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Justice & Power, session xi--Marx
 

Justice & Power, session xi--Marx

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The last in the series of major political thinkers. A very subjective look at Marxism then and now.

The last in the series of major political thinkers. A very subjective look at Marxism then and now.

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    Justice & Power, session xi--Marx Justice & Power, session xi--Marx Presentation Transcript

    • Marx Justice & Power, session xiThursday, March 7, 13
    • Marx Justice & Power, session xiThursday, March 7, 13
    • Topics in This Session i. Introduction ii. Early Industrialism iii. Karl Marx iv. The Communist Manifesto, 1848 v. CriticismThursday, March 7, 13
    • IntroductionThursday, March 7, 13
    • IntroductionThursday, March 7, 13
    • “Marxism is the last great system that was produced by the nineteenth century.”Thursday, March 7, 13
    • “Marxism is the last great system that was produced by the nineteenth century.” Bertrand Russell, The Wisdom of the West, p. 273Thursday, March 7, 13
    • States where Marxism is the official ideology in 1977 7 nations USSR EASTERN BLOC PRC NORTH KOREA LAOS CAMBODIA VIET NAM CUBA MORE THAN ONE THIRD OF THE WORLD’S POPULATION BUT--in 2013 PRC NORTH KOREA LAOS VIET NAM CUBA 20-25 % OF THE WORLD’S POPULATIONThursday, March 7, 13
    • The Holy Trinity as painted by Andrei Rublev (Андре́й Рублёв), ca. 1400Thursday, March 7, 13
    • The Soviet Holy Trinity HAIL MARXISM-LENINISM! Marx (God the Father), Engels (the Holy Spirit), and Lenin (God the Son) Frederich Engels (1820-1895) was the first epigone*, and Lenin (1870-1924) the second, and greatest * lesser imitator or discipleThursday, March 7, 13
    • The later epigoni (επίγονι) Leon Trotsky Joseph Stalin Nikolai Bukharin Trofim Lysenko Лев Троцкий Иосиф Сталин (Russian) Никола́й Буха́рин Трофи́м Лысе́нко :;<=> ?= <@AB:C: (Georgian) 1888-1938 1879-1940 1898-1976 1878-1953 Marxist warfare Marxist internationalism Marxist genetics Marxist terror & propaganda Boris Kustodiev Anton Makarenko Sergei Yesenin Andrei Zhdanov Бори́с Кусто́диев Анто́н Макаре́нко Серге́й Есе́нин Андре́й Жда́нов 1878-1927 1888-1939 1895-1925 1896-1948 Marxist art Marxist education theory Marxist poetry Marxist musical criticismThursday, March 7, 13
    • The epigoni of Marx took his “critique of everyday life” and tried to expand it into a megasystem of thought, a synthesis of philosophy, history, science, and futurology. jbp, Justice & Power, 1977, p. 39Thursday, March 7, 13
    • “The teaching of Marx is all- powerful because it is true.” V.I. Lenin, 1913Thursday, March 7, 13
    • There are several possible reasons why a person might carefully read Marx….these motives can be styled Left, Center, and Right. jbp, p. 39Thursday, March 7, 13
    • Leftist students of Marx have been divided since Lenin’s time into: Revisionist Orthodox here Edouard Bernstein 1850-1932Thursday, March 7, 13
    • These [revisionist] positions are divided into many “schools.” Such as: Maoist Marcusian Trotskyite after Herbert Marcuse 1893-1976 1898-1979 All claim to be the true heirs of Marx’s corpus. Ibid.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • Centrists study Marx because of his significance they are not committed either to vindicate him or to excoriate his followers. They strive to discover objectively his strengths and weaknesses both as an historian and as a futurist. This may be a good point at which to warn you that centrists tend to be despised by the partisans of both Left and Right. Ibid.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • Rightist students of Marx are operating under the ancient maxim of “know the enemy.” They also need to demonstrate to themselves the inherent falseness of communist philosophy. Ibid. J. Edgar Hoover Herbert A. Philbrick Richard PipesThursday, March 7, 13
    • Marxism in their hands is like the bull entering the arena; the series of capework and wounds cannot be predicted, but there is hardly any doubt about the outcome of the contest. Ibid.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • Early IndustrialismThursday, March 7, 13
    • Early IndustrialismThursday, March 7, 13
