Napoleon, session iii, Third Coalition

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Napoleon, session iii, Third Coalition

  1. 1. Napoleon session iiiThe Third Coalition
  2. 2. Napoleon session iiiThe Third Coalition
  3. 3. An army’s effectiveness depends on its size, training, experience, and morale, andmorale is worth more than anyof the other factors combined. --Napoleon
  4. 4. 1806 Campaign 14 October Jena 1805 Campaign 2 December Austerlitz
  5. 5. major topics for this session! Boulogne! Trafalgar! Le Grande Armée! Austerlitz! Prussia
  6. 6. Boulogne
  7. 7. Boulogne« Première distribution de la Légion dhonneur au camp de Boulogne, le 16 août 1804 » par Victor-Jean Adam. Lithographie en couleur de C. Motte (1829)
  8. 8. They want us to jumpthe ditch, and we will jump it! NAPOLEON
  9. 9. from Potter & Nimitz, Sea Power, p. 152 ! 1803-with little comprehension of naval warfare, his first plan was to build flat- bottomed unseaworthy barges to “jump the ditch”
  10. 10. from Potter & Nimitz, Sea Power, p. 152 ! 1803-with little comprehension of naval warfare, his first plan was to build flat- bottomed unseaworthy barges to “jump the ditch”
  11. 11. ! this diagram from the period shows the different types, generally flat-bottomed, of the 2,000 invasion barges nested in the basin which was dredged out for them ! the caption reads : Disposition of theEquipment of the Imperial Flotilla at the port of Boulogne Thermidor (July-August) year 13 (1805)
  12. 12. from Potter & Nimitz, Sea Power, p. 152 ! 1803-with little comprehension of naval warfare, his first plan was to build flat- bottomed unseaworthy barges to “jump the ditch” ! they were assembled here at Boulogne at the Channel’s narrowest point ! the huge camp where the Army of England assembled did have one worthwhile accomplishment. It allowed for extensive training, drill and large scale tactical experiments
  13. 13. ...le Grande Armée... was shaped and trained in the Boulogne camp of1804-05….The army was originally planned as a force of well over 100,000 men toinvade southeast England and it conducted extensive training forembarkation on to the large flotilla of transports and warships that wasspecially collected for the task…. in the event it was never called upon toperform amphibious operations any more ambitious than river crossings. Itsprolonged training in large-unit drill turned out to be far more significantthan its nautical training -- it perfected the art of maneuver on land ratherthan transport by sea…....the frequent field days and drill exercises implanted order, discipline andcorrect methods that would soon prove to be invaluable on thebattlefield…. the army that emerged from Boulogne was no longer ahesitant collection of conscripts whose formations were likely to dissolveunder pressure. It was a tough and professional army in every meaningfulsense. Paddy Griffith, French Napoleonic Infantry Tactics, pp. 29-31
  14. 14. The School of the SoldierPreparatory Command = Command of Execution
  15. 15. From the Simple to the Complex! individual drill; attention, left face, right face, about face, dress right dress! squad drill; forward march, column right, wheel right, to the rear march! platoon drill; ditto! company drill; ditto! battalion drill;! regiment drill;! brigade drill;! division drill;! Corps d’Armée drill;
  16. 16. As the invasion plan became clear in 1803, a flurry of British caricatures asserted a defiant attitude
  17. 17. As the invasion plan became clear in 1803, a flurry of British caricatures asserted a defiant attitude
  18. 18. As the invasion plan became clear in 1803, a flurry of British caricatures asserted a defiant attitude
  19. 19. As the invasion plan became clear in 1803, a flurry of British caricatures asserted a defiant attitude
  20. 20. As the invasion plan became clear in 1803, a flurry of British caricatures asserted a defiant attitude
  21. 21. As the invasion plan became clear in 1803, a flurry of British caricatures asserted a defiant attitude
  22. 22. As the invasion plan became clear in 1803, a flurry of British caricatures asserted a defiant attitude
  23. 23. The initial defensive strategyMajor coastal fortifications, Sea Fencibles, and the smaller Martello towers
  24. 24. The initial defensive strategyMajor coastal fortifications, Sea Fencibles, and the smaller Martello towers
  25. 25. The initial defensive strategyMajor coastal fortifications, Sea Fencibles, and the smaller Martello towers
  26. 26. The initial defensive strategyMajor coastal fortifications, Sea Fencibles, and the smaller Martello towers
  27. 27. PARIS NAPOLEON 90,000 TROOPS ANTWERP BREMENHAMBURG AM BREST S DOVER TE RD AM LONDON KEITH-- ENGLAND 11 SHIPS & 140 CRUISERSTHE INVASION FRONT, 1805! England’s strategy always placed supremacy in the Channel ahead of the Continental blockade! thus Admiral Keith had so many frigates and smaller “cruisers” at his disposal to maintain an iron-clad watch over the Army of England at Boulogne
