Napoleon, session ii, empire

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Napoleon, session ii, empire

  1. 1. Napoléon session ii EmpireSaturday, April 2, 2011
  2. 2. Napoléon session ii EmpireSaturday, April 2, 2011
  3. 3. My power depends on my glory, and my glory on my victories. --NapoleonSaturday, April 2, 2011
  4. 4. major topics for this session ! Sea Power ! The Second Coalition ! Le Premier Consul ! Marengo, 1800 ! War or Peace? ! Code Civil ! Vive l’Empereur!Saturday, April 2, 2011
  5. 5. but before we look at the land battles...Saturday, April 2, 2011
  6. 6. Sea PowerSaturday, April 2, 2011
  7. 7. Pitt the Younger Sea PowerSaturday, April 2, 2011
  8. 8. Remember the three-legged stool? British Foreign Policy Maintenance of the balance of power on Keeping the mouth of the Continent the Scheldt River in weak and/or friendly hands Sea PowerSaturday, April 2, 2011
  9. 9. Pitt’s Plan, 2nd rev. ed. ! 1758-during the Seven Years War, William Pitt the Elder devised the plan which led to victory: ! using British sea power, he would take the war to France’s colonies while keeping the French navy bottled up in port (leg #3) ! using the wealth of this sea-borne commerce, while denying it to the enemy, Britain would finance coalition allies, especially among the Germanies, to fight on land (leg #1) ! thus she would expand her empire while sparing her limited manpower William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham PC 1708 – 1778Saturday, April 2, 2011
  10. 10. Pitt’s Plan, 2nd rev. ed. ! 1758-during the Seven Years War, William Pitt the Elder devised the plan which led to victory: ! using British sea power, he would take the war to France’s colonies while keeping the French navy bottled up in port (leg #3) ! using the wealth of this sea-borne commerce, while denying it to the enemy, Britain would finance coalition allies, especially among the Germanies, to fight on land (leg #1) ! thus she would expand her empire while sparing her limited manpower ! 1792-William Pitt the Younger, his son (Prime Minister, 1783-1801 & 1804-06) followed a similar strategy William Pitt the Younger 1759 – 1806Saturday, April 2, 2011
  11. 11. LEGHORN ROME NAPLES ABOUKIR ALEXANDRIASaturday, April 2, 2011
  12. 12. A Naval Star is Born ! 1758-the sixth of eleven children to Rev Edmund and Catherine Nelson ! 1769-his mother died. She was the grandniece of Sir Robt Walpole and sister to Captain Maurice Suckling, RN ! 1771-age 13, a midshipman aboard his uncle’s ship, HMS Raisonnable ! prior to the American war he sailed as a junior officer aboard British merchant and warships ! 1776-1783--fought mainly in the Caribbean taking prizes and engaging Spanish, French and American warships and privateers ! 1787-at the end of his peacetime duty in theCaptain Horatio Nelson, painted by John Francis Rigaud in 1781, West Indies he met and married a young widowwith Fort San Juan—the scene of his most notable achievement todate—in the background. The painting itself was begun and nearlyfinished prior to the battle, when Nelson held the rank of ! 1792-at war with France again, Nelson servedlieutenant; when Nelson returned, the artist added the new under Admiral Jervis in the Mediterraneancaptains gold-braided sleeves.Saturday, April 2, 2011
  13. 13. BATTLE OF CAPE ST VINCENT ----- 14 FEBRUARY 1797Saturday, April 2, 2011
  14. 14. BATTLE OF CAPE ST VINCENT ----- 14 FEBRUARY 1797Saturday, April 2, 2011
  15. 15. BATTLE OF CAPE ST VINCENT ----- 14 FEBRUARY 1797Saturday, April 2, 2011
  16. 16. NELSON’S THREE GREAT VICTORIES “I had the happiness to command a Band of Brothers.” ! The Nile 1August 1798 ! Copenhagen 2 April 1801 ! Trafalgar 21 October 1805Saturday, April 2, 2011
  17. 17. More significant than [the Nile’s] tactical implications were the strategic results of the battle. Like all decisive naval victories, it exercised a powerful influence far beyond the scene of action. It had an impact in three major theaters of war. Nelson’s victory reignited the war in Europe. Heartened by the isolation of Bonaparte and his army, France’s enemies were soon once more on the march. William Pitt the Younger was at last able to achieve his Second Coalition. Yet in spite of all the hopes with which it began, the coalition fell apart under the follies and jealousies of its members until once again England stood alone. Potter, E.B. and Chester W. Nimitz, eds. Sea Power; A Naval History. 1960, p. 135.Saturday, April 2, 2011
  18. 18. That Hamilton Woman Back at Naples, Nelson, exhilarated by the adulation he was everywhere accorded, and his judgement possibly clouded by his head wound, fell into two major errors. Accepting the hospitality of Ambassador Sir William Hamilton, he soon succumbed to the charms of Emma, Lady Hamilton. This passionate liason lasted until the end of Nelson’s life, to the scandal of his friends, the wreck of his marriage, and the near-ruin of his career. ibid. George Romney Emma Hart [later, Lady Hamilton] in a straw hat. unknown dateSaturday, April 2, 2011
  19. 19. Nelson’s Other Error Emma Hamilton, a close friend of [Neapolitan] Queen Maria Carolina, soon enlisted Nelson in Her Majesty’s cause. This remarkable woman was the real ruler of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, her husband, King Ferdinand IV, being little more than a figurehead. Sister of the unhappy Marie Antoinette of France, Maria Carolina intensely hated everything republican and longed to strike out with all her strength, now that, as she fancied, France’s head was in the dust. In seeking to please Her Majesty, Nelson urged an attack on the Papal States [recently conquered by France], which he would support from the sea with his ships. Command of this operation fell to the Austrian General Mack, whose incompetence was exceeded only by his zeal. In November 1798 Mack’s force entered the Papal States with Nelson landing troops at Leghorn on the enemy rear. But on land France’s head was by no means in the dust, and she retaliated swiftly. Mack’s army came streaming back. “The Neapolitans have not lost much honour,” wrote Nelson ruefully, “for God knows they have but little to lose; but they lost all they had.” ibid.Saturday, April 2, 2011
  20. 20. Pitt’s Plan, Pinpricks on the Perimeter ! 1798-Nelson had destroyed the Toulon fleet at The Nile. Britain controlled the Mediterranean and would isolate the French Army of the East ! 1799-now Pitt planned to capture or destroy the Dutch fleet. The Batavian Republic had been allied with France since 1795 ! the amphibious landing at Helder under General Abercromby began well but soon bogged down and had to be evacuated. The anticipated Russian reinforcements were too little, too late ! 19 November-under a favorable capitulation the last British troops were withdrawn ! but the “cutting-out” expedition under Admiral Mitchell was a great success. The Dutch fleet surrendered and its many ships were added to the Royal Navy ! this allowed Britain to end her long blockade of Holland and to assign the ships, her own and the captured Dutch, to other operationsSaturday, April 2, 2011
  21. 21. From Eccentricity to Madness ! 1788-when George III began to exhibit signs of madness, Britain, at least, had a functioning constitutional monarchy to address the problem ! although Paul’s mother, Catherine the Great, had dabbled in constitutionalism, he was “Autocrat of All the Russias” ! so to the problem of coalitions was added the problem of “unenlightened despotism” ! 1799-as the Helder expedition mis-fired as a result of his leadership, he ordered Paul I !"#$%& I !%()#$*+; Suvorov’s brilliant Italian campaign to take (Pavel Petrovich) 1754 – 1801 a new direction with equally poor results Reign 1796 – 1801 ! 1801-his murder would bring even more problems to Pitt’s coalitionSaturday, April 2, 2011
