immensely valuableally, Napoleon agreed. Asprey, p. 73
  • Tilsit
  • 25 June 1807 Tilsit
  • The two sovereigns appeared on the banks of the river andembarked at the same moment. But the Emperor Napoleon,having a good boat, manned by the Marines of the Guard, arrivedfirst on the raft, entered the room and went to the opposite door,which he opened, and then stationed himself on the edge of theraft to receive the Emperor Alexander, who had not yet arrived,not having as good oarsmen as the Emperor Napoleon.The two emperors met in the most amicable way... General Savary, quoted in Chandler, p. 586
  • TilsitPrussia after the Peace of Tilsit, 18 July 1807 Eylau Friedland Berlin Warsaw
  • It has been recorded that the first words of the tsar on thisauspicious occasion were:”I hate the English as much as you doyourself.” To which Napoleon replied, “If that is the case, thenpeace is already made.”The first meeting of these two potentates, perhaps the firstprototype in comparatively modern times of a “summitconference,”...lasted for approximately an hour and a half. It isnotable that the King of Prussia was not permitted to share in thisfirst meeting…....it is evident throughout the proceedings that [Napoleon] wasstraining every nerve to impress and captivate the impressionabletsar. Chandler, pp. 586-587
  • It has been recorded that the first words of the tsar on thisauspicious occasion were:”I hate the English as much as you doyourself.” To which Napoleon replied, “If that is the case, thenpeace is already made.”The first meeting of these two potentates, perhaps the firstprototype in comparatively modern times of a “summitconference,”...lasted for approximately an hour and a half. It isnotable that the King of Prussia was not permitted to share in thisfirst meeting…....it is evident throughout the proceedings that [Napoleon] wasstraining every nerve to impress and captivate the impressionabletsar. Chandler, pp. 586-587
  • Terms of the Franco-Russian Treaty! the war was ended and an alliance was made! both secretly agreed to aid one another: ! France would aid Russia against Ottoman Turkey ! Russia agreed to join the Continental System! Napoleon also convinced Alexander to make war against Britain and to wage the Finnish War against Sweden to force Sweden to join the Continental System! the tsar agreed to evacuate Walachia and Moldavia. France would receive the Ionian Islands and Cattaro which the Russian navy had captured! In return Napoleon guaranteed the sovereignty of the Duchy of Oldenburg and several other small states ruled by the tsar’s German relatives
  • As Napoleon already knew, Frederick William was easy to bully, but he soon found out that his queen was made of sterner stuff. She tried every female wile from tears to coquetry to wring concessions from the apparently stony heart of the French Emperor. By the 8th, Louise’s charm was having an...effect on the increasingly susceptible Napoleon. [He wrote to Joséphine] “The Queen of Prussia is really charming; she is full of coquettrie toward me. But do not be jealous, I am an oilcloth off which all that sort of thing runs. It would cost me too dear to play the galant.” Chandler, pp. 587-588Napoleon greets King Frederick William and Queen Louise of Prussia
  • As Napoleon already knew, Frederick William was easy to bully,but he soon found out that his queen was made of sterner stuff.She tried every female wile from tears to coquetry to wringconcessions from the apparently stony heart of the FrenchEmperor. By the 8th, Louise’s charm was having an...effect on theincreasingly susceptible Napoleon. [He wrote to Joséphine] “TheQueen of Prussia is really charming; she is full of coquettrie towardme. But do not be jealous, I am an oilcloth off which all that sortof thing runs. It would cost me too dear to play the galant.” Chandler, pp. 587-588
  • The Beautiful Königin Luise
  • The Beautiful Königin Luise
  • The Beautiful Königin Luise
  • The Beautiful Königin Luise
  • Terms of the Franco-Prussian Treaty! the treaty stripped Prussia of about half its territory. The state revenue was diminished even more as the ceded provinces were the richest and most fertile ! Cottbus passed to Saxony ! the left bank of the Elbe was awarded to the newly created Kingdom of Westphalia ! Bialystok was given to Russia! the rest of the Prussian Polish lands gained in the Second and Third Partitions became the Duchy of Warsaw! Prussia had to reduce her army to 40,000 and pay 100 million francs! Talleyrand had advised Napoleon to pursue milder terms; the treaty marked an important stage in his estrangement from the emperor
  • ...If the basic realities of Napoleon’s international position alreadycontained many of the grave flaws that eventually led to hisdownfall, the outer facade of his achievement was undoubtedlymagnificent. His influence now extended practically unbrokenfrom the Pyrenees to the Niemen, and for the immediate future hisgrandiose rule would be undisputed by the cowed or cajoledpowers of the Continent. His soldiers had recovered from thesetback of Eylau and re-established their martial prowess. Chandler, p. 590
  • The Continental System
  • Europe in 1811.Colors indicate (from dark blue to light blue) :- Dark blue - French Empire,- Light Blue - French Satellite States,- Blue grey - Countries applying the Continental System.