  28. 28. PARIS NAPOLEON 90,000 TROOPS ANTWERP BREMENHAMBURG AM BREST S DOVER TE RD AM LONDON KEITH-- ENGLAND 11 SHIPS & 140 CRUISERSTHE INVASION FRONT, 1805! England’s strategy always placed supremacy in the Channel ahead of the Continental blockade! thus Admiral Keith had so many frigates and smaller “cruisers” at his disposal to maintain an iron-clad watch over the Army of England at Boulogne! the other blockaders would be able to converge “like iron filings to a magnet”
  29. 29. As Mahan put it, “Those distant, storm-beaten ships upon which the GrandArmy never looked stood between it and the domination of the world.” Potter and Nimitz, p. 153
  30. 30. For twenty-three years, almost without interruption, the Royal Navy maintained a blockade off the French coastAs Mahan put it, “Those distant, storm-beaten ships upon which the GrandArmy never looked stood between it and the domination of the world.” Potter and Nimitz, p. 153
  31. 31. Trafalgar
  32. 32. TrafalgarThe Fall of Nelson, Battle of Trafalgar, 21 October 1805. ca. 1825
  33. 33. ! the Peace of Amiens gave Napoleon the opportunity to use the seas once again and give his sailors the chance to train and prepare for war! he was determined to use this time to recover his overseas colonies such as Saint- Domingue (Haiti)! “only briefly were the English deceived. They had disarmed; Napoleon had not! “his shipyards hummed with activity. He planned to build 25 ships of the line a year! “with his new ships he need no longer fear the crushing blockade of the Royal Navy” --Potter & Nimitz
  34. 34. As First Consul, Napoleon wanted a navy and--having had one fleet shotout from under him at the battle of the Nile--insisted on a first-class navy.Practically the whole thing had to be built up again from scratch; theRevolution had closed the naval schools in favor of on-the-job training foryoung aspirants (candidates) who spent three years aboard ship earning anensign’s commission. [America wouldn’t open Annapolis until 1845] Fewnew ships had been built; many had been lost to battle, storm, or accident.The naval arsenals were empty, and naval morale was utterly low. Mencould be found…. There were gifted ship designers…. Money was found,in part through the work of the free-wheeling professional ancestor of ourmodern…”gimme” fundraisers. Many regiments threw a day’s pay on theirdrumheads; Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish clergy preached andsolicited…. It all seems very modern. Elting, Swords, p. 300
  35. 35. Even among Frenchmen there were great variations. Normans were goodsailors and daring, savage fighters but easily discouraged and irritated.Bretons were orderly, stoically courageous, and very fond of getting drunk.Gascons were talkative but intelligent and industrious and made excellentbosuns. The southerners were hard-working but apt to drop everything towave their arms and gabble over nothing; they frightened easily, but a spell-binding officer sometimes could talk them into putting up a first-rate fight. Elting, Swords, p. 301
  36. 36. The Return of Pitt ! Napoleon had tested the peace in Europe by breaking its provisions. He became President of what he called the Republic of Italy. Britain made no protest ! emboldened, Napoleon had his agents stir up violence in the Swiss Cantons. He sent Ney to invade “to protect French interests” ! when the Swiss appealed to Britain, Addington’s government made impotent protests to Paris which Napoleon ignored ! Pitt’s friends in Parliament begged him in vain to return to power ! 16 May 1803-finally, French plans to evict the British from Malta brought Addington’s government to declare war ! apart from re-instituting the blockade there was no strategic direction of the war ! Pitt loyally supported his friend Addington for the first year of the war as the threat from Boulogne grew ! 26 April 1804-St. George’s Day, he reluctantly attacked the government’s lack of fighting spirit
  37. 37. The Third Coalition! 7 May-the King sent for Pitt! thus the human embodiment of the offensive spirit was once more leading the British! on the same day that Pitt undertook his duties, Napoleon had himself declared Emperor of the French and executed, on trumped up charges, the Duke of Enghien! the monarchs of Europe were prepared to listen when Pitt’s ambassadors proposed an alliance against the bloody Corsican! all summer Pitt worked to gain allies for a Third Coalition! November 1804-the Russians, in conjunction with Austria were prepared to sign a treaty for an Armed League to be led by Russia but paid for by Britain! 12 December 1804-Napoleon responded by compelling his satellite Spain to declare war on Britain! with the combined fleets of France and Spain, Bonaparte prepared a “Grand Design” for the conquest of England
  38. 38. Napoleon’s Grand Design Notein this map the Britsare the “good guys,”hence blue.Allied = French andSpanish