  22. 22. Britain Strikes Back in the South--Aboukir Once more virtually without an ally, Britain was again driven to exploit her seapower…. Because Spain seemed the weakest link in the defense of Europe, the British Cabinet to attempt the capture of Cadiz. [a combination of weather and divided leadership caused Abercromby to call off this attack and propose another] Underestimating the number of French troops in Egypt, the War Ministry provided Abercromby with only 16,000 men. As usual, the British troops were poorly equipped…. The little army, carried in 28 transports and escorted by seven of the line and twelve smaller vessels, proceeded [to Turkey]. The six weeks it took to assemble the animal transports proved the most fruitful of the campaign, for during the period the British soldiers and sailors engaged in intensive and realistic rehearsals, something that had been lacking in all previous amphibious assaults. Potter & Nimitz, pp.140-141.Saturday, April 2, 2011
  23. 23. PERMAC ! Preparation ! Embarkation ! Rehearsal ! Movement to the objective ! Assault ! Consolidation of the beachheadSaturday, April 2, 2011
  24. 24. Saturday, April 2, 2011
  25. 25. Saturday, April 2, 2011
  26. 26. Saturday, April 2, 2011
  27. 27. 2nd battle of Aboukir 22 March 1801 Landing at Aboukir with 16,000 men, Britains Sir Ralph Abercromby tried to push through the French positions sealing the narrow isthmus that led to Alexandria. Strong defence, however, foiled the move and so the British withdrew and set up defensive works of their own. A strong body of French reinforcements arrived and so General Jacques-Francois Menou decided to throw the British off with a daring night attack. A local spy tipped off the British, but Menous plan was sufficiently clever to render the early warning almost useless. His men began an expected attack against the weaker British left wing but this was only a feint and the true target - the strong British right protected by Roman ruins and a redoubt - soon came under massive pressure. Fortunately, for the redcoats, the troops there were led by the brilliant General Sir John Moore, who stemmed the assault and then ordered a bayonet-led counterattack by the 42nd Highlanders that sent the French into retreat - but advanced too far and was cut down by enemy horsemen. The situation was still dangerous for the British but reinforcements arrived just in time and overwhelmed the exhausted French. Menou lost 3000 men while the British suffered 1300 casualties, including the mortally wounded Abercromby who died a week later. !Saturday, April 2, 2011
  28. 28. DURING THE BATTLE AT ABOUKIR, French troops launched a night attack against the British. The British line was hard pressed by French infantry and cavalry. Here, the 42nd Regiment, the Black Watch, launches a bayonet attack on the flank of one of the French columns. In the event, they pursued too far and were themselves attacked and badly mauled by French cavalry later in the battle.Saturday, April 2, 2011
  29. 29. Saturday, April 2, 2011
  30. 30. Saturday, April 2, 2011
  31. 31. Saturday, April 2, 2011
  32. 32. Saturday, April 2, 2011
  33. 33. The Battle of Copenhagen 2 April 1801Saturday, April 2, 2011
  34. 34. n Nelsons plan was for the British ships to approach the weaker, southern end of the Danish defenses in a line parallel to the Danish one. n As the foremost ship drew alongside a Danish ship, it would anchor and engage that ship. n The remainder of the line would pass outside until the next ship drew alongside the next Danish ship, and so on. n Glatton, the ship after Nelson’s flag on Elephant, was commanded by William Bligh of Mutiny on the Bounty fame (1789) n Troops would assault the Tre Kroner fortress once the fleet had subdued the Danish line of ships. n Bomb vessels would sit outside the British line and bombard the Danes by firing over it.Saturday, April 2, 2011
  35. 35. A Napoleonic Bomb KetchSaturday, April 2, 2011
  36. 36. A Napoleonic Bomb KetchSaturday, April 2, 2011
  37. 37. A Napoleonic Bomb KetchSaturday, April 2, 2011
  38. 38. A Napoleonic Bomb KetchSaturday, April 2, 2011
  39. 39. A Napoleonic Bomb KetchSaturday, April 2, 2011
  40. 40. n Nelsons plan was for the British ships to approach the weaker, southern end of the Danish defenses in a line parallel to the Danish one. n As the foremost ship drew alongside a Danish ship, it would anchor and engage that ship. n The remainder of the line would pass outside until the next ship drew alongside the next Danish ship, and so on. n Glatton, the ship after Nelson’s flag on Elephant, was commanded by William Bligh of Mutiny on the Bounty fame (1789) n Troops would assault the Tre Kroner fortress once the fleet had subdued the Danish line of ships. n Bomb vessels would sit outside the British line and bombard the Danes by firing over it. n Should the British be unable to subdue the stronger, northern defenses, the destruction of the southern ships would be enough to allow the bomb vessels to approach within range of the city and force negotiations to prevent the bombardment of the city.Saturday, April 2, 2011
  41. 41. ! 1005-the Danish floating batteries began firing ! Nelson’s plan was effected despite the grounding of three of his ships of the line ! firing was heavy and the Danes resisted determinedly ! 1330-Nelson’s famous “blind eye” ploy ! 1400-finally, British gunnery prevailed The official report by Olfert Fischer estimated the Danish-Norwegian casualties to be between 1,600 and 1,800 captured, killed or wounded. According to the official returns recorded by each British ship, and repeated in dispatches from Nelson and forwarded by Parker to the Admiralty, British casualties were 264 killed and 689 woundedSaturday, April 2, 2011
  42. 42. Saturday, April 2, 2011
  43. 43. Saturday, April 2, 2011
  44. 44. Saturday, April 2, 2011
  45. 45. ‘Lord Nelson has directions to spare Denmark when no longer resisting, but if firing is continued on the part of Denmark, Lord Nelson will be obliged to set on fire the floating batteries he has taken, without having the power of saving the brave Danes who have defended them.’ Dated on board His Britainnick Majesty’s Ship Elephant Copenhagen Roads April 2nd: 1801 Nelson ??????? Vice Admiral under the Command of admiral Sir Hugh Parker To the Brothers of Englishmen The DanesSaturday, April 2, 2011
  46. 46. The Second CoalitionSaturday, April 2, 2011
  47. 47. Russian Troops under Suvorov Crossing the Alps in 1799. Vasily Surikov, 1899 The Second CoalitionSaturday, April 2, 2011
  48. 48. Russia invades Italy? ! August 1797-mad Tsar Paul (1754-1796-1801), son of Catherine the Great, through the irony of fate, had just been made the protector of the Knights of Malta ! June 1798-Bonaparte, on his way to Egypt, occupied Malta as a convenient base for his Oriental ambitions ! this proved the last straw convincing Paul to abandon his neutrality and join the Second Coalition. He promised 60,000 troops to Austria to reconquer northern Italy and another 45,000 to help Britain in North Germany and the Netherlands, the Helder expedition ! although the Peace of Campo Formio (October 1797) had left Britain alone, Nelson’s victory at the Nile (August 1798) had emboldened Austria’s prime minister, Baron von Thugut to tear up the peace treaty and join Pitt and Russia ! January 1799-Russia, Turkey, Portugal, Austria, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, and the Papal States had joined Britain in the Second CoalitionSaturday, April 2, 2011
  49. 49. Austria’s Vengeful Diplomat ! of humble origins, Empress Maria Theresa gave him a scholarship to the School of Oriental Languages in Vienna ! he served ably in Turkey as an Austrian diplomat ! 1792-his advancement by Joseph II was resented by the aristocrats at court. He took every opportunity to seek extra territory for Austria, as in the Polish partitions ! “His hatred of France, and of the Revolution, was no doubt sincere. But while prepared to defend Europe from French aggression, it was with the implied intention that Austria should be rewarded for her exertions by increases of territory, and should be made the absolute mistress of Germany.” Wikipedia ! “hehas to answer for the perverse policy of Austria in 1799 when Johann Amadeus Franz de Paula Thugut Suvorov and the Russians were recalled from northern Italy for 1736 –1818 no visible reason except that Austria should be left in sole possession of the dominions of the king of Sardinia [Piedmont], with a good excuse for keeping them.” Ibid.Saturday, April 2, 2011