  • With Russia and Prussia knocked out of the war, only Britainremained to face France, now at the height of its power. Tocombat his remaining adversary, Napoleon had already issued theBerlin and Milan Decrees, inaugurating the Continental System,by which he sought to impose an embargo on the importation ofBritish goods to mainland ports and the exportation ofContinental goods to Britain in an effort to strangle its economy. Fremont-Barnes, Napoleon, p. 28
  • ! 21 November 1806--the Berlin Decree forbids the importation of British goods into European countries allied or dependent on France and begins the Continental System! 11 November 1807--Britain responds with Orders in Council. These forbid French trade with the UK, its allies or neutrals and instruct the Royal Navy to enforce this with an extended blockade and inspection of ships on the high seas! America begins its impotent response to try to assert “Freedom of the Seas,” and ultimately goes to war in 1812! 17 December 1807--the Milan Decree extends the prohibition to any European country. It authorizes French warships and privateers to capture neutral ships sailing from any British port or from any country that was occupied by British forces. It also declares that any ships that submitted to search by the Royal Navy on the high seas were to be considered lawful prizes if taken by the French.! 22 December 1807--now Jefferson imposes the “damnbargo” and there is talk of war with France
  • [The] army had become the sine qua non of [Napoleon’s] foreign policywhich was designed ultimately to bring England to its knees once thewar on land had won the war at sea. The peace of Tilsit had made himthe master of almost all of western and southern Europe. He felt himselfinvincible, it was a matter now of closing the few remaining holes in thecoastal curtain….This was a Catch-22 situation brought about by the villain of the piece,the continental system, which was hurting France and its allies nearly asmuch as it was hurting England. The Peace of Tilsit which so entrancedits creator was an insidious trap. Napoleon failed to realize that he hadguaranteed himself perpetual conflict by the insistence on expanding theblockade to neutral countries. It was moreover a dubious strategy atbest in view of the diverse nature of European countries, long coastlines,thousands of small ports and hidden coves, the universal appeal, indeednecessity, of trade, the basic element of human greed and the tenaciouscharacter of the English nation supported by two mighty weapons,warships and money. Asprey, Reign, pp. 87-88
  • ...in 1805 Napoleon converted [the ItalianRepublic] to the Kingdom of Italy, withhimself as king and his adopted stepson,Eugène Beauharnais, as his viceroy. Eugène was a long, lean young cavalryman,a hard worker, thoroughly honorable andcompletely loyal. Napoleon called him “myson,” coached him carefully, and unhappilycompared his excellent service with Joseph’s,Louis’s, and Jérôme’s bobblings. As a privateman, Eugène was kind and fond of familypleasures…. As a commander…, Eugènelacked something of the killer instinct of aborn independent commander; concern forhis suffering men and animals could slow hismovements. But he was a good soldier and agood comrade, courageous, cool and resilient. Esposito, Swords Around A Throne, p. 391 Eugène Rose de Beauharnais, Prince Français, Prince of Venice, Viceroy of the Kingdom of Italy, Hereditary Grand Duke of Frankfurt, 1st Duke of Leuchtenberg,1781 – 1824
  • At the south end of the Italian peninsula sweltered the Kingdom of Naples. Evicting its shoddy Bourbon rulers in 1806, Napoleon replaced them with his older brother Joseph, a man of liberal intellectual pretensions, charm, a soft heart and head, and no demonstrable common sense. Alone among the Bonapartes, he was a coward; any danger sent him scuttling. He considered wealth and high office merely his just due, without effort or question. If not sufficiently humored, he would play footsie with the Emperor’s enemies. He went to Naples as a philosopher-king, resolved to lead his subjects gently into the fuller life. His reforms were genuine and mostly necessary, but he was not interested in military matters. Esposito, p. 396Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte (1768 – 1844) King of Naples andSicily (1806–1808), and later Joseph I of Spain (1808–1813)