  39. 39. Napoleon’s Grand Design ! in order to clear the Channel for his invasion barges Napoleon had either to defeat the British Note there or lure them awayin this map the Britsare the “good guys,”hence blue. ! Villeneuve was to escape from Toulon, release theAllied = French and Spanish ships at Cartagena, and passingSpanish Gibraltar, take the ships at Cadiz with him to the West Indies ! there he would join Missiessy and be joined by Ganteume ! then the huge Armada would sail for the Channel ! if Ganteume did not appear, Villeneuve was to wait 40 days, then recross the Atlantic, liberate Ganteume, and cover the invasion ! the Grand Design failed for many reasons, but its inherent weakness was not understanding that Britain would never fail to protect her strategic home waters
  40. 40. !! here French are “good guys, hence blue and Brits are “bad guy” redNAVAL OPERATIONSMARCH-OCTOBER 1805
  41. 41. Although Nelson’s arrival was not marked with outward show, his spiritquickly permeated the fleet. Never had Nelson’s leadership shown itselfmore inspired…. Every officer and man who came under his influence soonrealized this Admiral was no autocrat to demand blind obedience. He wasrather a leader who inspired his subordinates to work with a will, withintelligence, and with freedom to exercise initiative to achieve a commongoal. Potter & Nimitz, p. 163
  42. 42. No one could tell where the blow wouldfall. So long as Nelson held his course, theAllied van had to brace to receive theonslaught of Nelson’s 12 juggernauts. Yetby simply putting the helm over, Nelsoncould deliver his thrust to Villeneuve’scenter, with the van held out of action bythe wind…. Thus was concentrationachieved at Trafalgar, for Nelson’ssquadron acted as a holding force on theAllied center and van to supportCollingwood’s attack on the rear…. In thisdouble role for his own squadron layNelson’s brilliance...by his knowledge ofthe enemy’s psychology and by his threatto the van, insured it would be out ofaction while he and Collingwood disposedof the center and rear. Potter & Nimitz, p. 165
  43. 43. England expects that every man will do his duty
  44. 44. N westerly windshifting west by southwest to west by northwest
  45. 45. ...Hardy hastened below to speak to his dying leader. “I hope that none ofour ships have struck [surrendered], Hardy”…“No, my Lord, there is no fear of that.”Then Hardy was summoned to the quarterdeck to repulse a counterattack..Within 20 minutes the attack had failed and once again he went below toreport to Nelson to report to Nelson that 14 or 15 of the enemy had struck.“That is well,” whispered Nelson, “but I had bargained for 20.”“Anchor, Hardy, Anchor!”“Thank God I have done my duty. God and my Country.” Potter & Nimitz, pp. 166-167
  46. 46. Le Grande Armée
  47. 47. Le Grande Armée Le Serment de larmée fait à lEmpereur après la distribution des Aigles au Champ-de-Mars le 5 décembre* 1804(The Oath the Army makes to the Emperor after the distribution of the Eagles on the Field of Mars…)* note the date Jacques-Louis David, 1810
  48. 48. The famous Imperial eagle ---The first French Eagle to be captured by theBritish was taken by the 87th Foot from theFrench 8e Ligne at the Battle of Barrosa on 5March 1811. The first British soldier totouch the battle standard was a youngofficer, Ensign Edward Keogh, although ashis hand grasped it, he was immediately shotthrough the heart and killed. He wasfollowed by Sergeant Patrick Mastersonwho grabbed the eagle from the Frenchensign who carried it, reputedly with the cry"By Jaysus, boys, I have the Cuckoo!".
  49. 49. Corps dʼCavalerieCorps dʼArmée (supply, transport, food, medical, provost, music) (US Army calls these engineers)
  50. 50. InfantryLes Grognards (the Grumblers/Growlers) map symbol for the crossed belts each soldier wears to support his cartridge box and his sword
  51. 51. Cavalryun beau sabreur (a fine swordsman) map symbol for the single belt each rider wears to support his his sword
  52. 52. Artillery Tle brutal (the brutal one) e map symbol Txt ec xt c c for the cannon ball
  53. 53. The Corps d’Armée System! traditional armies marched along a single line of communication (road) with infantry, then those cavalry not thrown out as a screen, the artillery and the baggage train! this clogged up the roads of the time and slowed the advance! Napoleon combined all these elements at the corps size (12,000-15,000 men), small armies, and directed them to advance along separate lines of communication a day’s march from one another! this confused his enemies as to his direction and speed of advance! each corps d’armée might have attached two to four divisions of infantry with their organic artillery, it had its own cavalry division and corps artillery, plus support units. With this organization a corps was expected to be able to hold its ground against, or fight off, an enemy army for a least a day, when neighboring corps could come to its aid