  50. 50. Russia’s Brilliant General ! this general’s son was, like Teddy Roosevelt, a sickly child. Like him, he deliberately “toughened up” by enlisting as a common soldier at age 17 ! he served against the Swedes and the Prussians in the Seven Years War ! 1762-by the age of 33, he had risen to the rank of colonel ! 1768-he next served in Poland, dispersed the Polish forces under Pu!aski, captured Kraków paving the way for the first partition of Poland and reached the rank of major- general ! 1773–1774-The Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 saw his first campaigns against the Turks, and particularly in the Battle of Kozluca, he laid the foundations of his reputation ! 1775-he was dispatched to suppress the Pugachev rebellion ! 1777-1783--he served in the Crimea and in the Caucasus, Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov becoming a lieutenant-general in 1780, and general of Count Suvorov of Rymnik, Prince in Italy, infantry in 1783, upon completion of his tour of duty there Count of the Holy Roman Empire 1729 – 1800Saturday, April 2, 2011
  51. 51. Russia’s Brilliant General ! 1787-1791-- he again fought the Turks during the Russo- Turkish War of 1787–1792 and won many victories; he was wounded twice at Kinburn (1787), took part in the siege of Ochakov, and in 1788 won two great victories at Foc"ani and by the river Rimnik ! 1792-Suvorov was again transferred to Poland, where he took part in the Battle of Maciejowice, in which he captured the Polish commander-in-chief Tadeusz Ko!ciuszko. ! 1794-Suvorovs forces stormed Warsaw. He sent a report to his sovereign consisting of only three words: "Hurrah, Warsaws ours!" (!"#, $#"%#&# #%#!). Catherine replied in two words: "Hurrah, Fieldmarshall!" (rus. !"#, ()*+,-#"%#*!—that is, awarding him this title) ! 1796-at first, the new tsar Paul, retired him in disgrace. His goal was to overturn all of his mother’s policies ! February 1799-his tremendous skill was needed. At Austria’s specific request, Paul sent him to Italy to fight the French armies in the satellite republicsSaturday, April 2, 2011
  52. 52. Suvorov Reverses Napoleon’s Victories ! 1799-although he was nearly seventy years old, Suvorov was one of the great soldiers of the age. He had won no fewer than sixty-three battles in the course of his long military career ! 19 April-he moved his army westwards in a rapid march towards the Adda River; covering over 300 miles in just eighteen days ! 27 April-he defeated Jean Victor Moreau at the Battle of Cassano ! 29 April-he entered Milan. Two weeks later, he moved on to Turin, having defeated Moreau yet again ! June-From Naples, General MacDonald moved north to assist Moreau. Trapped between two armies, Suvorov took the bold decision to concentrate his whole force against MacDonald, beating the French at the Trebbia River, close to the spot of Hannibals great victory in 218 BC. Marching back to the north, the indomitable soldier chased the whole French Army of Italy back towards the shown here in a painting by George Riviera, taking the powerful fortress of Mantua on 28 July Dawe. Suvorov is depicted in his uniform of the Preobrazhensky Regiment worn during the reign of ! Moreau was relieved of command, to be replaced by Joubert. Paul I of Russia Joubert was defeated and killed in battle with Suvorov at Novi to the north of Genoa.Saturday, April 2, 2011
  53. 53. Suvorov in Italy AddaSaturday, April 2, 2011
  54. 54. Suvorov in Italy TrebbiaSaturday, April 2, 2011
  55. 55. Suvorov in Italy NoviSaturday, April 2, 2011
  56. 56. One of the few great generals in history who never lost a battle along with the likes of Alexander the Great and Genghis Khan, he was famed for his military manual The Science of Victory and noted for the sayings "What is difficult in training will become easy in a battle", "The bullet is a fool, the bayonet is a fine chap", "Perish yourself but rescue your comrade!". He taught his soldiers to attack instantly and decisively: "attack with the cold steel–push hard with the bayonet!" His soldiers adored him. He joked with the men, called the common soldiers brother, and shrewdly presented the results of detailed planning and careful strategy as the work of inspiration. Wikipedia Years later when Moreau, who was also present at Novi, was asked about Suvorov, he replied "What can you say of a general so resolute to a superhuman degree, and who would perish himself and let his army perish to the last man rather than retreat a single pace." Ibid.Saturday, April 2, 2011
  57. 57. As so often, the successful soldier was defeated not in battle, but by the intrigues of politicians. The Austrians and British, made distrustful by the success of the Russians in Italy, frustrated Suvorovs plan for an advance into France. Instead the emphasis switched to the campaign in the Low Countries. Despite all of his protests, Suvorov was ordered by Emperor Paul to transfer his troops to Switzerland, where they came under the command of the incompetent Alexander Korsakov, who was defeated by Andre Massena at the Second Battle of Zürich[25 Sept 1799]. Massena, with 80,000 men at his disposal, then advanced on Suvorovs remaining force of 18,000 regulars and 5000 Cossacks and Kalmyks. Suvorov could either retreat or be destroyed. Although he succeeded in rescuing his army and did not lose a single battle, Suvorovs spectacular manoeuvring in Italy and Switzerland proved altogether useless. He was promoted to the rank of Generalissimo, the fourth in all of Russian history, and was recalled to Saint Petersburg by the jealous tsar Paul. Op.Cit.Saturday, April 2, 2011
  58. 58. Suvorov in SwitzerlandSaturday, April 2, 2011
  59. 59. Suvorov in SwitzerlandSaturday, April 2, 2011
  60. 60. Suvorov in SwitzerlandSaturday, April 2, 2011
  61. 61. Suvorov in SwitzerlandSaturday, April 2, 2011
  62. 62. Suvorov in SwitzerlandSaturday, April 2, 2011
  63. 63. Suvorov in SwitzerlandSaturday, April 2, 2011
  64. 64. Suvorov in SwitzerlandSaturday, April 2, 2011
  65. 65. Suvorov in SwitzerlandSaturday, April 2, 2011
  66. 66. Suvorov in SwitzerlandSaturday, April 2, 2011
  67. 67. Suvorov in SwitzerlandSaturday, April 2, 2011
  68. 68. Suvorov in SwitzerlandSaturday, April 2, 2011
  69. 69. Suvorov in SwitzerlandSaturday, April 2, 2011
  70. 70. The severe military threat of the Second Coalition during the summer of 1799 had provided Bonaparte with his justification for abandoning the Army of the Orient in Egypt and returning to save the Republic. Although the crisis had passed with the Second Battle of Zürich (September) and the evacuation of the Helder expedition (November), France was still at war with all her enemies except Russia. Paul had withdrawn from the alliance with Austria in October, 1899. His relations with Britain soured over the next year, beginning with the failure of their joint expedition against the Batavian Republic. Events in Italy would begin the end of the Second Coalition (1798-1802)Saturday, April 2, 2011
  71. 71. Le Premier ConsulSaturday, April 2, 2011
  72. 72. Le Premier ConsulSaturday, April 2, 2011
  73. 73. First, Second and Third Consuls ! November 1799-after the coup of 18 Brumaire, Napoleon succeeded in sidelining Sieyès & Ducos, his provisional fellow consuls ! now, his challenge was to walk the “tightrope” between the extreme Right of the royalists and the extreme Left of the Jacobin Republicans ! he chose the crypto-royalist Lebrun and the former jacobin Cambacérès as his consuls Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès, Napoleon Bonaparte and Charles-François Lebrun (left to right).Saturday, April 2, 2011