    • II. Early Industrialism A. Factors of Production 1. land 2. capital 3. labor 4. management B. Industrial Revolution 1. machinery, energy, and technology 2. factory system C. Early Results 1. [18th century]Agricultural Revolution 2. urbanization 3. “immiseration of the working class” 4. “crises of capitalism” 5. economics 6. socialismThursday, March 7, 13
    • II.A.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • II.B.Industrial Revolution-1. machinery, energy, technology Old Bess is an early beam engine built by the partnership of Boulton and Watt. The engine was constructed in 1777 and worked until 1848. It is now preserved in the Power Gallery of the Science Museum, London. It is the oldest surviving Watt engine. WikiThursday, March 7, 13
    • II.B.Industrial Revolution-2. factory systemThursday, March 7, 13
    • II.C.Early Results-1. Agricultural Revolution Jethro Tull’s seed drilling machineThursday, March 7, 13
    • II.C.Early Results-2. urbanizationThursday, March 7, 13
    • II.C.Early Results-3. “immiseration of the working class” Käthe Kollwitz saw a performance of Gerhart Hauptmanns The Weavers, which dramatized the oppression of the Silesian weavers...and their failed revolt in 1842. Inspired, [she]... produced a cycle... on the weavers theme…[here, March of the Weavers]. Not a literal illustration of the drama, the works were a free and naturalistic expression of the workers misery, hope, courage, and, eventually, doom. The cycle was exhibited publicly in 1898 to wide acclaim.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • II.C.Early Results-3. “immiseration of the working class” Käthe Kollwitz saw a performance of Gerhart Hauptmanns The Weavers, which dramatized the oppression of the Silesian weavers...and their failed revolt in 1842. Inspired, [she]... produced a cycle... on the weavers theme…[here, March of the Weavers]. Not a literal illustration of the drama, the works were a free and naturalistic expression of the workers misery, hope, courage, and, eventually, doom. The cycle was exhibited publicly in 1898 to wide acclaim.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • II.C.Early Results-4. “crises of capitalism”Thursday, March 7, 13
    • II.C.Early Results-5. economics Classical economics- “the dismal science” Rev. Thomas Robert Adam Smith Malthus David Ricardo 1723 –1790 1766 – 1834 1772 – 1823Thursday, March 7, 13
    • II.C.Early Results-5. economics Classical economics- “the dismal science” Rev. Thomas Robert Adam Smith Malthus 1723 –1790 David Ricardo 1766 – 1834 1772 – 1823 1776 “...the invisible hand...” 1817 1798 “The Iron Law of Wages” “...population is kept equal to the means of subsistence by misery and vice.”Thursday, March 7, 13
    • II.C.Early Results-6. socialism Henri de Saint-Simon Charles Fourier Robert Owen 1760 – 1825 1772 - 1837 1771 – 1858 Marx called them the UtopiansThursday, March 7, 13
    • II.C.Early Results-6. socialism Henri de Saint-Simon Charles Fourier Robert Owen 1760 – 1825 1772 - 1837 1771 – 1858 A birds eye view of a community in New Harmony, Indiana, United States, as proposed by Robert Owen.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • Karl MarxThursday, March 7, 13
    • Karl MarxThursday, March 7, 13
    • III. Marx A. Early Life 1. parents 2. conversion, 1824 3. early schooling 4. the German Problem a. Trier, Rhenish Prussia b. the Metternich System 5. Bonn, 1835 a. humanities and classics b. Tavern Club c. dueling 6. Berlin, 1836 a. Hegelianism 1. Right Hegelians 2. Left or Young Hegelians b. Doktor Klub and Bruno Bauer c. Ludwig Feuerbach’s materialism d. Univ. of Jena, 1841 - PhDThursday, March 7, 13
    • III.A.Early Life - 1. parents Marxs birthplace( 5 May 1818) 664 Brückergasse in Trier, a city in the German Rhineland. (In 1928, it was purchased by the Social Democratic Party of Germany and now houses a museum devoted to him)Thursday, March 7, 13
    • III.A.Early Life - 1. parents BUTThursday, March 7, 13
    • III.A.Early Life - 2. conversion, 1824 Despite the long tradition of rabbinical Judaism, Karl’s father Herschel was the first in his line to receive a secular Enlightenment education. He began law practice in 1815 in Trier under the Napoleonic administration. When the Congress of Vienna transferred the sovereignty to the new state of Rhenish Prussia, its conservative king said no Jews in state positions. Herschel was faced with the choice of conversion to Lutheranism or losing his lucrative middle class profession. Altho his mother remained a Jew, Karl, age six, and his siblings were converted, along with his father, now Heinrich, to the Christian faith. jbpThursday, March 7, 13