  54. 54. The Corps d’Armée System in MotionThe operational flexibility affordedby the widely placed location of theFrench corps would enableNapoleon to trap the enemywherever he chose to mass--in otherwords, Napoleon was notcommitted to any one course ofaction by his initial dispositions, butcould adjust his master plan to anyparticular circumstances. Chandler, p. 152
  55. 55. Grand Tactics: Napoleon’s BasicBattle Plan (the Strategic Battle by Phases); schematic Chandler, p. 186
  56. 56. Napoleon’s Favorite Strategy ofthe Central Position Chandler, p. 173
  57. 57. Command,Communications,Control & Intelligence (C3I)Les Grands Chapeaux (The Big Hats)
  58. 58. 1-Napoleon in the uniform of a Chasseur of the Imperial Guard
  59. 59. 2-an Imperial aide-de-camp. They delivered the Emperor’sorders and messages to the corps and divisional commanders
  60. 60. 3-a colonel on the staff
  61. 61. 4-amarshal of theEmpire,c. 1805
  62. 62. 5-Roustam, Bonaparte’s personal Mameluke servant and bodyguard
  63. 63. 6-personal servants of the Imperial household
  64. 64. 7-Marshall Berthier, his Chief of Staff
  65. 65. Text Text TextText Text Text TextText Text TextText Text Text Like the grenadier Text Text companies, they were élite; no guard orText work details, extraT pay. Also like the grenadiers, they earned their place by demonstrated braveryTextTextText Text TextText Text
  66. 66. TeTe x xt tTextText
  67. 67. Text Text
  68. 68. 1
  69. 69. Ammunition LimberInfantryman attached to the foot artillery Artilleryman gunners
  70. 70. famous for saying “The army marches on its stomach,” Napoleon continued the work of the Revolutionary Army on canning foodmodel of a mobile field kitchen
  71. 71. Austerlitz
  72. 72. AusterlitzBivouac on the Eve of the Battle of Austerlitz, 1st December 1805. 1808.
  73. 73. The First Blitzkrieg? The Austrian commander-in-chief, Archduke Charles,...advanced intoItaly to confront the French forces there under Marshal Masséna, whilefurther east a Russian army under General Mikhail Kutusov( kuh•TOO•zuf) slowly advanced through Poland to assist the Austrians inMoravia. The Austrians were shocked to discover that Napoleon had madesuch remarkably rapid progress, crossing the Rhine on 26 September andreaching the Danube on 6 October. In the course of this march, the Frenchhad moved in a broad arc around Mack’s army near Ulm, cutting his linesof communication and isolating him from reinforcement. After a feebleattempt to break through the cordon at Elchingen on 14 October, Macksurrendered his entire force of 27,000 men on 17 October, making theencirclement at Ulm one of history’s greatest strategic manoeuvres. Gregory Fremont-Barnes, Napoleon Bonaparte, pp. 15-16
  74. 74. The Capitulation of Ulm by Charles Thevenin. Oil on canvas.
  75. 75. General Mack surrenders to Napoleon
  76. 76. Austerlitz
  77. 77. In the foreground a cuirassier displays captured Russian colors while guarding a Hungarian officerof grenadiers and a Russian general. Here, at 0800, an aide-de-camp hands the emperor a messagethat the Allies Pratzen Heights have sent troops south. Napoleon orders Soult to advance up theslope, out of the fog, to take this key feature.
  78. 78. Napoléon at the Battle of Austerlitz, by François Gérard (Galerie des Batailles, Versailles)
  79. 79. One has but a short time for war. In another five or six years[1810-1811] even I will be unable to continue. --Napoleon
  80. 80. The general who cannot look dry-eyed upon a battlefieldwill lose lives unnecessarily. Onecannot make an omelette without breaking eggs. --Napoleon
  81. 81. Wikipedia
  82. 82. The OutcomeAusterlitz stands as one of the greatest victories in military history.Napoleon’s prowess and the effectiveness of the Grande Armée as afighting force reached its apogee there, and it constituted the battle ofwhich the Emperor was most proud. In 20 days he had marched his armyfrom Boulogne to the Rhine; in two months it had entered the Austriancapital; and three days later he had destroyed the Third Coalition.Napoleon had gambled supremely in the campaign of 1805, and generallygambled correctly. If any single factor contributed to success it was speed,which enabled him to encircle Mack before the Russians could come to hisaid…. On 26 December Napoleon and Francis concluded a treaty of peaceat Pressburg, where the latter agreed to cede German and Italian territoryto France…. Gregory Fremont-Barnes, Napoleon Bonaparte, pp. 26-27
  83. 83. The End of the Holy Roman Empire 800 (?)-1806! this medieval, feudal dinosaur had endured such modern upheavals as the Thirty Years War, 1618-1648! but in the age of modern nation states such a collection of tiny principalities, each enjoying “the German liberties” of sovereignty was anachronistic
  84. 84. The End of the Holy Roman Empire 800 (?)-1806! this medieval, feudal dinosaur had endured such modern upheavals as the Thirty Years War, 1618-1648! but in the age of modern nation states such a collection of tiny principalities, each enjoying “the German liberties” of sovereignty was anachronistic