  74. 74. First, Second and Third Consuls ! November 1799-after the coup of 18 Brumaire, Napoleon succeeded in sidelining Sieyès & Ducos, his provisional fellow consuls ! now, his challenge was to walk the “tightrope” between the extreme Right of the royalists and the extreme Left of the Jacobin Republicans ! he chose the crypto-royalist Lebrun and the former jacobin Cambacérès as his consuls ! 8 December-the Constitution of the Year VIII created the position of Premier Consul (First Consul) among the three ! needless to say, Bonaparte assumed that more powerful post. He took up residence in the Tuileries ! 7 February 1800-a popular referendum confirmed him with 99.9% of the voteSaturday, April 2, 2011
  75. 75. Taking over as First Consul, Napoleon found France gone wormy with deserters, draft dodgers, Royalist gangs, assorted fugitives from justice and ordinary bandits, often tolerated or even protected by local authorities. Meanwhile too many gendarmes were engaged in such boyish pranks as robbing the stagecoaches they had been told off to guard. Napoleon’s boot heel came down on this squirming mess. The semi-autonomous local officials were replaced by prefects, appointed by the central government and directly responsible to it. The gendarmerie was purged and then rebuilt with picked ex-soldiers who had made at least four campaigns and were twenty-five or older and literate. Esposito, Swords Around a Throne, p. 412.Saturday, April 2, 2011
  76. 76. La Vendée; the final act ! 1796- after the defeat of the Vendéean armies by Hoche, the royalists in western France no longer controlled territories ! the cities were largely republican ! but royalist guerilla warfare, along with ordinary brigandage, continued to tie down military forces ! the term Chouan (from the nickname of Jean Cottereau) was given to these rebels. Their recognition signal was the owl’s cry ! 1800-Napoleon applied a successful counter-insurgency strategy from the beginning of the First Consulate ! December-the last attempt by the royalist Chouans was the assassination attempt de la rue Saint-NicaiseSaturday, April 2, 2011
  77. 77. Napoleon’s close call with terrorism ! 10 October 1800- the “conspiracy of daggers” was an earlier “plot” which police chief Fouché created with an agent provocateur and then used to discredit the Jacobin opposition ! four of those arrested were condemned to death and executed (30 Jan 1801) ! 24 December 1800-a real bomb plot by the royalist Chouans kills and wounds only innocents as it detonates prematurely ! a so-called machine infernal, a wagon with a barrel filled with gunpowder and bullets, was to explode as Napoleon’s carriage passed on its way to the operaSaturday, April 2, 2011
  78. 78. Napoleon’s close call with terrorism ! 10 October 1800- the “conspiracy of daggers” was an earlier “plot” which police chief Fouché created with an agent provocateur and then used to discredit the Jacobin opposition ! four of those arrested were condemned to death and executed (30 Jan 1801) ! 24 December 1800-a real bomb plot by the royalist Chouans kills and wounds only innocents as it detonates prematurely ! a so-called machine infernal, a wagon with a barrel filled with gunpowder and bullets, was to explode as Napoleon’s carriage passed on its way to the operaSaturday, April 2, 2011
  79. 79. Napoleon’s close call with terrorism ! 10 October 1800- the “conspiracy of daggers” was an earlier “plot” which police chief Fouché created with an agent provocateur and then used to discredit the Jacobin opposition ! four of those arrested were condemned to death and executed (30 Jan 1801) ! 24 December 1800-a real bomb plot by the royalist Chouans kills and wounds only innocents as it detonates prematurely ! a so-called machine infernal, a wagon with a barrel filled with gunpowder and bullets, was to explode as Napoleon’s carriage passed on its way to the opera ! despite Fouché’s accurate assessment that the plotters were royalists, Napoleon used the event to finish accounts with the Jacobin left ! 4 January 1801-130 citizens whose names are indicated, suspect of carrying partial responsibility for the terrorist attempt of 3 Nivôse, the explosion of the machine infernale, shall be placed under special surveillance outside the European territory of the Republic. The 130 unfortunate suspects were deported from France to Guiana without trial and without the right of appealSaturday, April 2, 2011
  80. 80. Bonaparte’s chief of police ! 1792-elected a deputy in the Convention ! 1793-with Collot d’Herbois, brutally repressed the rebellion at Lyon ! 1794-99--sided with both the Thermidorians and Sieyes in their coups ! served Napoleon throughout the Consulate and the Empire as his ruthless chief of police ! 1802-04--briefly removed from office in a restructuring of the police, Napoleon made him a senator and continued to use his talents Joseph Fouché 1st Duc dOtrante (Duke of Otranto) 1759 - 1820Saturday, April 2, 2011
  81. 81. Bonaparte’s chief of police ! 1792-elected a deputy in the Convention ! 1793-with Collot d’Herbois, brutally repressed the rebellion at Lyon ! 1794-99--sided with both the Thermidorians and Sieyes in their coups ! served Napoleon throughout the Consulate and the Empire as his ruthless chief of police ! 1802-04--briefly removed from office in a restructuring of the police, Napoleon made him a senator and continued to use his talents Joseph Fouché 1st Duc dOtrante (Duke of Otranto) ! Feb-Mar 1804--the Cadoudal-Pichegru 1759 - 1820 conspiracy restored him to powerSaturday, April 2, 2011
  82. 82. Bonaparte’s chief of police ! 1792-elected a deputy in the Convention ! 1793-with Collot d’Herbois, brutally repressed the rebellion at Lyon ! 1794-99--sided with both the Thermidorians and Sieyes in their coups ! served Napoleon throughout the Consulate and the Empire as his ruthless chief of police ! 1802-04--briefly removed from office in a restructuring of the police, Napoleon made him a senator and continued to use his talents Joseph Fouché 1st Duc dOtrante (Duke of Otranto) ! Feb-Mar 1804--the Cadoudal-Pichegru 1759 - 1820 conspiracy restored him to powerSaturday, April 2, 2011
  83. 83. "Marked at the outset by fanaticism, which, though cruel, was at least conscientious, Fouchés character deteriorated in and after the year 1794 into one of calculating cunning. The transition represented all that was worst in the life of France during the period of the Revolution and Empire. In Fouché the enthusiasm of the earlier period appeared as a cold, selfish and remorseless fanaticism; in him the bureaucracy of the period 1795-1799 and the autocracy of Napoleon found their ablest instrument. Yet his intellectual pride prevented him sinking to the level of a mere tool. His relations to Napoleon were marked by a certain aloofness. He multiplied the means of resistance even to that irresistible autocrat, so that though removed from office, he was never wholly disgraced. Despised by all for his tergiversations, he nevertheless was sought by all on account of his cleverness. He repaid the contempt of his superiors and the adulation of his inferiors by a mask of impenetrable reserve or scorn. He sought for power and neglected no means to make himself serviceable to the party whose success appeared to be imminent. Yet, while appearing to be the servant of the victors, present or prospective, he never gave himself to any one party. In this versatility he resembles Talleyrand, of whom he was a coarse replica. Both professed, under all their shifts and turns, to be desirous of serving France. Talleyrand certainly did so in the sphere of diplomacy; Fouché may occasionally have done so in the sphere of intrigue." The 1911 Encyclopedia BritannicaSaturday, April 2, 2011