    • III.A.Early Life - 3. early schooling He was privately educated until 1830, when he entered Trier High School, whose headmaster Hugo Wyttenbach was a friend of his father. Wyttenbach had employed many liberal humanists as teachers, angering the government. Police raided the school in 1832, discovering that literature espousing political liberalism was being distributed among the students; considering it seditious, the authorities instituted reforms and replaced several staff. WikiThursday, March 7, 13
    • III.A.Early Life - 4. The German Problem The European peace settlement, after 23 bloody years of warfare, included a complex solution to the “German Problem.” The archaic Holy Roman Empire was discarded for a thirty-nine state German Bund (Confederation) jbpThursday, March 7, 13
    • Rhenish Prussia III.A.Early Life - 4. The German Problem The European peace settlement, after 23 bloody years of warfare, included a complex solution to the “German Problem.” The archaic Holy Roman Empire was discarded for a thirty-nine state German Trier Bund (Confederation)• which included two large victor states, Austria and Prussia, plus thirty-seven smaller ones. Prussia was awarded the territory which included the Marx family. And the Austrian foreign minister, Prince Metternich, created a repressive “System” to control the dangerous liberal ideas which, in his opinion, had produced the French Revolution and the Corsican Ogre, Napoleon. jbpThursday, March 7, 13
    • III.A.Early Life - 4. The German Problem The European peace settlement, after 23 bloody years of warfare, included a complex solution to the “German Problem.” The archaic Holy Roman Empire was discarded for a thirty-nine state German Bund (Confederation) which included two large victor states, Austria and Prussia, plus thirty-seven smaller ones. Prussia was awarded the territory which included the Marx family. And the Austrian foreign minister, Prince Metternich, created a repressive “System” to control the dangerous liberal ideas which, in his opinion, had produced the French Revolution and the Corsican Ogre, Napoleon. jbpThursday, March 7, 13
    • III.A.Early Life - 5. Bonn, 1835 After eldest son Karl graduated from the Trier Gymnasium, Heinrich sent him to the newly-founded Rhineland University in Bonn, hoping that he would follow him into the law. Avoiding military service...due to a weak chest, he joined the Poets Club, a group containing political radicals which was monitored by the police.--Wiki jbpThursday, March 7, 13
    • III.A.Early Life - 5. Bonn, 1835 After eldest son Karl graduated from the Trier Gymnasium, Heinrich sent him to the newly-founded Rhineland University in Bonn, hoping that he would follow him into the law. Avoiding military service...due to a weak chest, he joined the Poets Club, a group containing political radicals which was monitored by the police.--Wiki Instead of law studies, Karl joined the Tavern Club, studied liberal arts and fought a duel! jbpThursday, March 7, 13
    • III.A.Early Life - 5. Bonn, 1835 After eldest son Karl graduated from the Trier Gymnasium, Heinrich sent him to the newly-founded Rhineland University in Bonn, hoping that he would follow him into the law. Avoiding military service...due to a weak chest, he joined the Poets Club, a group containing political radicals which was monitored by the police.--Wiki Instead of law studies, Karl joined the Tavern Club, studied liberal arts and fought a duel! Enough of that! Off to the more serious Berlin University! jbpThursday, March 7, 13
    • III.A.Early Life - 6. Berlin, 1836. a. Hegelianism In October 1836 he arrived in Berlin, matriculating in the universitys faculty of law…. Although studying law, he was fascinated by philosophy, and looked for a way to combine the two, believing that "without philosophy nothing could be accomplished." Marx became interested in the recently-deceased German philosopher G.W.F Hegel, whose ideas were then widely debated among European philosophical circles…. (cont.) WikiThursday, March 7, 13
