Napoleon                              Part Two                              session iii                              Welli...
painted by                                            Francisco de Goya,                                               181...
“If we can maintain ourselves in Portugal,                  the war will not cease in the Peninsula, and,                 ...
major topics for this session    I. “The Scum of the Earth”    II. Light Infantry Tactics    III. Wellington’s First Offen...
Thursday, September 8, 11
Wellington’s “Appreciation of the Situation”--March 1809          Portugal could be defended by quite a small expeditionar...
I. “The Scum of                        the Earth”Thursday, September 8, 11
Thursday, September 8, 11
Thursday, September 8, 11
One of the preferred formations for maneuver,                            the ‘quarter-distance’ column had the companies  ...
8 Company Column into Line            COLUMN TO LINE            Among drill-masters, Guibert was famous for his ‘column of...
Thursday, September 8, 11
Battalion FormationsThursday, September 8, 11
Illustrated here are two varieties of hollow square; we have                            placed them in the usual ‘checker’...
In the foreground is one with fairly uniform sides, with                            opposite faces of two and three compan...
In the background is an ‘oblong’ about 60 yards by 20 yards,                            with the end faces of single-compa...
In the hollow center of the   formation thus created stood the   colors, officers and drummers, and   casualties might be  ...
Inset 1 Beside a mounted fieldofficer, whose high viewpointallows him to supervise theintegrity of the faces of a squareunde...
Inset 2 Cross section across the                            face of a square, with the two front                          ...
Thursday, September 8, 11
II. Light Infantry                      TacticsThursday, September 8, 11
II. Light Infantry                      TacticsThursday, September 8, 11
Private, 95th Rifles                            The 95th Regiment was the only regiment in the                            B...
British Riflemen                             ✦   1800-the Baker rifle was developed, a foot shorter than the                ...
British Riflemen                                       ✦   1800-the Baker rifle was developed, a foot shorter than the      ...
British Riflemen                                       ✦   1800-the Baker rifle was developed, a foot shorter than the      ...
From 1802 the Rifle Corps, later the 95th , was                                                             permitted to re...
This shows recruits to the 95th receiving   instruction in the use of the Baker rifle. As a   corporal superintends, one ma...
Green Jackets of the KGL                                                            Shown here is a member of the 1st Ligh...
D: Light Infantry  A move to ‘Fix one general uniform for Rifle Corps,  permitting no other variation than...buttons and  f...
E: KGL Light Infantry, Spain 1811                                                                   E1 Sergeant-bugler, 2n...
Thursday, September 8, 11
Thursday, September 8, 11
This scene from the Peninsular War depicts members of the 95th Rifles engaging French light      infantry in a skirmish; it...
Thursday, September 8, 11
Illustrated here is a variation on the ordinary method of skirmishing, known as ‘chain order’.    Used to drive away enemy...
This imaginary scene depicts light infantry,                            involving five companies advancing upon            ...
(1) One company is in extended order, in which                            each pair of skirmishers were supposed to be at ...
They are supported by a company                     (2) waiting in open order, the files                     are about two ...
A third company advances in three bodies; the                            leading group (3a) advances in open order, a     ...
The maintenance of a strong reserve to            reinforce the skirmish line or cover its retreat,            was paramou...
The rifle company (5a) is in ‘chain order,’ with                            groups of four men 10 paces apart. One man in  ...
A Contemporary Re-enactor Group of the 95thThursday, September 8, 11
A Contemporary Re-enactor Group of the 95thThursday, September 8, 11
A Contemporary Re-enactor Group of the 95th                            Notice the inaccuracy, anyone?Thursday, September 8...
A Contemporary Re-enactor Group of the 95thThursday, September 8, 11
A Contemporary Re-enactor Group of the 95th                        What’s not to love about re-enacting!Thursday, Septembe...
Thursday, September 8, 11
Wellesley is unique among generals in that he managed to select the same        sort of ground for most of his major engag...
Shrapnel            Although he began to campaign for its adoption in 1784, It took until 1803 for the            British ...
French 6-company battalion advances up the                            slope, the voltigeur company (V) forward as         ...
All that they can see are the British light                            company skirmishers (L), now dividing and          ...
As the skirmishers fall back to  either flank, the line companies ,  in two ranks, march forward to  the crest of the ridge...
The British line advances to the crest & delivers 1 or                            more volleys. The French only attempt to...
The voltigeurs (V) are driven back into the     ruin of the first two companies (1D). The     companies on each flank of the...
INSERT 1--Infantrymen delivering fire    simultaneously by each rankThursday, September 8, 11
INSERT 2-The front rank at “Present!”                            while the rear rank ‘Make Ready!’Thursday, September 8, 11
As the French break                            and the British ‘charge                            bayonets,’ the French   ...
As the French break                                                       and the British ‘charge                         ...
Military Organizer                                                           ✦   British soldier and politician, a general...
“...a rough, foul-mouthed devil as ever lived.”--Wellington    ✦   a Welsh British army officer “who was        respected f...
“Daddy” Hill                                                               ✦   a trusted brigade, division and corps      ...
“Black Bob”        “there was a sullenness which seemed to brood in his innermost soul and generate passions which knew no...
III.Wellington’s                            First OffensiveThursday, September 8, 11
III.Wellington’s                            First OffensiveThursday, September 8, 11
The Northamptonshire Regiment (the 48th                            Regiment of Foot) was raised in 1741. It               ...
Talavera                            27-28 July 1809Thursday, September 8, 11
Having driven Marshal  Soults French army                                     Wellington’s First Offensive                ...
Silence fell on the field. The French were done, defeated, and the British        had the victory and the field.            ...
Thursday, September 8, 11
Thursday, September 8, 11
George Gordon Noel, Lord Byron, Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, Google e-BooksThursday, September 8, 11
IV. Lines of Torres                  VedrasThursday, September 8, 11
IV. Lines of Torres                  VedrasThursday, September 8, 11
The next few weeks [of September 1809, after Talavera, Wellington]           spent in riding all over the ‘Lisbon peninsul...
“...one of the finest defensive positions in Europe.”--Julian Paget                                       The Battle of Bus...
!   1810- the Emperor ordered marshal                                Massena to drive the British “Leopard”               ...
(1) Renier sent Merle up the steep slope to be hurled     back by the 88th, the Connaught Rangers (2) a similar fate was e...
The Allied losses numbered 200 dead, 1,001 wounded, and 51 missing.          The British and Portuguese each lost exactly ...
The Lines of Torres Vedras   In many ways the Peninsular War has often   been seen as a backwater to the major   campaigns...
The Lines of Torres Vedras   In many ways the Peninsular War has often   been seen as a backwater to the major   campaigns...
The Lines of Torres Vedras                                                        The origins of the Lines date back to a ...
Thursday, September 8, 11
Thursday, September 8, 11
Thursday, September 8, 11
...when the French turned back from [Sobral] on 14 October 1810 the           tide of French conquest in Europe turned als...
The French invasion of Portugal in the late summer of 1810 was           defeated by hunger, and it marked the last time t...
in the wasteland north of the lines, Wellington destroyed his enemy’s           army. At the beginning of the campaign, in...
an excellent website                            Masséna had no chance of breaking through with the forces                 ...
V.GuerrierosThursday, September 8, 11
V.GuerrierosThursday, September 8, 11
This was where the paradox of Peninsular warfare came in. Wellington         himself was the first to appreciate it. From h...
Guerrilla (little war)Warfare    ✦   whenever smuggling was shut down, the smugglers joined the guerrieros, as did        ...
Uncoordinated and sometimes feckless though their operations were, the       guerillas were Wellington’s main source of mi...
French Counterguerilla Strategy & Tactics               followed the general rules employed at least since the days of Ale...
Thursday, September 8, 11
Thursday, September 8, 11
Thursday, September 8, 11
Los Desastres de la Guerra (The Disasters of War) are a series of 82       prints         created between 1810 and 1820 by...
Los Desastres de la Guerra (The Disasters of War) are a series of 82       prints         created between 1810 and 1820 by...
Los Desastres de la Guerra (The Disasters of War) are a series of 82       prints         created between 1810 and 1820 by...
Los Desastres de la Guerra (The Disasters of War) are a series of 82       prints         created between 1810 and 1820 by...
Los Desastres de la Guerra (The Disasters of War) are a series of 82       prints         created between 1810 and 1820 by...
Los Desastres de la Guerra (The Disasters of War) are a series of 82       prints         created between 1810 and 1820 by...
Los Desastres de la Guerra (The Disasters of War) are a series of 82       prints         created between 1810 and 1820 by...
Reprisals                                                                    The guerrilla war in Spain was notorious for ...
The myth of French invincibility in battle was soon                 exposed by the defeats of Dupont and Junot at Bailén  ...
The guerrillas were not an unmixed blessing    ✦   they were independent, irregular and insubordinate    ✦   their goals s...
...all who have served in the Peninsula can attest that a less efficient and         more mischievous body od marauders nev...