  84. 84. Assassination of the Duke of Enghien ! a descendent of Louis XIV and the nephew of Philippe Égalité, a Prince du Sang ! July 1789-emigrating with his father and grandfather a few days after after the fall of the Bastille, he was an officer in the corps commanded by his grandfather the Prince of Condé ! February 1801-after the Peace of Lunéville, he took up residence with his new bride in Ettenheim in Baden near the Rhine ! 1804-hearing that d’Enghien was connected to the Cadudal- Pichegru plot, Bonaparte ordered him kidnapped and brought to France ! 15 March-French dragoons crossed the Rhine secretly, surrounded his house and brought him to the Chateau de Vincennes near Paris Louis Antoine de Bourbon (Duke of Enghien, "duc dEnghien" pronounced [dɑ,ɡɛ,]; the i is silent) 1772 – 21 March 1804Saturday, April 2, 2011
  85. 85. Assassination of the Duke of Enghien ! a descendent of Louis XIV and the nephew of Philippe Égalité, a Prince du Sang ! July 1789-emigrating with his father and grandfather a few days after after the fall of the Bastille, he was an officer in the corps commanded by his grandfather the Prince of Condé ! February 1801-after the Peace of Lunéville, he took up residence with his new bride in Ettenheim in Baden near the Rhine ! 1804-hearing that d’Enghien was connected to the Cadudal- Pichegru plot, Bonaparte ordered him kidnapped and brought to France ! 15 March-French dragoons crossed the Rhine secretly, surrounded his house and brought him to the Chateau de Vincennes near Paris Louis Antoine de Bourbon (Duke of Enghien, "duc ! 21 March-secretly tried, found guilty, he was taken to the moat and dEnghien" pronounced shot before a prepared grave [dɑ,ɡɛ,]; the i is silent) 1772 – 21 March 1804 ! "Cest pire quun crime, cest une faute"--Meurthe (?) Fouché (?) Talleyrand (?)Saturday, April 2, 2011
  86. 86. ...the news was heard with horror within France as well as in the rest of Europe. The Marquise of Nadaillac described the “universal revulsion” and set down a subversive ballad being hawked around the very streets of Paris in 1804: “ I lived very long on borrowing and charity, Of Barras, vile flatterer, I married the whore; I strangled Pichegru, assassinated Enghien, And for such noble efforts obtained me a crown.” Chandler, pp. 309-310Saturday, April 2, 2011
  87. 87. Marengo, 1800Saturday, April 2, 2011
  88. 88. Marengo, 1800Saturday, April 2, 2011
  89. 89. As the year 1800 opened, France’s position, both politically and militarily, was grim indeed. Bonaparte’s offer of peace to the Second Coalition had been rebuffed, and the English and the Royalists had again sparked the Vendée into revolt. France could count as allies only unenthusiastic Spain, Holland (Batavian Republic), and Switzerland (Helvetian Republic). Vaubois was blockaded on Malta and Kleber isolated in Egypt. French armies on the Continent supposedly numbered 280,000, but desertion had drained this total to a possible 150,000. Because of the semicollapse of local government, only one-third of the conscripts levied ever reported…. On 25 January, Bonaparte secretly ordered Berthier, his minister of war, to organize a Reserve Army of 60,000 around Dijon. Esposito & Elting, West Point Atlas, commentary on MAP 35Saturday, April 2, 2011
  90. 90. St Gothard " Bonaparte had chosen Massena to head the starving Army of Italy Simplon Brenner--> " April 1800-his remaining 36,000 men Great St Bernard had been on half-rations for 2 months Little St Bernard his mission was to hold Genoa, both to " delay the invasion of southern France and to draw the Austrians away from the Alpine passes " 13 May-the Reserve Army began its advance through the Great St Bernard " four other forces would make feints through the other passes " Melas destruction was his primary objective; the rescue of Massena was secondarySaturday, April 2, 2011
  91. 91. # 17 May-Lannes seized Aosta driving Haddick’s Croats ahead of him # 19 May-Fort Bard, built on a crag, could not be taken by assaultSaturday, April 2, 2011
  92. 92. # 17 May-Lannes seized Aosta driving Haddick’s Croats ahead of him # 19 May-Fort Bard, built on a crag, could not be taken by assaultSaturday, April 2, 2011
  93. 93. # 17 May-Lannes seized Aosta driving Haddick’s Croats ahead of him # 19 May-Fort Bard, built on a crag, could not be taken by assault # however, mountain trails allowed infantry and cavalry to bypass the Austrian fort. The artillery couldn’t # 22 May-Lannes took the fortified town of Ivrea and its guns! # 20 May-Massena learned of the approaching relief. The Genoese were eating rats and grass, threatening revolt # 24 May-Melas, enroute to Turin, learns that thousands of French were passing Fort Bard, orders Elsnitz to fall back toward GenoaSaturday, April 2, 2011
  94. 94. ๏ 26 May-the Reserve Army (32,000 men and 8 cannon) assembled around Ivrea ๏ Bonaparte now ordered an advance on Milan, stuffed with supplies 31 May-Melas orders a MILAN ๏ concentration on Alessandria ๏ 4 June-Ott, anxiously accepts Massena’s surrender terms. ALESSANDRIA The French abandoned the city but not as prisoners,could continue to fight ๏ Suchet drives Elsnitz back in disarray ๏ Ott garrisons Genoa, then moves to join MelasSaturday, April 2, 2011
  95. 95. ๏ As his cavalry units bring in intelligence, Bonaparte realizes he has been hasty in dispersing his forces๏ he begins his own concentration to oppose Melas in Alessandria๏ Massena orders Suchet to hold up at Acqui๏ Bonaparte reorganizes his forces to give a corps to Desaix๏ he underestimates Melas’ strength and prepares to attackSaturday, April 2, 2011
  96. 96. ๏ As his cavalry units bring in intelligence, Bonaparte realizes he has been hasty in dispersing his forces๏ he begins his own concentration to oppose Melas in Alessandria๏ Massena orders Suchet to hold up at Acqui๏ Bonaparte reorganizes his forces to give a corps to Desaix๏ he underestimates Melas’ strength and prepares to attack๏ he wants to prevent his enemy from entering Genoa, where the British navy could make a successful siege almost impossibleSaturday, April 2, 2011
  97. 97. Battle of Marengo, morning of 14 June 1800Saturday, April 2, 2011
  98. 98. A Desperate Plea By this time aides-de-camp were spurring furiously after Lapoype and Desaix [whom Bonaparte had detached eastward to cut Melas’ line of communication] with orders of urgent recall; Bonaparte’s message to the latter allegedly ran: I had thought to attack Melas. He has attacked me first. For God’s sake come up if you can Fortunately Desaix, held up by a swollen river, was not beyond recall and received the message at one p.m., but Lapoype was reached only at six in the evening and proved unable to intervene, even in the last stages of the battle. Chandler, p. 291Saturday, April 2, 2011
  99. 99. Battle of Marengo, afternoon of 14 June 1800Saturday, April 2, 2011
  100. 100. Saturday, April 2, 2011
  101. 101. The Austrians had lost heavily in the 12 hours of fighting: 15 colours, 40 guns, almost 3,000 taken prisoner, and 6,500 dead or wounded. French casualties (killed and wounded) were on the order of 4,700 and 900 missing or captured, but they retained the battlefield and the strategic initiative. Desaixs body was found among the slain.Saturday, April 2, 2011
  102. 102. The Austrians had lost heavily in the 12 hours of fighting: 15 colours, 40 guns, almost 3,000 taken prisoner, and 6,500 dead or wounded. French casualties (killed and wounded) were on the order of 4,700 and 900 missing or captured, but they retained the battlefield and the strategic initiative. Desaixs body was found among the slain.Saturday, April 2, 2011