  • In 1806, wanting to bring Holland into an eventighter alliance, Napoleon made it a kingdom withhis younger brother Louis as its monarch. Louiswas intelligent (if sometimes lacking in commonsense), utterly conscientious and exactly honest inhis dealings, generous, and a protector of theunfortunate. As one of Napoleon’s aides-de-campin Italy, 1796-97 he had been devoted and daring,but after that--from causes that baffled Europeanphysicians--his health deteriorated….As King ofHolland Louis promptly turned into athoroughgoing Dutchman….Louis saw hisprimary duty as the immediate welfare of hissubjects: the long range welfare of the Empireand his duty to his brother were distinctly lesserconcerns. He was reluctant to enforce theContinental System….In 1810 Napoleontherefore annexed Holland to France, leavingLouis unemployed. Esposito, p. 389 Louis Napoléon Bonaparte, Prince Français, King of Holland, Comte de Saint-Leu (Lodewijk Napoleon in Dutch) 1778 – 1846
  • The most valuable of Napoleon’s allies in a military sense were the German states of the Confederation of the Rhine….On July 12, 1806, sixteen states in south and central Germany seceded from the old Holy Roman Empire to form the Confederation of the Rhine with Napoleon as its “Protector”…. The most important state to join the Confederation in 1807 was the Kingdom of Westphalia….a Napoleonic creation….Napoleon made his youngest brother, Jérôme, its king…. Jérôme was wildly extravagant, always had a string of mistresses, and rivaled Murat in fanciful costumes and the flash and flutter of his court. He could be very brave, but he had no judgment-- Esposito, pp. 398, 402-403Jérôme-Napoléon Bonaparte, French Prince, King ofWestphalia, 1st Prince of Montfort 1784 – 1860
  • Napoleon’s relations with [his brothers] varied. His letters to thesatellite kings, Joseph of Naples and Louis of Holland, generallyconcerned administrative matters. One such is of particularinterest...he asks them to have their coins minted in the same valueas those of France, as was already being done in Italy and in theconfederation states. “In this way all Europe will have a uniformcurrency which will prove of tremendous advantage to commerce”in that it would eliminate false escalation of currency values. Asprey, p. 81
  • Napoleon tried, through imposing his brothers upon the countrieshe had turned into satellites, to master all of Europe. In 1807 hebegan his fatal involvement in the Iberian peninsula in order toclose its ports to British trade. In 1806, while in Berlin, Napoleon declared the Continental Blockade, forbidding British imports into continental Europe. Of the two remaining neutral countries, Sweden and Portugal, the latter tried in vain to avoid Napoleons ultimatum (since 1373, it had had a treaty of alliance with the English which became an alliance with the United Kingdom). After the Treaty of Tilsit in 1807, now free from obligations in the east, Napoleon decided to capture the Iberian ports. Wikipedia, Peninsular War
  • The Fifth Coalition
  • Emperor Francis I of Austria
  • Austria wants to get slapped; sheshall have it. If the EmperorFrancis attempts any hostile move,he will soon have ceased to reign.-- to stepson Eugene, Viceroy in Italy, late February 1809 --Napoleon
  • Austria Seeks Revenge! encouraged by developments in Spain which drew off French forces, the war party in Austria believed the time was right! Archduke Charles, the emperor’s brother and Austria’s best general, was opposed! he pointed to Russia’s involvement against Sweden in Finland and against Turkey in the Balkans. No help was to be expected there! on the positive side, Austria had made major military reforms after her defeat in the war of the Third Coalition (1804-1805). These included adopting many of Bonaparte’s tactical innovations. Ironically, to solve the manpower crisis, Austria was adopting the levée en masse just as France had shifted to a more professional experienced force! Prussia initially encouraged Austria but then declined to fight again as war approached. Only Britain would join Austria with diversionary attacks in Portugal and the Netherlands! 8 February 1809-The Austrian Aulic (military) Council secretly decided on war