VI. BadajozThursday, September 8, 11
VI. Badajoz                                BadajozThursday, September 8, 11
January 1812                            July 1812Thursday, September 8, 11
The infantry hated sieges.  Weeks were spent digging the trenches          known as parallels to enable the guns to be bro...
The infantry hated sieges.  Weeks were spent digging the trenches          known as parallels to enable the guns to be bro...
NOTE the orientation of                            this map. It has been                            rotated 90º clockwise....
Thursday, September 8, 11
Thursday, September 8, 11
Thursday, September 8, 11
Thursday, September 8, 11
Thursday, September 8, 11
VII. SalamancaThursday, September 8, 11
VII. SalamancaThursday, September 8, 11
Thursday, September 8, 11
Early on July 22, Marmonts army was moving south, with its leading elements southeast      of Salamanca. To the west, the ...
Thursday, September 8, 11
Thursday, September 8, 11
1-When the 3rd Division and DUrbans brigade reached the    top of the French L, they attacked Thomières. At the same    ti...
1-When the 3rd Division and DUrbans brigade reached the    top of the French L, they attacked Thomières. At the same    ti...
3-Coles 4th Division attacked Bonets division and                                                                         ...
3-Coles 4th Division attacked Bonets division and                                                                         ...
The Army of Portugal suffered 7,000 killed and wounded and 7,000 captured. Besides       Marmonts severe wounding, two div...
VIEW OF CADIZ AND ITS ENVIRONS!    During the siege, which lasted two and a half     years, the Cortes Generales governmen...
French hopes of recovery were stricken by Napoleons disastrous       invasion of Russia in 1812. He had taken 30,000 soldi...
In a strategic move, Wellington                                                 planned to move his supply base           ...
In a strategic move, Wellington                                                          planned to move his supply base  ...
VIII.VitoriaThursday, September 8, 11
VIII.VitoriaThursday, September 8, 11
Thursday, September 8, 11
Thursday, September 8, 11
Thursday, September 8, 11
Thursday, September 8, 11
3  1-Wellingtons co-  ordinated attack was  o p e n e d b y H i l l  s 2nd  Division, and Cadogans  Brigade crossing the  ...
2-Grahams force comprising                                        the 1st and 5th Divisions,                              ...
3-Crucially, Wellington               2-Grahams force comprising  learned late in the morning           the 1st and 5th Di...
3-Crucially, Wellington               2-Grahams force comprising  learned late in the morning           the 1st and 5th Di...
3-Crucially, Wellington               2-Grahams force comprising  learned late in the morning           the 1st and 5th Di...
The British 59th Regiment at VitoriaThursday, September 8, 11
3-Crucially, Wellington  learned late in the morning  that the French had left the  bridge across the Zadorra  at Trespuen...
3-Crucially, Wellington  learned late in the morning  that the French had left the  bridge across the Zadorra  at Trespuen...
3-Crucially, Wellington  learned late in the morning  that the French had left the  bridge across the Zadorra  at Trespuen...
Napoleon, Part 2, session iii, Wellington
Napoleon, Part 2, session iii, Wellington
Napoleon, Part 2, session iii, Wellington
Napoleon, Part 2, session iii, Wellington
Napoleon, Part 2, session iii, Wellington
Napoleon, Part 2, session iii, Wellington
Napoleon, Part 2, session iii, Wellington
Napoleon, Part 2, session iii, Wellington
Napoleon, Part 2, session iii, Wellington
Napoleon, Part 2, session iii, Wellington
Napoleon, Part 2, session iii, Wellington
Napoleon, Part 2, session iii, Wellington
Napoleon, Part 2, session iii, Wellington
Napoleon, Part 2, session iii, Wellington
Napoleon, Part 2, session iii, Wellington
Napoleon, Part 2, session iii, Wellington
Napoleon, Part 2, session iii, Wellington
Napoleon, Part 2, session iii, Wellington
Napoleon, Part 2, session iii, Wellington
Napoleon, Part 2, session iii, Wellington
Napoleon, Part 2, session iii, Wellington
Napoleon, Part 2, session iii, Wellington
Napoleon, Part 2, session iii, Wellington
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Napoleon, Part 2, session iii, Wellington

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Part 2 of a study of the Peninsular War, 1808-1814

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Napoleon, Part 2, session iii, Wellington

  1. 1. Napoleon Part Two session iii WellingtonThursday, September 8, 11
  2. 2. painted by Francisco de Goya, 1812-1814 Napoleon Part Two session iii WellingtonThursday, September 8, 11
  3. 3. “If we can maintain ourselves in Portugal, the war will not cease in the Peninsula, and, if the war lasts in the Peninsula, Europe will be saved.” --Arthur Wellesley, First Duke of Wellington Autumn 1809Thursday, September 8, 11
  4. 4. major topics for this session I. “The Scum of the Earth” II. Light Infantry Tactics III. Wellington’s First Offensive IV. Lines of Torres Vedras V. Guerrieros VI. Badajoz VII. Salamanca VIII. VitoriaThursday, September 8, 11
  5. 5. Thursday, September 8, 11
  6. 6. Wellington’s “Appreciation of the Situation”--March 1809 Portugal could be defended by quite a small expeditionary force, provided that four requirements were met: 1) The Spanish must continue to resist and must support England 2) England must retain command of the seas 3) The expeditionary force must not suffer defeat or undue loss 4) The French must be prevented from concentration 100,000 men against them It was on the strength of this far-sighted assessment that England’s main army landed in Portugal in 1809. Wellesley’s strategy throughout was to ensure that it survived, which was why he remained so firmly on the defensive for the first three years and took few risks. He fought when the odds were favorable, and won, and prevented the French from ever concentrating enough men to defeat him. Then in 1812, the tide turned. Napoleon, like Hitler, invaded Russia, and immediately faced the problem of war on two fronts, as well as a vast coastline to defend against Allied sea-power. In 1812, as in 1942, the Allies were at last in a position to take the offensive. Eighteen months later, the war was won. Julian Paget, Wellington’s Peninsular War, p. 6Thursday, September 8, 11
  7. 7. I. “The Scum of the Earth”Thursday, September 8, 11
  8. 8. Thursday, September 8, 11
  9. 9. Thursday, September 8, 11
  10. 10. One of the preferred formations for maneuver, the ‘quarter-distance’ column had the companies arrayed one behind another, in lines (ranks) two deep (2-man files) and a gap of five yards between companies. The frontage was thus about 20 yards and the depth about 50 yards. The grenadier company (G) usually led the battalion, the light company (L) was at the rear, the color-party (CP) was at the center. Officers were mounted “in order the more readily to correct mistakes, to circulate orders...and especially to take care that when a column halts, that they are most speedily adjusted before wheeling up into line. These operations no dismounted officer can effectually perform, nor in that situation can he see the faults, or give the aids which his duty requires.” The commanding officer, the battalion major, (CO) rides at the right front of the column, the second-in- command (2ic) behind him, and the adjutant (A) at the rear. Each company commander, a captain, (CC)--only one is identified here-- marched at the center of his company. INSET- at the rear of a marching company, a subaltern officer, a sergeant and a drummer march in the third rank. Philip Haythornethwaite, British Napoleonic Infantry Tactics, p. 59Thursday, September 8, 11
  11. 11. 8 Company Column into Line COLUMN TO LINE Among drill-masters, Guibert was famous for his ‘column of attack’, even though it was doubtful that he ever intended it as an assault formation. Its great virtue was that it allowed a compact column to deploy into line fairly quickly and easily, and for a line to ploy back again into column with equal ease. Griffith, p. 11Thursday, September 8, 11
  12. 12. Thursday, September 8, 11
  13. 13. Battalion FormationsThursday, September 8, 11
  14. 14. Illustrated here are two varieties of hollow square; we have placed them in the usual ‘checker’ relationship, adopted so that each face of any adjacent squares had a clear field of fire.Thursday, September 8, 11
  15. 15. In the foreground is one with fairly uniform sides, with opposite faces of two and three companies each, about 25 to 30 yards long (depending upon the strength of the battalion). At the right of the front face--conventionally occupied by No. 4 Company--the rear two ranks are firing by platoon.Thursday, September 8, 11
  16. 16. In the background is an ‘oblong’ about 60 yards by 20 yards, with the end faces of single-company frontage. As formed from column, the front and rear companies--each in two ranks closed up on those immediately behind and in front respectively, forming ‘ends’ of the square four ranks deep, while the other six companies in the column wheeled to the flanks and faced outwards.Thursday, September 8, 11
  17. 17. In the hollow center of the formation thus created stood the colors, officers and drummers, and casualties might be dragged inside from the ranks. For example, Rees Gronow of the 1st Foot Guards described the center of his square at Waterloo as a ‘perfect hospital’, in which it was impossible to take a stride without encountering dead and wounded.Thursday, September 8, 11
  18. 18. Inset 1 Beside a mounted fieldofficer, whose high viewpointallows him to supervise theintegrity of the faces of a squareunder fire, drummers remove acasualty from the ranks. He willget little treatment, if any, until thebattle is over; the regimentalsurgeons normally set up adressing post well behind thefighting line, with the unit’sbaggage and other rear-echelonpersonnel.Thursday, September 8, 11