  85. 85. The End of the Holy Roman Empire 800 (?)-1806! this medieval, feudal dinosaur had endured such modern upheavals as the Thirty Years War, 1618-1648! but in the age of modern nation states such a collection of tiny principalities, each enjoying “the German liberties” of sovereignty was anachronistic! 1789-the 306 separate principalities varied in size from the 40 million Austrian Empire, to the Abbey of Heiligenblut in the Rhineland, which consisted of the Abbess, 27 nuns and the peasants who worked their lands, some 58 hectares (143 acres)
  86. 86. The End of the Holy Roman Empire 800 (?)-1806! this medieval, feudal dinosaur had endured such modern upheavals as the Thirty Years War, 1618-1648! but in the age of modern nation states such a collection of tiny principalities, each enjoying “the German liberties” of sovereignty was anachronistic! 1789-the 306 separate principalities varied in size from the 40 million Austrian Empire, to the Abbey of Heiligenblut in the Rhineland, which consisted of the Abbess, 27 nuns and the peasants who worked their lands, some 58 hectares (143 acres)
  87. 87. The End of the Holy Roman Empire 800 (?)-1806! this medieval, feudal dinosaur had endured such modern upheavals as the Thirty Years War, 1618-1648! but in the age of modern nation states such a collection of tiny principalities, each enjoying “the German liberties” of sovereignty was anachronistic! 1789-the 306 separate principalities varied in size from the 40 million Austrian Empire, to the Abbey of Heiligenblut in the Rhineland, which consisted of the Abbess, 27 nuns and the peasants who worked their lands, some 58 hectares (143 acres)! Napoleon considered it his mission to bring the principles of the Revolution to this part of Europe
  88. 88. The Vendôme Column! Napoleon erected the original column, modeled after Trajan’s column, to celebrate the victory at Austerlitz! its veneer of 425 spiraling bas-relief bronze plates were made out of cannon taken from the combined armies of Europe, according to his propaganda! the usual figure given of guns is hugely exaggerated: 133 cannon were actually captured at Austerlitz! A statue of Napoleon, bare-headed, crowned with laurels and holding a sword in his right hand and a globe surmounted with a statue of Victory in his left hand, was placed atop the column! after the Bourbon restoration the statue was pulled down
  89. 89. The Vendôme Column
  90. 90. the triggering event! 1805-Prussia mobilized but had remained neutral during the formation of the Third Coalition and the events leading to Austerlitz! 1806-but when Bonaparte created the Confederation of the Rhine on Prussia’s border, a shift occurred! the Treaty of Lunéville (1801)had incorporated the German left (west) bank of the Rhine directly into France! now, in effect the Holy Roman Empire was ended and a huge German satellite was added to the all-conquering French Empire! the Rheinbund was right against Prussia’s border
  91. 91. Prussia AustriaRheinbund
  92. 92. immediate aftermath! 12 July 1806-on the signing of the Rheinbundachte, 16 German states formally left the Holy Roman Empire and joined a confederation (états confédérés du Rhin)! Napoleon was its “protector”! 6 August-following an ultimatum by Napoleon, Francis II gave up his title of Emperor and declared the Holy Roman Empire dissolved! In the years that followed, 23 more German states joined the Confederation; Franciss Habsburg dynasty would rule the remainder of the empire as Austria! According to the treaty, the confederation was to be run by common constitutional bodies, but the individual states (in particular the larger ones) wanted unlimited sovereignty! the Confederation was above all a military alliance: the members had to supply France with large numbers of military personnel. In return for their cooperation some state rulers were given higher statuses. Divide and conquer
  93. 93. the end of “Old Prussia! 1792-94--as Crown Prince he had fought in the Revolutionary wars against France! 1797-as monarch he had all the Hohenzollern determination to retain personal power without the Hohenzollern genius for using it Frederick William III (German: Friedrich Wilhelm III.) (1770 -1797-1840)
  94. 94. the end of “Old Prussia! 1792-94--as Crown Prince he had fought in the Revolutionary wars against France! 1797-as monarch he had all the Hohenzollern determination to retain personal power without the Hohenzollern genius for using it! October 1806-the 36-year-old monarch led his country into war with Saxony as his ally! his military command structure was unequal to the task: ! positions were held by multiple officers, e.g., Chief of Frederick William III Staff by three men, resulting in over a month’s delay (German: Friedrich Wilhelm III.) before the final order of battle was prepared (1770 -1797-1840) ! five main plans of battle emerged for discussion, shifting the initiative to the French
  95. 95. Officers of the élite Prussian Gardes du Corps, wishing to provoke war, ostentatiouslysharpen their swords on the steps of the French embassy in Berlin in the autumn of 1805.