  • In one sense, Napoleon had little to fear from the Austrians inview of his own troop strength in France and Germany and hisknowledge that neither Charles nor anyone else could everproduce an inspired national army from the heterogeneousmakeup of the multi-lingual Austrian army of unwilling serfs.Neither could Charles nor old and inept Austrian marshals andgenerals, not to mention lesser fry, adapt to the Napoleonic systemof warfare within a few years, if ever. The Austrian character didnot lend itself to military daring and efficiency. A feudal commandarrogance and a gross schlamperei or sloppiness could not beeliminated. As Charles would shortly learn, numbers were oneconsideration, performance another. Asprey, p. 149
  • 226,000
  • The March on ViennaNapoleon desired above all to wreak vengeance on Austria...forwhat he regarded as a base betrayal of the 1805 treaty ofPressburg. He also believed that he had just dealt the Austrians ablow so severe that the would not risk falling easy prey to his ownsplendid army and might even surrender before another battle.Less than half his soldiers had fired a shot in the recent battles--“My army has never been so beautiful and numerous,” he wroteMurat. A “decisive victory’ over the Austrian army would withoutquestion ensure his power position in Germany, would possiblybring Czar Alexander to his senses, and would allow him toswiftly finish off the war in Spain before bringing England to itsknees by sealing off all Europe from its ships and goods. Asprey, pp. 155-156
  • ! having occupied Vienna with a minimum resistance, it now remained to destroy Archduke Charles’ army! French engineers built a series of 3 pontoon bridges to cross the Danube 88,000 at Lobau Island! Napoleon initially captured the two villages of Aspern & Essling! then “General Flood” intervened destroying the 3rd bridge between Lobau Island & the Left Bank 55,000 NORTH OF THE DANUBE! Marshal Lannes was outnumbered and getting low on ammunition! he tried to break out with his cavalry! he was mortally wounded in the fight
  • ! having occupied Vienna with a minimum resistance, it now remained to destroy Archduke Charles’ army! French engineers built a series of 3 pontoon bridges to cross the Danube 88,000 at Lobau Island! Napoleon initially captured the two villages of Aspern & Essling! then “General Flood” intervened destroying the 3rd bridge between Lobau Island & the Left Bank 55,000 NORTH OF THE DANUBE! Marshal Lannes was outnumbered and getting low on ammunition! he tried to break out with his cavalry! he was mortally wounded in the fight
  • ! having occupied Vienna with a minimum resistance, it now remained to destroy Archduke Charles’ army! French engineers built a series of 3 pontoon bridges to cross the Danube 88,000 at Lobau Island! Napoleon initially captured the two villages of Aspern & Essling! then “General Flood” intervened destroying the 3rd bridge between Lobau Island & the Left Bank 55,000 NORTH OF THE DANUBE! Marshal Lannes was outnumbered and getting low on ammunition! he tried to break out with his cavalry! he was mortally wounded in the fight
  • Napoleon Loses a Close Friend ! at first the amputation seemed successful ! the soldiers on the Right Bank were evacuated at night by boats, losing only a few but most of their guns and equipment ! Napoleon saw that Lannes received the best care possible. He was one of the very few permitted to address the emperor as “tu” ! they had been comrades since 1796 ! 1 June-ten days later, sepsis set in and Lannes began to die ! Napoleon came to his side ! a grieving emperor paid a tribute to this man which had to stand for the hundreds of thousands other Frenchmen who had died and would die in these wars
  • Napoleon Loses a Close Friend ! at first the amputation seemed successful ! the soldiers on the Right Bank were evacuated at night by boats, losing only a few but most of their guns and equipment ! Napoleon saw that Lannes received the best care possible. He was one of the very few permitted to address the emperor as “tu” ! they had been comrades since 1796 ! 1 June-ten days later, sepsis set in and Lannes began to die ! Napoleon came to his side ! a grieving emperor paid a tribute to this man which had to stand for the hundreds of thousands other Frenchmen who had died and would die in these wars
  • Wagram, 1809
  • Napoleon at Wagram, painted by Horace Vernet (Galerie des Batailles, Versailles)Wagram, 1809