  19. 19. Inset 2 Cross section across the face of a square, with the two front ranks kneeling and the rear standing; note that they are closely packed, each soldier slightly to one side of the man in front of him.Thursday, September 8, 11
  20. 20. Thursday, September 8, 11
  21. 21. II. Light Infantry TacticsThursday, September 8, 11
  22. 22. II. Light Infantry TacticsThursday, September 8, 11
  23. 23. Private, 95th Rifles The 95th Regiment was the only regiment in the British Army to be equipped entirely with Baker rifles instead of smoothbore muskets…. This elite unit was not only equipped with rifles but also received special training [at Shorncliffe camp under General Sir John Moore] that emphasized small unit tactics and marksmanship. Moreover, the small-unit training of the riflemen created a level of trust between officers, non-commissioned officers and other ranks that was unique in the British Army of that period. The soldier wears the green tunic that was distinctive of rifle-armed units, including the 5th Battalion of the 60th Regiment and the two light battalions of the King’s German Legion (KGL). He also carries the Baker rifle…. Its main disadvantages were that it was slower to load than the normal musket and was not as useful in hand-to-hand fighting, since it was shorter and carried a rather unwieldy sword bayonet.Thursday, September 8, 11
  24. 24. British Riflemen ✦ 1800-the Baker rifle was developed, a foot shorter than the Brown Bess musket, and rifled rather than smooth bore ✦ rifling is a series of spiral grooves that impart spin to the ballThursday, September 8, 11
  25. 25. British Riflemen ✦ 1800-the Baker rifle was developed, a foot shorter than the Brown Bess musket, and rifled rather than smooth bore ✦ rifling is a series of spiral grooves that impart spin to the ball ✦ both weapon and tactics were derived from the American Revolution ✦ 1804-the 95th was formed and fought with Wellington from 1808-1815 ✦ the Plunkett position, was named for Irish soldier Thomas Plunkett, remembered for a feat at Cacabelos during Moores retreat to Corunna in 1809. Here Plunkett shot the French Général de Brigade Colbert at a range of between 200 The 95th Regiment of Foot and 600 meters using a Baker rifle. Muskets couldn’t hit a dark green, faced black man-sized target beyond 50 yardsThursday, September 8, 11
  26. 26. British Riflemen ✦ 1800-the Baker rifle was developed, a foot shorter than the Brown Bess musket, and rifled rather than smooth bore ✦ rifling is a series of spiral grooves that impart spin to the ball ✦ both weapon and tactics were derived from the American Revolution ✦ 1804-the 95th was formed and fought with Wellington from 1808-1815 ✦ the Plunkett position, was named for Irish soldier Thomas Plunkett, remembered for a feat at Cacabelos during Moores retreat to Corunna in 1809. Here Plunkett shot the French Général de Brigade Colbert at a range of between 200 The 95th Regiment of Foot and 600 meters using a Baker rifle. Muskets couldn’t hit a dark green, faced black man-sized target beyond 50 yardsThursday, September 8, 11
  27. 27. From 1802 the Rifle Corps, later the 95th , was permitted to recruit in the usual way instead of selecting men from other regiments….recruitment from the civilian population...recruiting parties being sent out to centres of population or country fairs, where civilians might be persuaded in return for a substantial cash bounty….Recruiters would ply likely candidates with alcohol...and it was not uncommon for men to enlist under the influence, and then reconsider when sober. Harris recalled that the first man he enlisted--a chimney-sweep from Rye-- was thought so likely to run off that Harris had to sleep in the same bed with him that night, handcuffed to the recruit. On such occasions gullible civilians would be regaled with stories of army life and the promise of promotion--often exaggerated to the point of absolute deception--…. COLOUR PLATE COMMENTARY, p. 58 Osprey, British Rifleman, 1797-1815, PLATE DThursday, September 8, 11
  28. 28. This shows recruits to the 95th receiving instruction in the use of the Baker rifle. As a corporal superintends, one man rams the ball and propellant charge into his rifle (the tight fit required some pressure to ram it down, hence the use of the palm or heel of the hand instead of the fingers), while the other, having primed his rifle, closes the priming pan and pulls the hammer or cock back to ‘full cock’ preparatory to firing…. Elsewhere two riflemen demonstrate preferred positions for shooting--the rifle sling braced around the left elbow when standing, or pulled tight by the left hand when kneeling, with the left elbow resting upon the left knee. Distinctions for marksmanship were introduced from an early period: the lowest standard of marksmen had black cockades on their shakos, the 2nd class white, and the best shots green. COLOUR PLATE COMMENTARY, pp. 58-59 Osprey, British Rifleman, 1797-1815, PLATE EThursday, September 8, 11
  29. 29. Green Jackets of the KGL Shown here is a member of the 1st Light B a t t a l i o n o f t h e K i n g ’s G e r m a n Legion….As late as 1814 only 60% of the light battalions were armed with rifles; the rest had smoothbore muskets…. Also here is a Baker rifle (2) with the stock cut back to take the awkwardly long sword bayonet (5) and (5a) COLOUR PLATE COMMENTARY, p. 59 Osprey, British Rifleman, 1797-1815, PLATE GThursday, September 8, 11
  30. 30. D: Light Infantry A move to ‘Fix one general uniform for Rifle Corps, permitting no other variation than...buttons and facing’ was being discussed before the formation of the King’s German Regiment. The fact that they were clothed in rifle green is a strong indication that the regiment’s intended role was that of a rifle unit…. D1 Corporal, KGR, 1803 His shako and breastplate bear the device of the crowned bugle horn, the badge for rifle units….He is armed with an India pattern musket...and carries a 32 round pouch, canvas knapsack, and rolled greatcoat. D2 Private, 2nd Light Battalion, KGL, 1809 ...carries a 60 round pouch, rolled greatcoat and India pattern musket. D3 Officer 1812 Note the continued wearing of the crowned bugle on his shako, the whistle on his belt, and the profusion of silver lace on his pantaloons and Hessian boots COLOUR PLATE COMMENTARY, p. 46 Osprey, The King’s German Legion (1) 1803-1812, PLATE DThursday, September 8, 11
  31. 31. E: KGL Light Infantry, Spain 1811 E1 Sergeant-bugler, 2nd Light Battalion He wears his uniform jacket with ‘night cap’ and ‘nankeen’ trousers. The red collar and cuffs were the mark of a bugler, as were the padded red-and-green wings. E2 ‘Sharpshooter’, 1st Light Battalion, ...carries a 60 round pouch, powder horn and sword belt. He is armed with a rifle of German manufacture. E3 ‘Sharpshooter’ of a line battalion He too is armed with a German rifle and sword-bayonet. COLOUR PLATE COMMENTARY, p. 46 Osprey, The King’s German Legion (1) 1803-1812, PLATE EThursday, September 8, 11
  32. 32. Thursday, September 8, 11
  33. 33. Thursday, September 8, 11
  34. 34. This scene from the Peninsular War depicts members of the 95th Rifles engaging French light infantry in a skirmish; it is derived in part from a well-known painting by Denis Dighton. The riflemen are following two cardinal rules of effective skirmishing… :taking advantage of natural cover and using aimed fire against selected targets. A feature of Dighton’s painting--and other contemporary pictures--is the fact that several riflemen depicted have removed their head- dress, presumably to minimize the target they presented to the enemy. officers are usually depicted directing the fire of their men, though a few carried rifles themselves. COLOUR PLATE COMMENTARY, p. 60 Osprey, British Rifleman, 1797-1815, PLATE IThursday, September 8, 11
  35. 35. Thursday, September 8, 11
  36. 36. Illustrated here is a variation on the ordinary method of skirmishing, known as ‘chain order’. Used to drive away enemy skirmishers, this tactic employed bodies of men somewhat more solid than ordinary skirmish lines, and so it was calculated to require a smaller reserve. To form a chain, three-quarters of the unit were deployed, with the remaining quarter forming the reserve between 50 and 120 paces to the rear…. The chain was formed of men in groups of four… each group separated from the next by ten paces. The whole moved forward (the reserve keeping pace but maintaining its station) until contact was made with the enemy. To engage, the right-hand man of each group then took three paces forward and fired, before returning to the group, whereupon the second man did likewise, followed by the third and fourth, by which time the first man would have reloaded and be ready to begin the process again. Thus a continuous fusillade was maintained by the chain….In this illustration a chain advances over broken terrain, the men are taking advantage of natural cover in the usual way, while the remaining one-quarter of the unit follows in reserve. COLOUR PLATE COMMENTARY, p. 60 Osprey, British Rifleman, 1797-1815, PLATE HThursday, September 8, 11
  37. 37. This imaginary scene depicts light infantry, involving five companies advancing upon French light infantry defending a village.Thursday, September 8, 11
  38. 38. (1) One company is in extended order, in which each pair of skirmishers were supposed to be at least two paces apart. The lead man only fires when his partner is loaded. Then he falls back and loads. Officers stand to the rear.Thursday, September 8, 11
  39. 39. They are supported by a company (2) waiting in open order, the files are about two feet apart, standing ‘at the trail’ with their officers in frontThursday, September 8, 11