    • Hegel a major figure in German idealist philosophy Hegel developed a comprehensive philosophical framework, or "system", to account in an integrated and developmental way for the relation of mind and nature, psychology, the state, history, art, religion, and philosophy at its core was the concept that mind or spirit manifested itself in a set of contradictions and oppositions that it ultimately integrated and united, without eliminating either pole or reducing one to the other. The famous Hegelian dialectic•--thesis antithesis Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel synthesis 1770 – 1831Thursday, March 7, 13
    • III.A.Early Life - 6. Berlin, 1836.a.Hegelianism. 1. Right Hegelianism 2. Left or Young Hegelianism b. Doktor Klub and Bruno Bauer c. Ludwig Feuerbach’s materialism European philosophical circles…. (cont.)He joined the Doctors Club , a group of students who discussed Hegelian ideas, and through them became involved with a group of radical thinkers known as the Young Hegelians in 1837 [On the other hand, the Right Hegelians still believed that conservative Prussia was the final achievement of the World Spirit]; [the Left Hegelians] gathered around Ludwig Feuerbach and Bruno Bauer, WikiThursday, March 7, 13
    • Bauer Hegelian rationalist theologian and biblical historian. He gave natural explanations to both Old and New Testament miracles 1834-taught in the theology department at Bonn although a rationalist, he firmly rejected David Strauss’ Life of Jesus, (1835)which denied the divinity of the “historical Jesus” 1838-(age 28)transferred to Berlin, where he mentored Marx (20) and became his close friend Bruno Bauer 1841-as Marx moved closer to a radical socialist 1809 – 1882 position, the friendship cooled. It would end with the publication, in 1845, of Marx and Engels’ attack in The Holy FamilyThursday, March 7, 13
    • Feuerbach a philosopher and Hegelian anthropologist 1841-Das Wesen des Christentums (The Essence of Christianity) his major materialist assault on religion he suggests that God is: “the outward projection of a humans inward nature” he rejects “belief in sacraments such as the [Eucharist], which is to him a piece of religious materialism of which ‘the necessary consequences are superstition and immorality.’" these views which scandalized Christian Europe were congenial to his fellow Young Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach Hegelians 1804 – 1872Thursday, March 7, 13
    • III.A.Early Life - 6. Berlin, 1836.a.Hegelianism. 1. Right Hegelianism 2. Left or Young Hegelianism b. Doktor Klub and Bruno Bauer c. Ludwig Feuerbach’s materialism European philosophical circles. He joined the Doctors Club , a group of students who discussed Hegelian ideas, and through them became involved with a group of radical thinkers known as the Young Hegelians in 1837 [On the other hand, the Right Hegelians still believed that conservative Prussia was the final achievement of the World Spirit]; [the Left Hegelians] gathered around Ludwig Feuerbach and Bruno Bauer, ….. Like Marx, the Young Hegelians were critical of Hegels metaphysical assumptions, but adopted his dialectical method in order to criticize established society, politics, and religion from a leftist perspective. Still disapproving of his sons drunken behaviour, Marxs father died in May 1838. This resulted in a diminished income for the family. (cont.) WikiThursday, March 7, 13
    • III.A.6. Berlin, 1836... materialism d. Univ. of Jena, PhD, 1841 family. (cont.) Other pursuits, including learning English and Italian, studying art history and translating Latin classics, he was engaged in writing his doctoral thesis, The Difference Between the Democritean and Epicurean Philosophy of Nature,which he finished in 1841. Described as "a daring and original piece of work in which he set out to show that theology must yield to the superior wisdom of philosophy", the essay was controversial, particularly among the conservative professors at the University of Berlin. Marx decided to submit it to the more liberal University of Jena, whose faculty awarded him his PhD based on it in April 1841. He began co-operating with Bruno Bauer on editing Hegels Philosophy of Religion in 1840, and in July 1841 the duo scandalized their class on a visit to Bonn by getting drunk, laughing in church, and galloping through the streets on donkeys. Both militant atheists, in March 1841 they began plans for a journal entitled Atheistic Archives; it never came to fruition. [because their friendship imploded, jbp] Considering an academic career, this path was barred by the governments growing opposition to classical liberalism and the Young Hegelians. WikiThursday, March 7, 13