  103. 103. Consequences Bonaparte needed to depart for Paris urgently and the next morning sent Berthier on a surprise visit to Austrian headquarters. Within 24 hours of the battle, Melas entered into negotiations (the Convention of Alessandria) which led to the Austrians evacuating northwestern Italy west of the Ticino river, and suspending military operations in Italy. Bonapartes position as First Consul was strengthened by the successful outcome of the battle and the preceding campaign. After this victory, Napoleon could breathe a sigh of relief. The generals who had been hostile to him could see that his luck had not abandoned him. Thus, he had surpassed Schérer, Joubert, Championnet, and even Moreau, neither of whom had been able to inflict a decisive blow to the Coalition. Moreaus victory at Hohenlinden, which was the one that in reality had put an end to the war, was minimised by Bonaparte who, from then on, would pose as a saviour of the fatherland, and even of the Republic. He rejected offers from Louis XVIII, who had considered the Consulate to be a mere transition towards the restoration of the king. Thanks to the victory at Marengo, Napoleon could finally set about reforming France according to his own vision. WikipediaSaturday, April 2, 2011
  104. 104. ConsequencesSaturday, April 2, 2011
  105. 105. ConsequencesSaturday, April 2, 2011
  106. 106. War or Peace?Saturday, April 2, 2011
  107. 107. War or Peace? The Peace of Amiens, 1802 by Dominique (Guillaume Dominique Jacques)DoncreSaturday, April 2, 2011
  108. 108. A typical Gillray irreverent caricatureThe first Kiss this Ten Years! __or__the meeting of Britannia & Citoyen FrancoisSaturday, April 2, 2011
  109. 109. A typical Gillray irreverent caricatureThe first Kiss this Ten Years! __or__the meeting of Britannia & Citoyen FrancoisSaturday, April 2, 2011
  110. 110. Prince of Peace? God of War? or somehow, both?Saturday, April 2, 2011
  111. 111. From the field of Marengo [Bonaparte] had dispatched an appeal to the Emperor [of Austria], The cunning of the English has neutralized the effect which my simple and frank advances must otherwise had on Your Majesty’s heart. War has become actual. Thousands of Frenchmen and Austrians are no more…. The prospect of a continuance of such horrors is so great a distress to me, that I have decided to make another personal appeal to you…. Let us give our generation Peace and tranquility The Emperor continued to resist the growing pressures to accept peace. Negotiations dragged on … through most of the summer, but then a new subsidy treaty signed with Pitt induced Austria to continue the struggle…. The First Consul was induced by political considerations to remain in Paris, and so the coup de grâce had to be delegated to others. On December 3, Moreau defeated the Archduke John … at the great victory of Hohenlinden, and the war with Austria was practically over. The negotiators met again at Leoben, while Murat drove the Neapolitan army out of the Papal States and French troops reoccupied Tuscany. On February 8, operations were finally brought to a close with the signing of the Peace of Luneville. Chandler, p. 302Saturday, April 2, 2011
  112. 112. Terms of the Peace of Lunéville, 9 February 1801 ! "there shall be, henceforth and forever, peace, amity, and good understanding" among the parties ! Austria was required to enforce the conditions of the earlier Treaty of Campo Formio, 1797 ! certain Austrian holdings in Germany were relinquished and Austria recognized French control of the left bank of the Rhine “in complete sovereignty.” France renounced any claim to territories east of the Rhine ! contested boundaries in Italy were set, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany (ruled by a Habsburg) was awarded to the French. The duke was compensated with lands in Germany ! both agreed to respect the independence of the Batavian, Cisalpine, Helvetic and Ligurian republics ! in northern Italy, the two semi-independent bishoprics of Trento (Trent) and Bressanone (Brixen) were secularized and annexed to AustriaSaturday, April 2, 2011
  113. 113. Saturday, April 2, 2011
  114. 114. Brixen TrentSaturday, April 2, 2011
  115. 115. Saturday, April 2, 2011
  116. 116. Saturday, April 2, 2011
  117. 117. New World Ambitions ! December 1801-preliminary peace negotiations with Britain opened the sea lanes to France, the troops were idle and the officers eager for a chance for glory, merchants for profits ! Bonaparte sent his brother-in-law, Pauline’s husband, General Charles Leclerc, and 31,000 men, regulars and “disciplinary,” to Saint-Domingue (Haiti)Saturday, April 2, 2011
  118. 118. New World Ambitions ! December 1801-preliminary peace negotiations with Britain opened the sea lanes to France, the troops were idle and the officers eager for a chance for glory, merchants for profits ! Bonaparte sent his brother-in-law, Pauline’s husband, General Charles Leclerc, and 31,000 men, regulars and “disciplinary,” to Saint-Domingue (Haiti)Saturday, April 2, 2011
  119. 119. New World Ambitions ! December 1801-preliminary peace negotiations with Britain opened the sea lanes to France, the troops were idle and the officers eager for a chance for glory, merchants for profits ! Bonaparte sent his brother-in-law, Pauline’s husband, General Charles Leclerc, and 31,000 men, regulars and “disciplinary,” to Saint-Domingue (Haiti) ! his plan was to reestablish French sovereignty, using the rebel leader, Toussaint L’Overture, as his capitaine generalSaturday, April 2, 2011
  120. 120. New World Ambitions ! December 1801-preliminary peace negotiations with Britain opened the sea lanes to France, the troops were idle and the officers eager for a chance for glory, merchants for profits ! Bonaparte sent his brother-in-law, Pauline’s husband, General Charles Leclerc, and 31,000 men, regulars and “disciplinary,” to Saint-Domingue (Haiti) ! his plan was to reestablish French sovereignty, using the rebel leader, Toussaint L’Overture, as his capitaine general ! promising that the former slaves would remain free under French rule, and that Toussaint’s officers would keep their rank,Leclerc hoped to succeed by a divide-and-rule strategy ! 5 February 1802-as negotiations failed, Leclerc launched an amphibious attack and attempted to reconquer Haiti by force. Yellow fever and guerilla tactics killed over two-thirds of the force. Leclerc himself died in November ! As Napoleon despaired of regaining this foothold, he saw little reason to hang on to LouisianaSaturday, April 2, 2011
  121. 121. New World Ambitions ! December 1801-preliminary peace negotiations with Britain opened the sea lanes to France, the troops were idle and the officers eager for a chance for glory, merchants for profits ! Bonaparte sent his brother-in-law, Pauline’s husband, General Charles Leclerc, and 31,000 men, regulars and “disciplinary,” to Saint-Domingue (Haiti) ! his plan was to reestablish French sovereignty, using the rebel leader, Toussaint L’Overture, as his capitaine general ! promising that the former slaves would remain free under French rule, and that Toussaint’s officers would keep their rank,Leclerc hoped to succeed by a divide-and-rule strategy ! 5 February 1802-as negotiations failed, Leclerc launched an amphibious attack and attempted to reconquer Haiti by force. Yellow fever and guerilla tactics killed over two-thirds of the force. Leclerc himself died in November ! As Napoleon despaired of regaining this foothold, he saw little reason to hang on to Louisiana ! so he made an offer to US envoy Robert Livingston to sell the whole territorySaturday, April 2, 2011
  122. 122. Saturday, April 2, 2011
  123. 123. Saturday, April 2, 2011
  124. 124. Saturday, April 2, 2011
  125. 125. Saturday, April 2, 2011
  126. 126. Saturday, April 2, 2011
  127. 127. Saturday, April 2, 2011
  128. 128. Saturday, April 2, 2011
  129. 129. Reaching Peace with Britain ! Bonaparte first made truce proposals to British foreign secretary Lord Grenville as early as 1799 ! Because of the hardline stance of Grenville and Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger, their distrust of Bonaparte, they were rejected out of hand ! February 1801-Pitt resigned and was replaced by the more accommodating Henry Addington ! 30 September-a preliminary agreement was reached. British hopes soared: withdrawal of the income tax imposed by Pitt, a reduction of grain prices and a revival of marketsSaturday, April 2, 2011