  40. 40. A third company advances in three bodies; the leading group (3a) advances in open order, a support in close order (3b) about 50 yards to the rear, and a reserve (3c) about 60 yards to the rearThursday, September 8, 11
  41. 41. The maintenance of a strong reserve to reinforce the skirmish line or cover its retreat, was paramount; thus the presence of another company at the rear (4) , in close order, with officers at each end of the front rank.Thursday, September 8, 11
  42. 42. The rifle company (5a) is in ‘chain order,’ with groups of four men 10 paces apart. One man in each group advances to fire while the other three are in various stages of reloading (see INSET). Again, part of the company (5b) is held in reserve.Thursday, September 8, 11
  43. 43. A Contemporary Re-enactor Group of the 95thThursday, September 8, 11
  44. 44. A Contemporary Re-enactor Group of the 95thThursday, September 8, 11
  45. 45. A Contemporary Re-enactor Group of the 95th Notice the inaccuracy, anyone?Thursday, September 8, 11
  46. 46. A Contemporary Re-enactor Group of the 95thThursday, September 8, 11
  47. 47. A Contemporary Re-enactor Group of the 95th What’s not to love about re-enacting!Thursday, September 8, 11
  48. 48. Thursday, September 8, 11
  49. 49. Wellesley is unique among generals in that he managed to select the same sort of ground for most of his major engagements. From [Talavera] down to Waterloo, he habitually posted his troops behind a low ridge which protected them from ricocheting cannon balls while compelling the French columns to advance uphill. A screen of British riflemen was thrown out along the forward slope to meet the enemy skirmishers on their own terms. If possible these light troops lingered to harass advancing columns which were also being subjected to a galling fire of shrapnel shells from the guns at the rear. At the last moment the sharpshooters fell back, and the two ranks of infantry met the main French shock with platoon volleys delivered from 50 to 100 yards. A bayonet counterattack might be ordered if the columns were sufficiently shaken, and the cavalry waited to pursue a broken foe. Montross, pp. 517-518Thursday, September 8, 11
  50. 50. Shrapnel Although he began to campaign for its adoption in 1784, It took until 1803 for the British artillery to adopt the shrapnel shell (as "spherical case"), albeit with great enthusiasm when it did. The Duke of Wellingtons armies used it from 1808 in the Peninsular War and at the Battle of Waterloo, and he wrote admiringly of its effectiveness. WikipediaThursday, September 8, 11
  51. 51. French 6-company battalion advances up the slope, the voltigeur company (V) forward as skirmishers, the 4 line companies (1D & 2D) and grenadiers (G) in reserve. the massed drums (Dr) pas de charge Boom-boom, Boom-boom, Boomaboom, Boomaboom, Boom-boom Vive l’Empereur!Thursday, September 8, 11
  52. 52. All that they can see are the British light company skirmishers (L), now dividing and falling back & the field officers (FO) acting as forward observers--the commander orders the British battalion forward--INSERT 2Thursday, September 8, 11
  53. 53. As the skirmishers fall back to either flank, the line companies , in two ranks, march forward to the crest of the ridge. INSERT 1 shows a company commander, sword, and his sergeant, halberdThursday, September 8, 11
  54. 54. The British line advances to the crest & delivers 1 or more volleys. The French only attempt to deploy into line on the appearance of the British, too late to complete the maneuver; they are shot down as they attempt to change formation.Thursday, September 8, 11
  55. 55. The voltigeurs (V) are driven back into the ruin of the first two companies (1D). The companies on each flank of the British line incline inwards the better to deliver enfilading fire. The British light company (L) has formed into two bodies on each flank, ready to run forward again as required.Thursday, September 8, 11
  56. 56. INSERT 1--Infantrymen delivering fire simultaneously by each rankThursday, September 8, 11
  57. 57. INSERT 2-The front rank at “Present!” while the rear rank ‘Make Ready!’Thursday, September 8, 11
  58. 58. As the French break and the British ‘charge bayonets,’ the French grenadiers never get a chance to go into action. INSERT 2--the skirmishers, here the 60th, Royal Americans, are advantageously placed to loot the French casualties.Thursday, September 8, 11
  59. 59. As the French break and the British ‘charge bayonets,’ the French grenadiers never get a chance to go into action. INSERT 2--the skirmishers, here the 60th, Royal Americans, are advantageously placed to loot the French casualties. Hence, the origin of the phrase: “The thin red line.”Thursday, September 8, 11
  60. 60. Military Organizer ✦ British soldier and politician, a general in the British army and a marshal in the Portuguese army ✦ at Wellington’s recommendation, he was appointed to command the Portuguese army in the Peninsula ✦ 1811-his most important independent command was the bloody battle of Albuera ✦ 1812-with Wellington he fought at Badajoz and Salamanca ✦ Wellington admired his organizational abilities more than his generalship and recommended William Carr Beresford, 1st Viscount Beresford, that Beresford should succeed to command in 1st Marquis of Campo Maior, GCB, GCH, GCTE, the Peninsula should he, himself, be killed PC 1768 – 1856Thursday, September 8, 11
  61. 61. “...a rough, foul-mouthed devil as ever lived.”--Wellington ✦ a Welsh British army officer “who was respected for his courage and feared for his irascible temper” ✦ at Wellington’s request, he was appointed to command the Third Division in the Peninsula ✦ At Badajoz, the successful storming of the fortress was due to his daring self-reliance in converting the secondary attack on the castle, into a real one. He was himself wounded in this terrible engagement, but would not leave the ramparts, and the day after, having recently inherited a fortune, he gave every survivor of his command a guinea ✦ killed in the Battle of Waterloo while Lieutenant General Sir Thomas Picton GCB commanding the force which stopped a 1758 – 18 June 1815 critical attack on the British left-centerThursday, September 8, 11
  62. 62. “Daddy” Hill ✦ a trusted brigade, division and corps commander under Wellington. He became commander in chief of the British army in 1829 ✦ 1793-served at the siege of Toulon and in 1801, in Egypt ✦ 1808-commanded a brigade at Rolica and Vimiero ✦ 1809-commanded the 2nd Division at Talavera, one of the few occasions at which he was noticed to swear ✦ his care for his troops’ wellbeing earned him his nickname General Rowland Hill, 1st Viscount Hill of ✦ 1815-at Waterloo, he commanded II Corps Almaraz GCB, GCH and led the charge against the Imperial Guard 1772 – 1842 near the end of the battleThursday, September 8, 11
  63. 63. “Black Bob” “there was a sullenness which seemed to brood in his innermost soul and generate passions which knew no bounds”- George Napier✦ a Scottish British army officer✦ 1799-attaché to General Suvorov in Switzerland✦ 1807-commanded light troops under Sir John Moore✦ 1809-at Wellington’s request, he was appointed to command the Light Division (43rd, 52nd, and 95th) in the Peninsula✦ in trying to bring his division to fight at Talavera, he set a military march record, 62 miles in 26 hours✦ his brigade was raised to division strength by the addition of two picked Portuguese regiments of Caçadores (hunters)✦ One of the quickest and most brilliant, if not the very first, of Wellingtons generals, he had a fiery temper, which rendered him a difficult man to deal with, but to the day of his death he possessed the Major-General Robert Craufurd confidence and affection of his men in an 1764 – 23 January 1812 extraordinary degreeThursday, September 8, 11
  64. 64. III.Wellington’s First OffensiveThursday, September 8, 11
  65. 65. III.Wellington’s First OffensiveThursday, September 8, 11
  66. 66. The Northamptonshire Regiment (the 48th Regiment of Foot) was raised in 1741. It was part of the Great Siege of Gibraltar from 1779-83 and was awarded the Castle and Key emblem. The most famous Battle Honour TALAVERA was gained in 1809 during the Duke of Wellington’s campaigns against the French in the Peninsula. At the same time they earned the nickname “The Steelbacks” for their ability to show complete contempt when being flogged with the cat-o’-nine tails, then a normal method of administering punishment in the Army even for very minor crimes. http://www.royalanglianmuseum.org.uk/northants.htmlThursday, September 8, 11
  67. 67. Talavera 27-28 July 1809Thursday, September 8, 11
  68. 68. Having driven Marshal Soults French army Wellington’s First Offensive There they encountered 46,000 French under from Portugal, Marshal Claude Victor, We l l e s l e y s 2 0 , 0 0 0 with the French king of British troops advanced Spain, Joseph into Spain to join 33,000 Bonaparte in nominal Spanish troops under command General Cuesta The combined Allied They marched up the force had a stirling Tagus valley to Talavera opportunity to defeat de la Reina, c. 120  km the French corps of southwest of Madrid Victor at Talavera, but Cuestas insistence that the Spanish wouldnt fight on a Sunday provided the French with their chance to escape ✦ 27 July-the French attacked in mid-afternoon and initially captured the strategic Medellin Hill, it was taken and lost until, finally, by dark the British held it firmly. There Wellesley’s 29th & 48th would use his reverse slope tactic the next day ✦ 28 July-the next day, heavy cannonading preceded various infantry and cavalry skirmishes until dark ✦ at daylight, the British and Spanish discovered that the bulk of the French force had retired ✦ August-the unreliable behavior of his Spanish ally and the arrival of Marshal Soult led Duke Wellington of Talavera to withdraw to Portugal and the Lines of Torres VedrasThursday, September 8, 11