  96. 96. Wars generally begin because of irrational acts by one or both of theopponents. King Frederick William’s decision to make war on France inautumn of 1806 was so irrational as to defy belief. It might have seemedreasonable prior to the battle of Austerlitz...though considering the obsoletestate of the Prussian army that would have been far from certain. Now, ninemonths later, it was a foreordained disaster. Robert B. Asprey, The Reign of Napoleon Bonaparte, p. 25
  97. 97. Prologue I have shown the Emperor, Monsieur le général Pino, the report which you have sent me. It is essential that you write your reports more legibly, and especially show the date plainly; that which you have written is not clear; one cannot tell whether it is the 11th, the 21st, or the 22d. Besides the date, it is always necessary to show the hour at which you write, and the place. Berthier in Mémoirs de Prince Eugene On October 12, 1806, French cavalry swept abruptly through the littleSaxon city of Zeitz, some 25 miles south of Leipzig. Chasseurs a cheval indark green, jaunty hussars in brown-and-blue, white-and-blue, and green-red-and-yellow, they were the leading squadrons of the cavalry screen thatshrouded the swift northward advance of the Emperor Napoleon’s GrandeArmée. Close behind the leading brigade, his white uniform a dazzle of goldbraid, lace, and galloons, rode Marshal Joachim Murat, the army’s cavalrycommander. Probably he halted impatiently in the Zeitz market squarewhile his staff interrogated the local postmaster, minister, and mayor as tothe whereabouts of the Prussian and Saxon armies for which his troopers
  98. 98. Prologue I have shown the Emperor, Monsieur le général Pino, the report which you have sent me. It is essential that you write your reports more legibly, and especially show the date plainly; that which you have written is not clear; one cannot tell whether it is the 11th, the 21st, or the 22d. Besides the date, it is always necessary to show the hour at which you write, and the place. Berthier in Mémoirs de Prince Eugene On October 12, 1806, French cavalry swept abruptly through the littleSaxon city of Zeitz, some 25 miles south of Leipzig. Chasseurs a cheval indark green, jaunty hussars in brown-and-blue, white-and-blue, and green-red-and-yellow, they were the leading squadrons of the cavalry screen thatshrouded the swift northward advance of the Emperor Napoleon’s GrandeArmée. Close behind the leading brigade, his white uniform a dazzle of goldbraid, lace, and galloons, rode Marshal Joachim Murat, the army’s cavalrycommander. Probably he halted impatiently in the Zeitz market squarewhile his staff interrogated the local postmaster, minister, and mayor as tothe whereabouts of the Prussian and Saxon armies for which his troopers
  99. 99. were probing. Somewhere in Zeitz, at any rate, an inconspicuous civiliansifted through the gawking townspeople, identified himself as a Frenchspy, and reported that the principal enemy army lay to the west and southaround Erfurt. A staff officer fished pen, paper, and a portable inkwell from his saddle-bags, settled himself at a chair and table outside a nearby beer hall, andquickly converted the spy’s report into several copies of a message to theEmperor. Murat handed one copy to an aide-de-camp, who buckled itcarefully into the sabretache dangling from his sword belt, then put hiseager horse into a gallop southward. A second copy went to a scar-facedbrigadier of Murat’s guides. A horse was found for the spy, and spy andbrigadier pounded off together in the aide’s wake. Ten minutes lateranother aide spurred away with orders to follow a different road from thattaken by his comrades. A final copy went into the staff records folder, withthe name of each messenger and the date and hour of his departure. The roads southward were filled with the infantry of Marshal JeanBernadotte’s I Corps, pressing forward through a low haze of dust and thehanging smell of sweat, onions, and rank French tobacco. Along theprincipal road waited a string of small cavalry detachments serving asestafettes; mounts at those relay stations--the distinctive fawn-amaranth-and
  100. 100. were probing. Somewhere in Zeitz, at any rate, an inconspicuous civiliansifted through the gawking townspeople, identified himself as a Frenchspy, and reported that the principal enemy army lay to the west and southaround Erfurt. A staff officer fished pen, paper, and a portable inkwell from his saddle-bags, settled himself at a chair and table outside a nearby beer hall, andquickly converted the spy’s report into several copies of a message to theEmperor. Murat handed one copy to an aide-de-camp, who buckled itcarefully into the sabretache dangling from his sword belt, then put his Zeitzeager horse into a gallop southward. A second copy went to a scar-facedbrigadier of Murat’s guides. A horse was found for the spy, and spy andbrigadier pounded off together in the aide’s wake. Ten minutes lateranother aide spurred away with orders to follow a different road from thattaken by his comrades. A final copy went into the staff records folder, with Erfurtthe name of each messenger and the date and hour of his departure. The roads southward were filled with the infantry of Marshal JeanBernadotte’s I Corps, pressing forward through a low haze of dust and thehanging smell of sweat, onions, and rank French tobacco. Along theprincipal road waited a string of small cavalry detachments serving asestafettes; mounts at those relay stations--the distinctive fawn-amaranth-and