  130. 130. Reaching Peace with Britain ! Bonaparte first made truce proposals to British foreign secretary Lord Grenville as early as 1799 ! Because of the hardline stance of Grenville and Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger, their distrust of Bonaparte, they were rejected out of hand ! February 1801-Pitt resigned and was replaced by the more accommodating Henry Addington ! 30 September-a preliminary agreement was reached. British hopes soared: withdrawal of the income tax imposed by Pitt, a reduction of grain prices and a revival of markets ! 9 December-this premature enthusiasm played into Talleyrand’s hands. ! The Dutch government in exile joined in negotiations seeking compensation and to determine the status of Cape Colony ! February 1802-as the Saint-Domingue was approaching Haiti, French ally Spain joined to negotiate over her lost West Indian islands ! the British negotiators were under pressure to reach “peace at any price” ! 25 March-the final terms were settled following a five hour negotiating session ending at 3 a.m.Saturday, April 2, 2011
  131. 131. Peace at Last! the treaty, beyond confirming “peace, friendship, and good understanding,” called for: ! restoration of prisoners and hostages ! the United Kingdom to return Cape Colony and captured Dutch West Indian islands to the Batavian Republic ! the UK to withdraw its forces from Egypt and restore it to the Turkish sultan ! UK to receive Trinidad and Tobago (from Spain) and Ceylon (from the Dutch) ! France to withdraw its forces from the Papal States ! the island of Minorca to be returned by Britain to Spain ! the House of Orange-Nassau to be compensated for its losses in the NetherlandsSaturday, April 2, 2011
  132. 132. Napoleon as Mars the Peacemaker is a colossal heroic nude statue by the Italian artist Antonio Canova, of Napoleon I of France in the guise of the Roman god Mars. He holds a gilded Nike or Victory standing on an orb in his right hand and a staff in his left. It was produced between 1802 and 1806 and stands 3.45 metres to the raised left hand. Once on display in the Louvre in Paris, it was purchased from Louis XVIII in 1816 by the British government, which granted it to the Duke of Wellington. It is now on display in Robert Adams stairwell at the Dukes London residence, Apsley House. WikipediaSaturday, April 2, 2011
  133. 133. Code CivilSaturday, April 2, 2011
  134. 134. Code CivilSaturday, April 2, 2011
  135. 135. As events turned out, the ending of the European struggle in 1802 was destined to afford the major protagonists only a brief breathing space before the recommencement of hostilities. Nevertheless, the First Consul utilized the pause to exploit his role as “peacemaker” so rapidly and successfully as to attain the summit of his political career…. Military glory is but a transient affair, but the recasting of the French State proved by far the most lasting monument to Napoleon’s genius, and as it also provided the sinews for the hard- fought wars still to come, the subject deserves a passing glance in these pages. Chandler, p.307Saturday, April 2, 2011
  136. 136. Was Napoleon a loyal son of the Revolution or its destroyer?Saturday, April 2, 2011
  137. 137. Napoleonic Reforms ! The principal argument for the former view is the series of reforms which he introduced applying the Revolution’s Declaration of the Rights of Man: ! centralized administration of the departments ! encouragement of economic developmentSaturday, April 2, 2011
  138. 138. Napoleonic Reforms ! The principal argument for the former view is the series of reforms which he introduced applying the Revolution’s Declaration of the Rights of Man: ! centralized administration of the departments ! encouragement of economic development He gave government subsidies to the French woolen industry so that it came to rival the silk. He wanted to displace British imports.Saturday, April 2, 2011
  139. 139. Napoleonic Reforms ! The principal argument for the former view is the series of reforms which he introduced applying the Revolution’s Declaration of the Rights of Man: ! centralized administration of the departments ! encouragement of economic development ! reform of the police and court system. Repeal of the infamous Law of Suspects ! 1801-the Concordat with the Catholic Church and the Organic Articles which regulated public worship in France and extended religious tolerationSaturday, April 2, 2011
  140. 140. Under a vague symbol representing the Deity, Bonaparte grants religious toleration to every sort of creedSaturday, April 2, 2011
  141. 141. Main terms of the Concordat: ■ A declaration that "Catholicism was the religion of the great majority of the French" but not the official state religion, thus maintaining religious freedom, in particular with respect to Protestants ■ The Papacy had the right to depose bishops, but this made little difference, because the French government still nominated them ■ The State would pay clerical salaries and the clergy swore an oath of allegiance to the StateSaturday, April 2, 2011
  142. 142. Main terms of the Concordat: ■ A declaration that "Catholicism was the religion of the great majority of the French" but not the official state religion, thus maintaining religious freedom, in particular with respect to Protestants ■ The Papacy had the right to depose bishops, but this made little difference, because the French government still nominated them ■ The State would pay clerical salaries and the clergy swore an oath of allegiance to the StateSaturday, April 2, 2011
  143. 143. Main terms of the Concordat: ■ A declaration that "Catholicism was the religion of the great majority of the French" but not the official state religion, thus maintaining religious freedom, in particular with respect to Protestants ■ The Papacy had the right to depose bishops, but this made little difference, because the French government still nominated them ■ The State would pay clerical salaries and the clergy swore an oath of allegiance to the State ■ Catholic clergy would staff the schools and universities, but as government employees under state regulations ■ The Church gave up all its claims to Church lands that were confiscated after 1790 ■ The Sabbath was reestablished as a "festival", effective Easter Sunday, 18 April 1802. The rest of the French Republican Calendar, which had been abolished, was not replaced by the traditional Gregorian Calendar until 1 January 1806Saturday, April 2, 2011
  144. 144. Pope Pius VII! as bishop of Imola, he cooperated with the Cisalpine Republic! "Christian virtue makes men good democrats.... Equality is not an idea of philosophers but of Christ...and do not believe that the Catholic religion is against democracy,"! March 1801-the College of Cardinals chose him as a compromise candidate after months of stalemate! 15 July 1801-he had the difficult responsibility of negotiating the Concordat! October 1804-Napoleon’s uncle Joseph Cardinal Fesch negotiated the difficult request to have the pope come to Paris for Napoleon’s coronation! 2 December 1804-against the advice of the Curia, the pope was present for this famous event 1742-born as Count Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, was Pope, 1800-1823. painting by Jacques-Louis David, 1807Saturday, April 2, 2011
  145. 145. Pope Pius VII! as bishop of Imola, he cooperated with the Cisalpine Republic! "Christian virtue makes men good democrats.... Equality is not an idea of philosophers but of Christ...and do not believe that the Catholic religion is against democracy,"! March 1801-the College of Cardinals chose him as a compromise candidate after months of stalemate! 15 July 1801-he had the difficult responsibility of negotiating the Concordat! October 1804-Napoleon’s uncle Joseph Cardinal Fesch negotiated the difficult request to have the pope come to Paris for Napoleon’s coronation! 2 December 1804-against the advice of the Curia, the pope was present for this famous event 1742-born as Count Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, was Pope,! more dramatic conflicts would follow 1800-1823. painting by Jacques-Louis David, 1807Saturday, April 2, 2011