  69. 69. Silence fell on the field. The French were done, defeated, and the British had the victory and the field. And with it the dead and wounded. There were more than thirteen thousand casualties, but no-one knew that yet…. The wounded cried for water, for their mothers, for a bullet, for anything other than the pain and helplessness in the heat. And the horror was not done with them. The sun had burned relentlessly for days, the grass on the Medellin and in the valley was tinder dry, and from somewhere a flame began that rippled and spread and flared through the grass and burned wounded and dead alike. The smell of roasting flesh spread and hung like the lingering palls of smoke. The victors tried to move the wounded but it was too much, too soon, and the flames spread and the rescuers cursed and dropped beside the fouled Portina stream and slaked their thirst in its bloodied water. Bernard Cornwell, Sharpe’s Eagle, p. 250Thursday, September 8, 11
  70. 70. Thursday, September 8, 11
  71. 71. Thursday, September 8, 11
  72. 72. George Gordon Noel, Lord Byron, Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, Google e-BooksThursday, September 8, 11
  73. 73. IV. Lines of Torres VedrasThursday, September 8, 11
  74. 74. IV. Lines of Torres VedrasThursday, September 8, 11
  75. 75. The next few weeks [of September 1809, after Talavera, Wellington] spent in riding all over the ‘Lisbon peninsula’, as the hilly quadrilateral between Lisbon, Torres Vedras, the coast and the Tagus [River] is called. With him rode his chief engineer, Colonel Richard Fletcher, who on 20 October received a twenty-one point memorandum full of references to ‘damming’, ‘redoubts’, ‘barriers’ and ‘signal posts’, and introduced by a thousand-word essay on how these mysteries would enable the position they had surveyed to be held against any sweep by Napoleon’s eagles, winter or summer. It was a classic case of Wellington seeing for himself; what one of his officers, Sir Harry Smith, was to call his ‘old practice with the army’. When any problem was reported or question put to him he would always reply: ‘I will get upon my Horse and take a look; and then tell you!’ The result of these particular rural rides would be seen in due course, when thirteen months of closely guarded secrets came to an end and Wellington was ready to astonish the world with his Lines of Torres Vedras. Elizabeth Longford, Wellington; The Years of the Sword, pp. 208-209Thursday, September 8, 11
  76. 76. “...one of the finest defensive positions in Europe.”--Julian Paget The Battle of Bussaco Print after Major Thomas S. St. Clair, engraved by C. Turner, 1898Thursday, September 8, 11
  77. 77. ! 1810- the Emperor ordered marshal Massena to drive the British “Leopard” from Portugal ! he first had to capture the fortress cities which controlled the only road which an army could use to enter central Portugal ! the Spanish garrison of Ciudad Rodrigo held out until 9 July ! the siege of Almeida ended with the fall of the Portuguese fortress in August ! Massena’s army of 65,000 found their way to Lisbon blocked by the 10-mile- long ridge at Bussaco which was occupied by 25,000 British and 25,000 Portuguese under the command of the marquis of WellingtonThursday, September 8, 11
  78. 78. (1) Renier sent Merle up the steep slope to be hurled back by the 88th, the Connaught Rangers (2) a similar fate was experienced by Heudlet (3) when Foy followed him he hit the least prepared unit in the Allied army--a Portuguese militia unit--and routed it, thus gaining the ridge top. Wellington brought men from his unengaged right flank to dislodge them (4) Ney then put forward his two brigades which were devastated by Crawfurd’s light division (5) after this failed assault, Massena settled for heavy skirmishing (6) The French suffered 522 dead, 3,612 wounded, and 364 captured, including over 300 officers ( 1 general killed, 4 wounded)--a higher ratio of officers to men than any other Peninsular battle.Thursday, September 8, 11
  79. 79. The Allied losses numbered 200 dead, 1,001 wounded, and 51 missing. The British and Portuguese each lost exactly 626 men. Although he still had 20,000 fresh infantry with him, Masséna had had enough. It was not yet midday, but the battle was virtually over, even if some minor skirmishing took place during the afternoon…. The French spent the remaining hours of daylight in collecting their dead and wounded and entrenching their bivouac, as Wellington was to notice with some satisfaction as he stood surveying the battlefield from his unassailable crest. Eventually, on the 29th and 30th, Masséna’s cavalry found a way round to the north of the ridge. He then moved off to the right to flank the position, but Wellington, after spending the night in the convent, had already begun the planned retreat of his army into the previously fortified Lines of Torres Vedras. Robertson, Wellington at War, pp. 135-36Thursday, September 8, 11
  80. 80. The Lines of Torres Vedras In many ways the Peninsular War has often been seen as a backwater to the major campaigns and battles of the Napoleonic Wars, but in actual fact it was the deciding factor in the defeat of Napoleons army in 1813, leading to the signing of the Treaty of Paris. Indeed, had Massenas advance and retreat from the Lines of Torres Vedras been seen as a battle, it would have been one of the greatest victories of all time. With the recent dramatization of the Sharpe stories into television dramas, many of the more famous battles of the Peninsular War have come to the publics attention. The glamour attached to the famous battles of Corunna, Talavera, Ciudad Rodrigo, Almeida, Busaco, Badajoz have all somewhat over-shadowed the importance of the defence works of the Lines of Torres Vedras.Thursday, September 8, 11
  81. 81. The Lines of Torres Vedras In many ways the Peninsular War has often been seen as a backwater to the major campaigns and battles of the Napoleonic Wars, but in actual fact it was the deciding factor in the defeat of Napoleons army in 1813, leading to the signing of the Treaty of Paris. Indeed, had Massenas advance and retreat from the Lines of Torres Vedras been seen as a battle, it would have been one of the greatest victories of all time. With the recent dramatization of the Sharpe stories into television dramas, many of the more famous battles of the Peninsular War have come to the publics attention. The glamour attached to the famous battles of Corunna, Talavera, Ciudad Rodrigo, Almeida, Busaco, Badajoz have all somewhat over-shadowed the importance of the defence works of the Lines of Torres Vedras.Thursday, September 8, 11
  82. 82. The Lines of Torres Vedras The origins of the Lines date back to a survey and proposals made by a Portuguese army engineer, Major Jose Maria das Neves Costa towards the end of 1808, but it was the strategy adopted by Wellington in 1809 that resulted in their construction. Knowing that his army could be supplied by sea and if necessary, evacuated by the Royal Navy, We l l i n g t o n c h o s e t o a v o i d m a j o r engagements with the French army and decided to make a gradual withdrawal towards Lisbon, using a scorched earth policy as he retreated. He was well aware of the formidable natural obstacles offered by the range of hills that ran across the peninsula north of Lisbon and on the 20 October 1809 he issued a memorandum to commence the construction of four lines of brown areas indicate high ground defence works to supplement the local terrain - the Lines of Torres Vedras, thus choosing and preparing in advance the battlefield upon which he wished to fight.Thursday, September 8, 11
  83. 83. Thursday, September 8, 11
  84. 84. Thursday, September 8, 11
  85. 85. Thursday, September 8, 11
  86. 86. ...when the French turned back from [Sobral] on 14 October 1810 the tide of French conquest in Europe turned also. The skirmish at the foot of the mountain had caused only sixty-seven Allied and 120 French casualties. Such a limited action; such prodigious results. Longford, Wellington, p. 240 The Monument at Alhandra to Colonel Fletcher, Wellington’s Chief Engineer, who constructed the Lines, is inscribed ‘Non Ultra’, or ‘No Further.’ Paget, Wellington’s Peninsular War, p. 35Thursday, September 8, 11
  87. 87. The French invasion of Portugal in the late summer of 1810 was defeated by hunger, and it marked the last time that the French tried to capture the country. Wellington, by now commander of both the Portuguese and the British armies, adopted a scorched earth policy that brought huge hardship to the Portuguese people. Attempts were made to deny the invaders every scrap of food, while the inhabitants of central Portugal were required to leave their homes, either to take to the hills, go north to Oporto or south to Lisbon…. The strategy worked, but at a very high price. One estimate reckons that forty to fifty thousand Portuguese lost their lives in the winter…, most from hunger, some from the French…. It was, by any reckoning, a hard-hearted strategy, throwing the burden of the war onto the civilian population. Was it necessary? Wellington conclusively defeated Masséna on the heights of Bussaco, and had he guarded the road around the north of the great ridge, he could probably have repulsed the French there and then, forcing them back to Ciudad Rodrigo across the Spanish border, but that, of course, would have left Masséna’s army relatively undamaged. Hunger and disease were much greater enemies than redcoats and riflemen, and by forcing Masséna to spend the winterThursday, September 8, 11