  101. 101. were probing. Somewhere in Zeitz, at any rate, an inconspicuous civiliansifted through the gawking townspeople, identified himself as a Frenchspy, and reported that the principal enemy army lay to the west and southaround Erfurt. A staff officer fished pen, paper, and a portable inkwell from his saddle-bags, settled himself at a chair and table outside a nearby beer hall, andquickly converted the spy’s report into several copies of a message to theEmperor. Murat handed one copy to an aide-de-camp, who buckled itcarefully into the sabretache dangling from his sword belt, then put hiseager horse into a gallop southward. A second copy went to a scar-facedbrigadier of Murat’s guides. A horse was found for the spy, and spy andbrigadier pounded off together in the aide’s wake. Ten minutes lateranother aide spurred away with orders to follow a different road from thattaken by his comrades. A final copy went into the staff records folder, withthe name of each messenger and the date and hour of his departure. The roads southward were filled with the infantry of Marshal JeanBernadotte’s I Corps, pressing forward through a low haze of dust and thehanging smell of sweat, onions, and rank French tobacco. Along theprincipal road waited a string of small cavalry detachments serving asestafettes; mounts at those relay stations--the distinctive fawn-amaranth-and
  102. 102. white uniforms of Murat’s aides and guides were authority enough for suchan exchange. On into the deepening night they galloped, to be halted at last outsidethe city of Gera by a challenge from the vedettes of the 1st HussarRegiment, temporarily serving as Napoleon’s escort, their faded sky-blueuniforms almost invisible in the gloom. Directed to a nearby chateau, theywere passed in by sentinels from the grenadiers of the Imperial Guard, tall,fierce-eyed veterans in lofty bearskin caps. And so they came to a quietroom where beside a crackling fire their Emperor worked over his ordersfor the next day. Beside him was a stocky older officer in equally simpleuniform, Marshal Louis-Alexandre Berthier, Napoleon’s chief of staff.Around them the quiet officers of the advance echelon of the ImperialHeadquarters came and went. Even while Napoleon minutely interrogated the spy and the aides-de-camp, their messages went into the routine staff processing. In the nextroom, where the Emperor’s situation map lay spread across a banquettable, lighted by candles at each corner, Chef d’Escadron Louis Bacler d’
  103. 103. white uniforms of Murat’s aides and guides were authority enough for suchan exchange. On into the deepening night they galloped, to be halted at last outsidethe city of Gera by a challenge from the vedettes of the 1st HussarRegiment, temporarily serving as Napoleon’s escort, their faded sky-blueuniforms almost invisible in the gloom. Directed to a nearby chateau, theywere passed in by sentinels from the grenadiers of the Imperial Guard, tall,fierce-eyed veterans in lofty bearskin caps. And so they came to a quietroom where beside a crackling fire their Emperor worked over his ordersfor the next day. Beside him was a stocky older officer in equally simpleuniform, Marshal Louis-Alexandre Berthier, Napoleon’s chief of staff.Around them the quiet officers of the advance echelon of the ImperialHeadquarters came and went. Gera Even while Napoleon minutely interrogated the spy and the aides-de-camp, their messages went into the routine staff processing. In the nextroom, where the Emperor’s situation map lay spread across a banquettable, lighted by candles at each corner, Chef d’Escadron Louis Bacler d’
  104. 104. Albe of the Topographical Engineers shifted pins with heads of variouscolors to indicate the last reported positions of the enemy and Murat’scavalry screen. Each messenger was given a receipt showing the time andplace he had made delivery. Other messengers came striding in, to reportwith a clash of spurs and scabbard: a rider from Marshal Pierre AugereauVII Corps, 20 miles to the southwest; another from Marshal LouisDavout’s III Corps, 20 miles to the northwest. All had the same word--theenemy was massing to wedtward around Erfurt and Weimar. Finally, his questioning finished, the Emperor turned to Berthier and be-gan a rush of rapid, harsh-accented orders, seemingly too swift for pen tofollow. unperturbed, Berthier made quick entries in a green-covered note-book. The dictation over, he turned to his waiting staff. Breaking downNapoleon’s general operations order, Berthier drafted specific orders foreach of the major units involved. The finished versions were presented tothe Emperor for any necessary corrections and additions and his approval.That secured, additional copies were written out, aides and staff officerssummoned to deliver them. Meanwhile, Berthier went ahead with supple-mentary orders to ensure that the supply trains and supporting units