  146. 146. Patron of Education and the Arts Here he and Josephine establish a Ministry of CultureSaturday, April 2, 2011
  147. 147. Education Reform under Bonaparte ! 1802-every Commune would have an elementary school and every Department should contain at least one secondary academy ! the large cities were to open lycées (preparatory schools for the universities) ! state control over the content taught: ! math and science were strongly encouraged ! most liberal arts were either completely banned or severely curtailed. Modern History out, instead there was a great deal about Charlemagne, whom Napoleon intended to emulate. ! teachers, lay and clerical, were strictly supervised. State examinations were required for both teachers and students.Saturday, April 2, 2011
  148. 148. Napoleonic Reforms ! The principal argument for the former view is the series of reforms which he introduced extending the Revolution’s Declaration of the Rights of Man: ! centralized administration of the departments ! reform of the police and court system. Repeal of the infamous Law of Suspects ! 1801-the Concordat with the Catholic Church and the Organic Articles which regulated public worship in France and extended religious toleration ! but, ! 1802-institution of the Legion of Honor as a substitute for the old royalist decorations and orders of chivalry, to encourage civilian and military achievementsSaturday, April 2, 2011
  149. 149. Napoleonic Reforms ! The principal argument for the former view is the series of reforms which he introduced extending the Revolution’s Declaration of the Rights of Man: ! centralized administration of the departments ! reform of the police and court system. Repeal of the infamous Law of Suspects ! 1801-the Concordat with the Catholic Church and the Organic Articles which regulated public worship in France and extended religious toleration ! but, ! 1802-institution of the Legion of Honor as a substitute for the old royalist decorations and orders of chivalry, to encourage civilian and military achievements ! amnesty plus restoration of (unsold) property to émigrés who would return to France. As many as 40,000 would avail themselves of this adding their abilities to military and civil lifeSaturday, April 2, 2011
  150. 150. A new aristocracy? Most of the jacobin left denounced the Legion of Honor and, especially, the return of the émigrés as a repudiation of égalité, the second of the Revolution’s Holy Trinity. They saw Bonaparte creating a new unequal social order. However, another bedrock principle of the Revolution was Article 1 of the Rights of Man and the Citizen (August 1789): 1. Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be founded only upon the general good. This had led to the principle of les carrières souvrent au talent (careers are open to talent). Bonaparte argued that the social distinctions which he created were indeed based on talent, not birth. The titles which he, his family and his marshals held were rewards based on merit. An arguable point, especially in the case of his family! And having social rewards for merit was just such a general good. jbpSaturday, April 2, 2011
  151. 151. The European Response to Égalité “We come to give you liberté and égalité,” growled old Marshal Lefebvre in a Franconian town. “But don’t lose your heads about it---the first person who stirs without my permission will be shot!” This naive proclamation, of course, illustrates the growing tyranny of Napoleonism. But it also offers a clue as to why so many thousands of Poles, Germans and Italians fought for the conqueror of their own free will. They could not forget that Lefebre himself, beginning as a private in the Royal Army, had taken fifteen years to reach the rank of sergeant. After the Revolution he needed only half that time to win a marshal’s baton and a title. His wife, though retaining her hearty mannerisms, had stepped up meanwhile from battalion washerwoman to Duchess of Danzig. Frenchmen, in other words, were freemen as compared to European masses whose serfdom had been tempered only by the whims of benevolent despotism. Already an uneasy stirring could be felt throughout the Old World, as if these masses vaguely sensed the approach of some springtime of the human race. Lynn Montross, War Through the Ages, p. 509Saturday, April 2, 2011
  152. 152. Napoleonic Reforms ! The principal argument for the former view is the series of reforms which he introduced extending the Revolution’s Declaration of the Rights of Man: ! centralized administration of the departments ! reform of the police and court system. Repeal of the infamous Law of Suspects ! 1801-the Concordat with the Catholic Church and the Organic Articles which regulated public worship in France and extended religious toleration ! 1083-codification of the laws, beginning with the Civil Code (1804), followed by Commercial (1807), Criminal (1808), and Penal Code (1810)-->equality before the lawSaturday, April 2, 2011
  153. 153. Main features of the Civil Code ! a comprehensive rewrite; its structure was much more rational; it had no religious, i.e. Christian, content; and it was written in the vernacular, French ! a fundamental change in the nature of the civil law system; it made laws much clearer and much more accessible ! the Revolutionaries had taken a negative view of judges making law to benefit their own (upper) class ! this is reflected in the Napoleonic Code prohibiting judges from deciding a case by way of introducing a general rule (Article 5) In theory, there is thus no case law in France ! Laws could be applied only if they had been duly promulgated, and only if they had been published officially thus no secret laws were authorized ! It prohibited ex post facto laws (i.e., laws that apply to events that occurred before them) ! 1807-the name was changed to the Code Napoléon. It remains the basis of French law today and has influenced the laws of those countries which fell under French rule or influence during the Napoleonic eraSaturday, April 2, 2011
  154. 154. Today the Code Napoleon is the basis of the legal system of more than ninety countries besides France.Saturday, April 2, 2011
  155. 155. Vive l’Empereur!Saturday, April 2, 2011
  156. 156. Vive l’Empereur!Saturday, April 2, 2011
  157. 157. Napoléon Ier sur le trône impérial Jean Auguste Dominic Ingres 1806 in place of the Bourbon fleur de lys Napoleon reached back to the Merovingian kings and chose the symbol of golden bees to decorate his robeSaturday, April 2, 2011
  158. 158. A contemporary poster depicting the balloon released from the cathedral at the time of Napoleon’s coronationSaturday, April 2, 2011
  159. 159. “I swear to maintain the integrity of the territory of the Republic, to respect and enforce respect for the Concordat and freedom of religion, equality of rights, political and civil liberty, the irrevocability of the sale of national lands; not to raise any tax except in virtue of the law; to maintain the institution of Legion of Honor and to govern in the sole interest, happiness and glory of the French people”Saturday, April 2, 2011
  160. 160. Sacre de lempereur Napoléon Ier et couronnement de limpératrice Joséphine dans la cathédrale Notre-Dame de Paris, le 2 décembre 1804 Jacques-Louis David, 1805-1808Saturday, April 2, 2011
  161. 161. The thrice glorious and thrice august Emperor Napoleon is crowned and enthroned. Vive l’Empereur! (Long live the Emperor!)Saturday, April 2, 2011
  162. 162. Napoleon, surrounded by dignitaries, left the cathedral while the choir sang "Domine salvum fac imperatorem nostrum Napoleonem" -- "God save our Emperor Napoleon".Saturday, April 2, 2011

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