  • NOTE--map inverts normal north-south orientation FRENCH REDAUSTRIANS PURPLE
  • The Battle of Wagram, 5-6 July 1809: the first day--the morning crossing and the evening battle Chandler, pp. 714-715
  • Realizing the fatuity of a conventional attack Napoleon instead chose to strike the enemy left which, once turned, would force Charles to leave prepared positions to fight in open country.--Asprey, p. 163The Battle of Wagram, 5-6 July 1809: the first day--the morning crossing and the evening battle Chandler, pp. 714-715
  • c.11 am Position Battery ARCHDUKE JOHN 12,500 still approachingThe Battle of Wagram, 5-6 July 1809: the second day Chandler, pp. 720-721
  • Macdonald’s ‘Monstrous Column’ ! the son of a Scots Jacobite emigrant, he had served in the royal armies before the Revolution then under Dumouriez at Jemappes ! at the battle’s climax a dangerous gap appeared in the French line, between the villages of Süssenbrun and Aderklaa ! Bonaparte ordered Macdonald to fill it with his corps consisting of two divisions, 21 battalionsÉtienne Jacques Joseph Alexandre MacDonald 1st duc de Taranto 1765 – 1840
  • Macdonald’s ‘Monstrous Column’ ! the son of a Scots Jacobite emigrant, he had served in the royal armies before the Revolution then under Dumouriez at Jemappes ! at the battle’s climax a dangerous gap appeared in the French line, between the villages of Süssenbrun and Aderklaa ! Bonaparte ordered Macdonald to fill it with his corps consisting of two divisions, 21 battalions ! as he was first menaced by cavalry (4), he formed a giant square (1), with its rear side filled with cavalry(3) ! Macdonald’s right flank is protected by a grand battery of 100 guns, just visible at (5) ! the top part of the illustration shows the remains (14%) of his men, weakened by deserting looters (inset 1) approaching the Austrian strongpoint of SüssenbrunÉtienne Jacques Joseph Alexandre MacDonald ! Inset 2-at Aspern-Essling it became apparent that the 1st duc de Taranto quality of the army had declined. To bolster morale 1765 – 1840 Bonaparte introduced ‘battalion guns’--2 4 pounders to each regiment. They were largely crewed by infantry. They may have encouraged the infantry to stand their ground.
  • The emperor later wrote that by 10 a.m. “even the less clairvoyantobservers saw that we had won the battle”…. By evening there was nosign of the enemy...who retreated into Bohemia.It was an enormous but very expensive victory. At least 40,000Austrians including a large number of officers had been killed, woundedor taken prisoner. The French admitted to 1,500 killed and 3-4,000wounded, but the more likely figure was at least five times greater.General Lasalle was killed and a number of generals...wounded.Macdonald, Marmont and Oudinot who had fought brilliantly for twodays were promoted to marshal….A few days later...the Austrians asked for an armistice. Asprey, p.166
  • The Treaty of Schönbrunn July-October 1809 Come to Vienna … I want to see you … You cannot imagine what a tremendous importance I attach to everything that concerns you … Many tender kisses on your lovely hands and just one on your beautiful mouth. Napole. Napoleon to the Countess Marie Walewska, Schönbrunn, May 1809The battlefield of Wagram had to be cleaned, the thousands ofdead bloating in the summer sun hurriedly buried in mass graves,the thousands of wounded evacuated to Vienna and to makeshifthospitals in neighboring towns and monasteries--a ghastly jobgreatly impeded by lack of physicians and surgeons, orderlies,medicines, bandages and transports. Battle-worn regiments had tobe sorted out and refitted, gaps filed with new bodies, unitsdeployed in ready defensive positions in case the armistice brokedown. Asprey, p. 168
  • Other Fronts! neither the Prussians nor the Russians cared to face Napoleon at this time! Britain, however, tried to open a second front by landing a force on Walcheren Island in the Netherlands! early August-at the same time as Napoleon learned of the British landing, he found out that his general in Rome had arrested the pope and was moving him to Grenoble! and at Vienna’s request, Austrians in the Tyrol and Vorarlberg raised a rebellion against their Bavarian and French occupiers! Metternich stalled, hoping that Napoleon would be forced to lower his demands