  105. 105. further to the rear were properly redirected to follow the Grande Armée’swestward wheel. One such order dealing with resupply of shoes and overcoats, wentthrough the rear echelon of Imperial Headquarters, two days of ordinarymarching (approximately 60 miles) farther south, and then on south andwest to the Grande Armée’s administrative headquarters, where IntendentGeneral Pierre Daru wrestled with a chaotic logistical situation. Darustarted what stocks he had been able to collect forward in requisitionedwagons and dispatched another urgent appeal to the Ministry of theAdministration of War. Reaching the fortress city of Strasbourg, hiscourier handed his message to the local director of the Telegraph Service,who sent it off along the line of semaphore signal towers to Paris. At the Ministry, somehow, things always went more slowly than theyshould, but eventually a bored commissaire des guerres took notice of themessage and summoned an equally bored clerk. Elting, Swords Around A Throne, pp. 1-3
  106. 106. (26,000) Davout (26,000) Bernadotte Murat Brunswick (20,000) (6,000) (63,000) AUERSTADT WEIMAR converging on Jena (84,000) Hohenlohe (35,000) Soult (20,000)“There are moments in war when no Lannes (20,500)consideration should override the Napoleonadvantage of anticipating the enemy JENAand striking first -- NAPOLEON Ney Augereau (19,500) (16,500) Murat (7,300)
  107. 107. Davout’s corps wrote one of the most brilliant chapters in military history,Bernadotte’s one of the most dismal. Attacked by an enemy nearly threetimes his strength, in just 4 hours Davout put that enemy to flight. Successcost dearly: 40 per cent casualties in Gudin’s division, a total corps loss of7,000 men. Bernadotte’s corps suffered no casualties. Although his orderswere, should he find himself at Dornburg, to march to the sound of cannon,he marched to support neither nor Napoleon…. Napoleon praised the oneand damned the other, but in so doing added yet another footnote. Neverever would he refer to the battle as other than that of Jena. Asprey, Reign, p. 33
  108. 108. Morandʼs Flexible Maneuvers about 9,000 men in 9 battalions & 12 guns 1-the 1er Battalion of the 61é Régiment de Ligne from column of march into column of attack. skirmish line forward 2-from column into linewhen the Prussian infantryfalls back, it is the turn ofBlücherʼs cavalry (6) toattack and the battalion toform a square (7). After thesquare drives off thecavalry, Morandʼsbattalions once more formcolumns of attack (8) andhelp drive the enemy offthe field.
  109. 109. Morandʼs Flexible Maneuvers about 9,000 men in 9 battalions & 12 gunswhen the Prussian infantryfalls back, it is the turn ofBlücherʼs cavalry (6) toattack and the battalion toform a square (7). After thesquare drives off thecavalry, Morandʼsbattalions once more formcolumns of attack (8) andhelp drive the enemy offthe field.
  110. 110. Morandʼs Flexible Maneuversabout 9,000 men in 9 battalions & 12 guns
  111. 111. Morandʼs Flexible Maneuversabout 9,000 men in 9 battalions & 12 guns 1 Theory drill book diagram for wheeling a three rank platoon from facing the front to facing the right flank
  112. 112. Morandʼs Flexible Maneuversabout 9,000 men in 9 battalions & 12 guns 2 Reality 1 Theory drill book diagram for wheeling a three rank platoon from facing the front to facing the right flank
  113. 113. Morandʼs Flexible Maneuvers about 9,000 men in 9 battalions & 12 guns3 From columnto Square 2 Reality 1 Theory drill book diagram for wheeling a three rank platoon from facing the front to facing the right flank
  114. 114. Napoleon reviewing the Imperial Guard, by Horace Vernet.
  115. 115. Murat leading the charge
  116. 116. Seldom in history has an army been reduced to impotence more swiftly ordecisively. The great traditions of Frederick the Great and his justly famedtechniques proved fatal to his successors. Complacency led to the rejectionof all schemes of modernization, and overconfidence resulted in a completemisappreciation of what was needed to face Napoleon…. Opposed to themhad been the will of a single man, with complete control over his forces anda clear notion of how to effect the overthrow of his adversaries. Chandler, p. 503
  117. 117. Prussia’s humiliation led to agonizing reappraisals. It demonstrated theneed for liberal reforms in what was then still a very much feudal Prussianstate and army. Important Prussian reformers like Scharnhorst, Gneisenauand Clausewitz served at the battle. Their reforms, together with civilianreforms instituted over the following years, began Prussias transformationinto a modern state, which took the forefront in expelling France fromGermany and eventually assumed a leading role on the continent. wikipedia
  118. 118. The “World Spirit” on Horseback! in the small university town of Jena a 36-year-old “extraordinary professor” of philosophy was finishing a treatise! 13 October 1806-the day before the battle, he recorded his impressions after seeing Napoleon: GFW Hegel in 1831
  119. 119. The “World Spirit” on Horseback! in the small university town of Jena a 36-year-old “extraordinary professor” of philosophy was finishing a treatise! 13 October 1806-the day before the battle, he recorded his impressions after seeing Napoleon:! I saw the Emperor – this Weltgeist (world- soul )– riding out of the city on reconnaissance. It is indeed a wonderful sensation to see such an individual, who, concentrated here at a single point, astride a horse, reaches out over the world GFW Hegel in 1831 and masters it . . . this extraordinary man, whom it is impossible not to admire
  120. 120. In 1807, Napoléon ordered the construction of a bridge overlookingthe Military School, and named the bridge after his victory in 1806 atthe Battle of Jena.

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