  88. 88. in the wasteland north of the lines, Wellington destroyed his enemy’s army. At the beginning of the campaign, in September 1810, Masséna commanded 65,000 men. When he got back to Spain he had fewer than 40,000, and had lost half his horses and virtually all of his wheeled transport. Of the 25,000 men he lost, only about 4,000 were killed, wounded, or taken prisoner at Bussaco (British losses were about 1,000); the rest were lost because the Lines of Torres Vedras condemned Masséna to a winter of hunger, disease and desertion. So why fight at Bussaco if the Lines of Torres Vedras could do the job better? Wellington fought there for the sake of morale. The Portuguese army did not have a sterling record against the French, but it was now reorganized under Wellington’s command and by giving it a victory on the ridge, he gave that army a confidence it never lost. Bussaco was the place where the Portuguese learned they could beat the French and, rightly, it holds a celebrated place in Portuguese history. Bernard Cornwell,”Historical Note,” in Sharpe’s Escape, pp. 353-354Thursday, September 8, 11
  89. 89. an excellent website Masséna had no chance of breaking through with the forces at his disposal, and a stand-off ensued until a lack of supplies and the imminent arrival of British reinforcements in the spring of 1811 led Masséna to fall back. With one French army under Soult checked by Grahams victory at Barrosa on 5th March 1811, Wellington was able to push Masséna out of Portugal. Counter-attacks at Fuentes de Oñoro on 3rd and 5th May 1811 were repulsed after desperate struggles in the streets of the village. Masséna, having failed to re-take Portugal, was replaced by Marmont. A further bloody battle took place at Albuera on 16th May as Soults move north was intercepted by a combined British-Portuguese-Spanish force under Beresford. Although Beresfords handling of the battle - in which the French made the largest single infantry attack of the War - attracted much criticism, Soult was finally forced to retreat. French armies continued to threaten Wellington throughout the latter months of 1811, but at no time were able to catch him at a disadvantage. The turning point of the war had been reached. http://www.peninsularwar.org/penwar_e.htmThursday, September 8, 11
  90. 90. V.GuerrierosThursday, September 8, 11
  91. 91. V.GuerrierosThursday, September 8, 11
  92. 92. This was where the paradox of Peninsular warfare came in. Wellington himself was the first to appreciate it. From his new headquarters...he wrote to [War Minister] Lord Liverpool on the last day of January 1810 about Spain’s last hope. It is probable that, although the armies may be lost and the principal Juntas [governing committees] and authorities of the provinces may be dispersed, the war of the partizans may continue. Spain was to be saved, in fact, not by grape-shot, graybeards and grandees, but by hardy guerrillas and the sudden flash of the knife. Longford, p. 211Thursday, September 8, 11
  93. 93. Guerrilla (little war)Warfare ✦ whenever smuggling was shut down, the smugglers joined the guerrieros, as did many of the monks from the monasteries Napoleon closed ✦ when a village was burned or hostages shot in reprisal for the gruesome murders of captured French soldiers, there were more resistance fighters, young and old, men and women ✦ “If the French sent out a battalion from one of their fortified bases, it never came back; if they sent out a division, it saw nothing.” ✦ convoys of supplies which once required a company escort, now required a battalion, or a regiment ✦ a rider carrying dispatches suffered the same escalating requirement for protection. All too often his letters wound up on Wellington’s desk ✦ the French soldiers came to hate Spain and all Spaniards. The sentiment was reciprocated even more intenselyThursday, September 8, 11
  94. 94. Uncoordinated and sometimes feckless though their operations were, the guerillas were Wellington’s main source of military intelligence; without them he would have moved blind in the presence of superior French forces. Also, their constant gnawing at the French communications tied down troops that otherwise might have concentrated to overwhelm him. But without Wellington’s dangerous little army, the guerillas would have been eliminated by the same methods the French found successful in the Vendée, Egypt, Piedmont, Naples and the Tyrol. Elting, Swords, p. 514Thursday, September 8, 11
  95. 95. French Counterguerilla Strategy & Tactics followed the general rules employed at least since the days of Alexander the Great ✦ after defeating the enemy’s armies, you occupied the major communication centers and established control of the main roads ✦ if the population was restless you established fortified campsites a day’s march along those highways so that your troops and convoys could find shelter for the night ✦ at critical points where there was danger of ambuscades, you built fortifications in commanding positions ✦ a system of patrols kept the territory along the roads under constant surveillance ✦ as your occupation became better established, you extended your control to the secondary roads Elting, p. 548Thursday, September 8, 11
  96. 96. Thursday, September 8, 11
  97. 97. Thursday, September 8, 11
  98. 98. Thursday, September 8, 11
  99. 99. Los Desastres de la Guerra (The Disasters of War) are a series of 82 prints created between 1810 and 1820 by the Spanish painter and printmaker Francisco GoyaThursday, September 8, 11
  100. 100. Los Desastres de la Guerra (The Disasters of War) are a series of 82 prints created between 1810 and 1820 by the Spanish painter and printmaker Francisco GoyaThursday, September 8, 11
  101. 101. Los Desastres de la Guerra (The Disasters of War) are a series of 82 prints created between 1810 and 1820 by the Spanish painter and printmaker Francisco GoyaThursday, September 8, 11
  102. 102. Los Desastres de la Guerra (The Disasters of War) are a series of 82 prints created between 1810 and 1820 by the Spanish painter and printmaker Francisco GoyaThursday, September 8, 11
  103. 103. Los Desastres de la Guerra (The Disasters of War) are a series of 82 prints created between 1810 and 1820 by the Spanish painter and printmaker Francisco GoyaThursday, September 8, 11
  104. 104. Los Desastres de la Guerra (The Disasters of War) are a series of 82 prints created between 1810 and 1820 by the Spanish painter and printmaker Francisco GoyaThursday, September 8, 11
  105. 105. Los Desastres de la Guerra (The Disasters of War) are a series of 82 prints created between 1810 and 1820 by the Spanish painter and printmaker Francisco Goya Although deeply affected by the war, he kept private his thoughts on the art he produced in response to the conflict and its aftermath. He was in poor health and almost deaf when, at 62, he began work on the prints. They were not published until 1863, 35 years after his death. It is likely that only then was it considered politically safe to distribute a sequence of artworks criticizing both the French and restored BourbonsThursday, September 8, 11
  106. 106. Reprisals The guerrilla war in Spain was notorious for its brutality, with both sides committing terrible acts of savagery. Girod was clearly shocked by the first atrocities he witnessed: ‘Our advanced guard had found the hanging bodies of some unfortunate Chasseurs à Cheval, who had been made prisoner several days before and had been terribly mutilated….The enemy had let it be known that it was a fight to the death between them and us and that we could expect no quarter.’ Girod adds that in retaliation for this atrocity, Marshal Victor ordered 300 Spanish prisoners to be executed. COLOUR PLATE COMMENTARY, p. 61 Osprey, French Napoleonic Infantryman 1803-15, PLATE FThursday, September 8, 11
  107. 107. The myth of French invincibility in battle was soon exposed by the defeats of Dupont and Junot at Bailén and Vimiero in 1808. Despite the withdrawal from La Coruña, Britain - through her navys domination of the seas - was able to take advantage of an alliance with Portugal and Spain to gain a foothold on Continental Europe. By 1810-1811, 300,000 French troops had been sucked into the Peninsula, and yet only 70,000 could be spared to confront Wellington; the remainder were pinned down elsewhere by the threat of local insurrections and the actions of guerrillas. With the French unable to concentrate their forces against the British-Portuguese army, Wellington was able to move on to the offensive. http://www.peninsularwar.org/penwar_e.htmThursday, September 8, 11
  108. 108. The guerrillas were not an unmixed blessing ✦ they were independent, irregular and insubordinate ✦ their goals sometimes ran contrary to Wellington’s ✦ some bands were more like criminals than patriots ✦ some played a double game, seeking their own advantage ✦ still, the net effect of the Guerrilla worked importantly to weaken the French effort to win “hearts and minds;” to pacify the Spanish countrysideThursday, September 8, 11
  109. 109. ...all who have served in the Peninsula can attest that a less efficient and more mischievous body od marauders never infested any country. It is not denied that they cut off, from time to time, a small convoy, or an isolated detachment; but unfortunately they did not confine their operations to attacks upon the enemy. Whoever fell in their way, be he friend or foe, rarely escaped unplundered; and the inhabitants of the smaller villages everywhere dreaded their appearance as much as that of the French. Londonderry’s Narrative, quoted in Ian Robertson, Wellington at War in the Peninsula, p. 19Thursday, September 8, 11
  110. 110. VI. BadajozThursday, September 8, 11
  111. 111. VI. Badajoz BadajozThursday, September 8, 11
  112. 112. January 1812 July 1812Thursday, September 8, 11