  • In all the British government had wasted almost £8 million on theexpedition, 4,067 men had died (only 106 in combat). Almost12,000 were still ill in February 1810 and many others remainedpermanently weakened. It was well known, that Walcheren wasan unhealthy place to be. The French Admiral Missiessy hadrefused to station himself at Flushing for fear that his men wouldcontract the Walcheren fever, whilst the British should really haveremembered that their previous expedition to the region in 1747had also been decimated by illness which had beencomprehensively documented by the military surgeon JohnPringle. www.95th-rifles.co.uk/harris.htm
  • As meeting after meeting produced no results, as events in the Tyrol andHolland began tilting in his favor, Napoleon grew more strident, eventhreatening to return to fighting. Several factors however dampened hisbellicosity and demands. He was eager to return to France whose internalaffairs including finances were becoming increasingly shaky, and also todeal with the Spanish war which was not going well. In mid September he suddenly cut his terms by nearly half: Austria tocede territory on the frontiers of the Inn River and Italy that held about 1.6million subjects; Saxony and Russia to gain lands in Galicia and Bohemiathat contained some 2 million persons. When this compromise produced noaction, Napoleon presented the Austrian court with an ultimatum: eitheraccept or face renewed battle. This time the court caved in and by midOctober the peace was signed. Asprey, p. 176
  • [In 1810] Napoleon now confronted the three basic obstacles tothe consolidation of his rule: Spain, where popular insurrectionand Wellington’s army supported one another; Russia, technicallystill an ally, but plainly a treacherous one; and the state of hisdynasty, which remained embodied in his own person, since hehad no heir…....there was the matter of [his need for a] second marriage.(Josephine, whom he had married in 1796 [and who was now 46],had given him no children.) To ensure the continuity of hisdynasty, Napoleon needed a wife who could give him an heir. Hesuggested that one of [tsar] Alexander’s sisters might satisfy allrequirements. Alexander temporized, and Napoleon decided tomarry Maria Louisa, daughter of the Emperor Francis [ofAustria]. Alexander chose to consider this a species of insult;moreover, the implications of a Franco-Austrian alliance shookhim. Esposito & Elting, “INTRODUCTION TO THE RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN’, AFTER MAP 106
  • [In 1810] Napoleon now confronted the three basic obstacles tothe consolidation of his rule: Spain, where popular insurrectionand Wellington’s army supported one another; Russia, technicallystill an ally, but plainly a treacherous one; and the state of hisdynasty, which remained embodied in his own person, since hehad no heir…....there was the matter of [his need for a] second marriage.(Josephine, whom he had married in 1796 [and who was now 46],had given him no children.) To ensure the continuity of hisdynasty, Napoleon needed a wife who could give him an heir. Hesuggested that one of [tsar] Alexander’s sisters might satisfy allrequirements. Alexander temporized, and Napoleon decided tomarry Maria Louisa, daughter of the Emperor Francis [ofAustria]. Alexander chose to consider this a species of insult;moreover, the implications of a Franco-Austrian alliance shookhim. Esposito & Elting, “INTRODUCTION TO THE RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN’, AFTER MAP 106
  • ...your Bonaparte represents his Sorrows of Napoleon Opera, in anall-too stupendous style; with music of cannon-volleys, andmurder-shrieks of a world; his stage-lights are the fires ofConflagration; his rhyme and recitative are the tramp of embattledHosts and the sound of falling Cities. Thomas Carlyle, Sartor Resartus, bk. ii, chap. 6, 1831
  • One problem was solved, but the first two remained. Many more campaigns were to follow, but, increasingly, things would not go his way....your Bonaparte represents his Sorrows of Napoleon Opera, in anall-too stupendous style; with music of cannon-volleys, andmurder-shrieks of a world; his stage-lights are the fires ofConflagration; his rhyme and recitative are the tramp of embattledHosts and the sound of falling Cities. Thomas Carlyle, Sartor Resartus, bk. ii, chap. 6, 1831