    • III. Marx A. Early Life B. The Young Marx 1. Rheinische Zeitung, Cologne a. orientation b. outcome 2. Paris, 1843-45 a. Jenny von Westfalen b. the émigrés c. Frederick Engels 1. Manchester 2.Mary Burns 3. The Position of the English Working Classes, 1844 3. Brussels, London, and “the next dance” a. The League of the Just 1.Wilhelm Weitling & “preaching” b. Hungry ‘Forties c. Communist Manifesto (below) d. Revolution of 1848 1. extent 2. causes 3. course 4. Marx’s roleThursday, March 7, 13
    • III. Marx A. Early Life B. The Young Marx 1. Rheinische Zeitung, Cologne a. orientation b. outcome 2. Paris, 1843-45 a. Jenny von Westfalen b. the émigrés c. Frederick Engels 1. Manchester 2.Mary Burns 3. The Position of the English Working Classes, 1844 3. Brussels, London, and “the next dance” a. The League of the Just 1.Wilhelm Weitling & “preaching” b. Hungry ‘Forties c. Communist Manifesto (below) d. Revolution of 1848 1. extent 2. causes 3. course 4. Marx’s roleThursday, March 7, 13
    • JBP, “Nineteenth Century Europe,” session 2.3, LifeLearn, 2009Thursday, March 7, 13
    • op. cit.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • III.B.The Young Marx.1. Rheinische Zeitung, Köln Köln (Cologne)was the major city of the Rhineland January 1842-although living in Bonn at the time of this paper’s launch, Marx began contributing articles the paper attacked the Prussian government and the upper classes it was during this time that Marx became aware of French socialist ideas and began his move from philosophy to politics and economics. He joined the editorial board March 1843-when Prussia suppressed the paper, Marx gave up his belief that the country could pass from monarchy to constitutional democracy without revolutionary struggleThursday, March 7, 13
    • III.B.The Young Marx.1. Rheinische Zeitung, Köln Köln (Cologne)was the major city of the Rhineland January 1842-although living in Bonn at the time of this paper’s launch, Marx began contributing articles the paper attacked the Prussian government and the upper classes it was during this time that Marx became aware of French socialist ideas and began his move from philosophy to politics and economics. He joined the editorial board March 1843-when Prussia suppressed the paper, Marx gave up his belief that the country could pass from monarchy to constitutional democracy without revolutionary struggleThursday, March 7, 13
    • Thursday, March 7, 13
    • Marx as Prometheus Political cartoon showing Karl Marx chained to a printing press while the eagle of Prussian censorship rips out his liver as figures representing the citizens of Rhineland plead fruitlessly for mercy. Published at the time of the March 1843 suppression of the Köln Rheinische Zeitung.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • “The philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways; the point is to change it.” Karl Marx 11th thesis on Feuerbach, 1845 as quoted on the dedication page of Justice & PowerThursday, March 7, 13
    • III.B.2. a. Jenny von Westphalen only wife to Karl Marx, mother of seven children born into the Prussian aristocracy with ties on her mother’s side to the Scottish aristocracy and the royal House of Stuart! as her brother was Karl’s schoolmate, they knew one another as children. --Karl Marx was 4 years her junior 1836, the summer between Bonn & Berlin--Karl(18), with the blessings of Jenny’s (22) liberal parents, betrothed “The most beautiful girl in Trier.” June 19, 1843-marriage and move to Paris, where they befriended fellow German Jewish émigré Johanna Bertha Julie Jenny von Westphalen Heinrich Heine 1814 – 1881Thursday, March 7, 13
    • III.B. 2. Paris, 1843-45.b. the émigrés The Paris of the second quarter of the 19th century was a magnet for political refugees. After Austria put down the Revolution of 1822 in Bohemia (the Czech heartland) young refugees flocked to Paris. Their swept-back hairstyle led to the expression, “highbrow.” Their section of the Latin Quarter became the locale for Puccini’s La bohème. jbpThursday, March 7, 13