  113. 113. The infantry hated sieges.  Weeks were spent digging the trenches known as parallels to enable the guns to be brought close enough to bring the walls down.  This was done in all weathers and under the constant bombardment from the defenders.  The actual assault was viewed with some relief and there was never any shortage of volunteers for the ‘Forlorn Hope’, the small group that lead the main attack.  If the commander survived he was assured of promotion.  If the men survived, they would be the first at the shops, the wine cellars and the women. The sequel to the third British siege of Badajoz was one of the blackest episodes in the history of the British Army.  All control was lost for a period and the men indulged in an orgy of drunken rape and plunder.  The awful aspect of it was that the inhabitants were our allies. http://british-cemetery-elvas.org/badajoz.htmlThursday, September 8, 11
  114. 114. The infantry hated sieges.  Weeks were spent digging the trenches known as parallels to enable the guns to be brought close enough to bring the walls down.  This was done in all weathers and under the constant bombardment from the defenders.  The actual assault was viewed with some relief and there was never any shortage of volunteers for the ‘Forlorn Hope’, the small group that lead the main attack.  If the commander survived he was assured of promotion.  If the men survived, they would be the first at the shops, the wine cellars and the women. The sequel to the third British siege of Badajoz was one of the blackest episodes in the history of the British Army.  All control was lost for a period and the men indulged in an orgy of drunken rape and plunder.  The awful aspect of it was that the inhabitants were our allies. http://british-cemetery-elvas.org/badajoz.htmlThursday, September 8, 11
  115. 115. NOTE the orientation of this map. It has been rotated 90º clockwise. North is where east usually is.Thursday, September 8, 11
  116. 116. Thursday, September 8, 11
  117. 117. Thursday, September 8, 11
  118. 118. Thursday, September 8, 11
  119. 119. Thursday, September 8, 11
  120. 120. Thursday, September 8, 11
  121. 121. VII. SalamancaThursday, September 8, 11
  122. 122. VII. SalamancaThursday, September 8, 11
  123. 123. Thursday, September 8, 11
  124. 124. Early on July 22, Marmonts army was moving south, with its leading elements southeast of Salamanca. To the west, the Marshal could see Wellingtons 7th Division deployed on a ridge. Spotting a dust cloud in the distance, Marmont surmised that most of the British army was in retreat and that he faced only a rearguard. He planned to move his French army south, then west to turn the British right flank. Marmont was mistaken. Wellington actually had most of his divisions hidden behind the ridge. His 3rd and 5th Divisions would soon arrive from Salamanca. Wellington had planned to retreat if outflanked, but he was watching warily to see if Marmont made a blunder. Marmont planned to move along an L-shaped ridge, with its angle near a steep height known as the Greater Arapile. That morning, the French occupied only the short, north- pointing part of the L. For his flanking move, Marmont sent his divisions marching west along the long side of the L. The Anglo-Allied army lay behind another L-shaped ridge, inside and parallel to the French L, and separated from it by a valley. Unseen by the French, Wellington assembled a powerful striking force along the long side of the British L. As Marmont reached to the west, the French became strung out along the long side of the L. Thomièress division led the way, supported by Curtos cavalry. After that came Maucune, Brenier, and Clausel. Bonet, Sarrut, and Boyer were near the Greater Arapile. Foy and Ferey still held the short side of the LThursday, September 8, 11
  125. 125. Thursday, September 8, 11
  126. 126. Thursday, September 8, 11
  127. 127. 1-When the 3rd Division and DUrbans brigade reached the top of the French L, they attacked Thomières. At the same time, Wellington launched the 5th and 4th Divisions, backed by the 7th and 6th Divisions, at the long side of the French L. The 3rd Division came at the head of Thomièress division in two-deep line. Despite column formation, the French division initially repulsed its attackers, but was then charged and routed by a bayonet charge. Thomières was killed. 2-Seeing British cavalry in the area, Maucune formed his division into squares. This was the standard formation to receive a mounted attack, but a poor one to defend against infantry. Deployed in two-deep line, Leiths 5th Division easily defeated Maucune in a musketry duel. As the French foot soldiers began falling back, Cotton hurled Le Marchants brigade (5th Dragoon Guards, 3rd and 4th Dragoons) at them. Maucunes men were cut to pieces by the heavy cavalrymens sabres. Many of the survivors surrendered.! Le Marchant hurriedly reformed his troopers and sent them at the next French division, which was winded from a rapid march. The heavy dragoons mauled Breniers hastily formed first line, but Le Marchant pressed his luck too far. He was killed trying to break a French square in Breniers second line. William Ponsonby succeeded to command of the brigade! During this crisis, the French army lost its commander. As Pakenhams 3rd Division prepared to attack Thomières, Marmont finally woke up to his armys peril. He dashed for his horse, but was caught in a British shellburst which broke his arm and two ribs. His second-in- command, Bonet was wounded very soon after. Records conflict, Marmont claiming that he was wounded as his wing became overextended, and his incapacitation led to the error not being corrected before Wellington attacked. His enemies place his wounding during Wellingtons attack. For somewhere between 20 minutes and over an hour, the Army of Portugal remained leaderlessThursday, September 8, 11
  128. 128. 1-When the 3rd Division and DUrbans brigade reached the top of the French L, they attacked Thomières. At the same time, Wellington launched the 5th and 4th Divisions, backed by the 7th and 6th Divisions, at the long side of the French L. The 3rd Division came at the head of Thomièress division in two-deep line. Despite column formation, the French division initially repulsed its attackers, but was then charged and routed by a bayonet charge. Thomières was killed. 2-Seeing British cavalry in the area, Maucune formed his division into squares. This was the standard formation to receive a mounted attack, but a poor one to defend against infantry. Deployed in two-deep line, Leiths 5th Division easily defeated Maucune in a musketry duel. As the French foot soldiers began falling back, Cotton hurled Le Marchants brigade (5th Dragoon Guards, 3rd and 4th Dragoons) at them. Maucunes men were cut to pieces by the heavy cavalrymens sabres. Many of the survivors surrendered.! Le Marchant hurriedly reformed his troopers and sent them at the next French division, which was winded from a rapid march. The heavy dragoons mauled Breniers hastily formed first line, but Le Marchant pressed his luck too far. He was killed trying to break a French square in Breniers second line. William Ponsonby succeeded to command of the brigade! During this crisis, the French army lost its commander. As Pakenhams 3rd Division prepared to attack Thomières, Marmont finally woke up to his armys peril. He dashed for his horse, but was caught in a British shellburst which broke his arm and two ribs. His second-in- command, Bonet was wounded very soon after. Records conflict, Marmont claiming that he was wounded as his wing became overextended, and his incapacitation led to the error not being corrected before Wellington attacked. His enemies place his wounding during Wellingtons attack. For somewhere between 20 minutes and over an hour, the Army of Portugal remained leaderlessThursday, September 8, 11
  129. 129. 3-Coles 4th Division attacked Bonets division and 4-Packs Portuguese assaulted the Greater Arapile. With the help of a 40-gun battery firing from the Greater Arapile, both attacks were repulsed by the French. 5-Assuming command, general Bertrand Clausel did his best to salvage a bad situation. He committed Sarruts division to shore up the wrecked left flank, and then launched a dangerous counterattack at Coles 4th Division using his own and Bonets divisions, supported by Boyers dragoons. This attack brushed aside Coles survivors and struck the 6th Division in Wellingtons second line. 6-Marshal William Beresford reacted promptly to this developing threat and immediately sent William Sprys Portuguese brigade of the 5th Division to engage the French infantry, while Wellington moved the 1st and 7th Divisions to assist. After bitter resistance, the divisions of Clausel and Bonet were defeated and the French army began to retreat.! As the rest of the French army streamed away, Ferey formed his division in a single three-deep line, with each flank covered by a battalion in square. Led by Clintons victorious 6th Division, the British came up to this formation and were initially repulsedThursday, September 8, 11
  130. 130. 3-Coles 4th Division attacked Bonets division and 4-Packs Portuguese assaulted the Greater Arapile. With the help of a 40-gun battery firing from the Greater Arapile, both attacks were repulsed by the French. 5-Assuming command, general Bertrand Clausel did his best to salvage a bad situation. He committed Sarruts division to shore up the wrecked left flank, and then launched a dangerous counterattack at Coles 4th Division using his own and Bonets divisions, supported by Boyers dragoons. This attack brushed aside Coles survivors and struck the 6th Division in Wellingtons second line. 6-Marshal William Beresford reacted promptly to this developing threat and immediately sent William Sprys Portuguese brigade of the 5th Division to engage the French infantry, while Wellington moved the 1st and 7th Divisions to assist. After bitter resistance, the divisions of Clausel and Bonet were defeated and the French army began to retreat.! As the rest of the French army streamed away, Ferey formed his division in a single three-deep line, with each flank covered by a battalion in square. Led by Clintons victorious 6th Division, the British came up to this formation and were initially repulsed! After ordering his artillery to crossfire through the centre of the French line, Wellington ordered a second assault. This attack broke Fereys division, killing its commander! Foys division covered the French retreat toward Alba de Tormes where there was a bridge they could use to escape. Wellington, believing that the Alba de Tormes crossing was blocked by a Spanish battalion in a fortified castle, directed his pursuit along a different road. However, Maj-Gen DEspana had withdrawn the unit without informing Wellington, so the French got awayThursday, September 8, 11
  131. 131. The Army of Portugal suffered 7,000 killed and wounded and 7,000 captured. Besides Marmonts severe wounding, two divisional commanders were killed and another wounded. Half of the 5,214 Anglo-Allied losses came from the 4th and 6th Divisions. Cotton, Cole, and Leith were wounded. The battle established Wellington as an offensive general. It was said that Wellington "defeated an army of 40,000 men in 40 minutes." Six days after the battle, Foy wrote in his diary, This battle is the most cleverly fought, the largest in scale, the most important in results, of any that the English have won in recent times. It brings up Lord Wellingtons reputation almost to the level of that of Marlborough. Up to this day we knew his prudence, his eye for choosing good positions, and the skill with which he used them. But at Salamanca he has shown himself a great and able master of manoeuvring. He kept his dispositions hidden nearly the whole day: he allowed us to develop our movement before he pronounced his own: he played a close game; he utilised the oblique order in the style of Frederick the Great. The Battle of Salamanca was a damaging defeat to the French. As the French regrouped, the Anglo-Portuguese entered Madrid on August 6 and began the Siege of Burgos, before retreating all the way back to Portugal in the autumn when renewed French concentrations threatened to trap them. WikipediaThursday, September 8, 11
  132. 132. VIEW OF CADIZ AND ITS ENVIRONS! During the siege, which lasted two and a half years, the Cortes Generales government in Cadiz (the Cádiz Cortes) drew up a new constitution to reduce the strength of the monarchy (a constitution eventually revoked by Fernando VII! In October 1810, a mixed Anglo-Spanish relief force embarked on a disastrous landing at Fuengirola. A second relief attempt was made at Tarifa in 1811. However, despite defeating a detached French force of 15,000-20,000 under Marshal Victor at the Battle of Barrosa, the siege was not lifted The Siege of Cádiz was a siege of the large Spanish! In 1812, the Battle of Salamanca eventually naval base of Cádiz by a French army from February 5, forced the French troops to retreat from 1810 to August 24, 1812 during the Peninsular War. Following the occupation of Madrid on March 23, 1808, Andalusia, for fear of being cut off by the Cádiz became the Spanish seat of power, and was allied armies.[8] Defeat at Cádiz contributed targeted by 60,000 French troops under the command of to the liberation of Spain from French Marshal Claude Victor for one of the most important occupation, due to the survival of the Spanish sieges of the war. Defending the city were 2,000 Spanish government and the use of Cádiz as a jump off troops who, as the siege progressed, received aid from point for the Allied forces 10,000 Spanish reinforcements as well as British and Portuguese troops.Thursday, September 8, 11
  133. 133. French hopes of recovery were stricken by Napoleons disastrous invasion of Russia in 1812. He had taken 30,000 soldiers from the hard-pressed Armée de lEspagne, and, starved of reinforcements and replacements, the French position became increasingly unsustainable as the allies renewed the offensive in May 1813. WikipediaThursday, September 8, 11
  134. 134. In a strategic move, Wellington planned to move his supply base from Lisbon to Santander LOC LOC LOC LOC Lisbon LOCLisbonThursday, September 8, 11
  135. 135. In a strategic move, Wellington planned to move his supply base from Lisbon to Santander LOC Santander LOC Burgos Lisbon The Anglo-Portuguese forces swept northwards in late May 1813 and seized Burgos; they then outflanked the French army, forcing Joseph Bonaparte into the valley of the River Zadorra.LisbonThursday, September 8, 11
  136. 136. VIII.VitoriaThursday, September 8, 11
  137. 137. VIII.VitoriaThursday, September 8, 11
  138. 138. Thursday, September 8, 11
  139. 139. Thursday, September 8, 11
  140. 140. Thursday, September 8, 11
  141. 141. Thursday, September 8, 11
  142. 142. 3 1-Wellingtons co- ordinated attack was o p e n e d b y H i l l s 2nd Division, and Cadogans Brigade crossing the Zadorra at Puebla to attack the heights overlooking the French positionThursday, September 8, 11
  143. 143. 2-Grahams force comprising the 1st and 5th Divisions, Packs and Bradfords Portuguese Brigades and Longas Spanish Brigade began to press from the north against the road from Vitoria to Bayonne. By noon the road had been cut. 3 1-Wellingtons co- ordinated attack was o p e n e d b y H i l l s 2nd Division, and Cadogans Brigade crossing the Zadorra at Puebla to attack the heights overlooking the French positionThursday, September 8, 11
  144. 144. 3-Crucially, Wellington 2-Grahams force comprising learned late in the morning the 1st and 5th Divisions, that the French had left the Packs and Bradfords bridge across the Zadorra Portuguese Brigades and at Trespuentes unguarded. Longas Spanish Brigade Kempts Brigade was began to press from the north immediately despatched against the road from Vitoria from the Light Division to to Bayonne. By noon the road seize the bridge. Concealed had been cut. by high ground on the hairpin bend of the 3 Zadorra, the light infantry were able to take the bridge virtually unopposed. 1-Wellingtons co- ordinated attack was o p e n e d b y H i l l s 2nd Division, and Cadogans Brigade crossing the Zadorra at Puebla to attack the heights overlooking the French positionThursday, September 8, 11
  145. 145. 3-Crucially, Wellington 2-Grahams force comprising learned late in the morning the 1st and 5th Divisions, that the French had left the Packs and Bradfords bridge across the Zadorra Portuguese Brigades and at Trespuentes unguarded. Longas Spanish Brigade Kempts Brigade was began to press from the north immediately despatched against the road from Vitoria from the Light Division to to Bayonne. By noon the road seize the bridge. Concealed had been cut. by high ground on the hairpin bend of the 3 Zadorra, the light infantry were able to take the bridge virtually unopposed. 1-Wellingtons co- ordinated attack was o p e n e d b y H i l l s 2nd Division, and Cadogans Brigade crossing the Zadorra at Puebla to attack the heights overlooking the French positionThursday, September 8, 11
  146. 146. 3-Crucially, Wellington 2-Grahams force comprising learned late in the morning the 1st and 5th Divisions, that the French had left the Packs and Bradfords bridge across the Zadorra Portuguese Brigades and at Trespuentes unguarded. Longas Spanish Brigade Kempts Brigade was began to press from the north immediately despatched against the road from Vitoria from the Light Division to to Bayonne. By noon the road seize the bridge. Concealed had been cut. by high ground on the hairpin bend of the 3 Zadorra, the light infantry were able to take the bridge virtually unopposed. 1-Wellingtons co- ordinated attack was o p e n e d b y H i l l s 2nd Division, and Cadogans Brigade crossing the Zadorra at Puebla to attack the heights overlooking the French positionThursday, September 8, 11
  147. 147. The British 59th Regiment at VitoriaThursday, September 8, 11
  148. 148. 3-Crucially, Wellington learned late in the morning that the French had left the bridge across the Zadorra at Trespuentes unguarded. Kempts Brigade was immediately despatched from the Light Division to seize the bridge. Concealed by high ground on the 3 hairpin bend of the Zadorra, the light infantry were able to take the bridge virtually unopposed.Thursday, September 8, 11
  149. 149. 3-Crucially, Wellington learned late in the morning that the French had left the bridge across the Zadorra at Trespuentes unguarded. Kempts Brigade was immediately despatched from the Light Division to seize the bridge. Concealed by high ground on the 3 hairpin bend of the Zadorra, the light infantry were able to take the bridge virtually unopposed. 4-The pressure on the French position now rapidly became unbearable as allied attacks were pressed home from several directions. Pictons 3rd Division - supported by a flanking attack by Kempts Brigade - stormed over the Zadorra to the east of TrespuentesThursday, September 8, 11
  150. 150. 3-Crucially, Wellington learned late in the morning that the French had left the bridge across the Zadorra at Trespuentes unguarded. Kempts Brigade was immediately despatched from the Light Division to seize the bridge. Concealed by high ground on the 3 hairpin bend of the Zadorra, the light infantry were able to take the bridge virtually unopposed. 4-The pressure on the French position now rapidly became unbearable as allied attacks were pressed home from several directions. Pictons 3rd Division - supported by a flanking attack by Kempts Brigade - stormed over the Zadorra to the east of Trespuentes ✦ From the west, Coles 4th Division and the rest of Altens Light Division crossed the Zadorra. Meanwhile, Hill continued to press from the south ✦ Throughout the afternoon, the French were gradually rolled-up from the west before being finally sent into headlong retreat. ✦ Wellingtons casualties from the battle amounted to 5,100. Joseph suffered not only 8,000 casualties but also the loss of virtually all his artillery and transport. Josephs army was spent as a fighting forceThursday, September 8, 11
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