    • III.B. 2. Paris, 1843-45.b. the émigrés The Paris of the second quarter of the 19th century was a magnet for political refugees. After Austria put down the Revolution of 1822 in Bohemia (the Czech heartland) young refugees flocked to Paris. Their swept-back hairstyle led to the expression, “highbrow.” Their section of the Latin Quarter became the locale for Puccini’s La bohème. After the failed Polish Revolution of 1830 against tsarist Russia, Polish emigres, like the novelist Adam Mickiewicz jbpThursday, March 7, 13
    • III.B. 2. Paris, 1843-45.b. the émigrés The Paris of the second quarter of the 19th century was a magnet for political refugees. After Austria put down the Revolution of 1822 in Bohemia (the Czech heartland) young refugees flocked to Paris. Their swept-back hairstyle led to the expression, “highbrow.” Their section of the Latin Quarter became the locale for Puccini’s La bohème. After the failed Polish Revolution of 1830 against tsarist Russia, Polish emigres, like the novelist Adam Mickiewicz, came there too. The French Revolution of 1830 created a more liberal regime and produced an afterglow in 1832, the revolution of Les Misérables. In 1843 Karl and Jenny joined other German political refugees. jbpThursday, March 7, 13
    • III.B. 2. Paris, 1843-45.b. the émigrés The Paris of the second quarter of the 19th century was a magnet for political refugees. After Austria put down the Revolution of 1822 in Bohemia (the Czech heartland) young refugees flocked to Paris. Their swept-back hairstyle led to the expression, “highbrow.” Their section of the Latin Quarter became the locale for Puccini’s La bohème•. After the failed Polish Revolution of 1830 against tsarist Russia, Polish emigres, like the novelist Adam Mickiewicz•, came there too. The French Revolution of 1830 created a more liberal regime and produced an afterglow in 1832, the revolution of Les Misérables.• In 1843 Karl and Jenny joined other German political refugees. jbp Les Mis, 1832, 2012Thursday, March 7, 13
    • III.B. 2. Paris, 1843.b. the émigrés Karl and Jenny first lived communally with Arnold Ruge’s family 1844-Marx and Ruge published a radical journal, The German-French Annals. It only ran for one issue Marx was the major contributor, “Zur Judenfrage,” (“On the Jewish Question”)Thursday, March 7, 13
    • III.B. 2. Paris, 1843.b. the émigrés Karl and Jenny first lived communally with Arnold Ruge’s family 1844-Marx and Ruge published a radical journal, The German-French Annals. It only ran for one issue Marx was the major contributor, “Zur Judenfrage,” (“On the Jewish Question”)Thursday, March 7, 13
    • Karl and Jenny first lived communally with Arnold Ruge’s family 1844-Marx and Ruge published a radical journal, The German-French Annals. It only ran for one issue Marx was the major contributor, “Zur Judenfrage,” (“On the Jewish Question”) another famous contributor was the exiled Russian anarcho-communist Mikhail BakuninThursday, March 7, 13
    • III.B. 2. Paris, 1843.b. the émigrés Karl and Jenny first lived communally with Arnold Ruge’s family 1844-Marx and Ruge published a radical journal, The German-French Annals. It only ran for one issue Marx was the major contributor, “Zur Judenfrage,” (“On the Jewish Question”) another famous contributor was the exiled Russian anarcho-communist Mikhail Bakunin by autumn 1844-Marx had studied all the major elements of Marxism, English economists, French socialists. T clarify o the workings of capitalism in his own mind, he wrote The Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844Thursday, March 7, 13
    • III.B. 2. Paris, 1843-45.b. the émigrés The Paris of the second quarter of the 19th century was a magnet for political refugees. After Austria put down the Revolution of 1822 in Bohemia (the Czech heartland) young refugees flocked to Paris. Their swept-back hairstyle led to the expression, “highbrow.” Their section of Montmartre became the locale for La Boheme. After the failed Polish Revolution of 1830 against tsarist Russia, Polish emigres, like the novelist Adam Mieckiewicz, came there too. The French Revolution of 1830 created a more liberal regime and produced an afterglow in 1832, the revolution of Les Misérables.• In 1843 Karl and Jenny joined other German political refugees. A famous partnership and lifelong friendship began on 28 August 1844 when Karl met German socialist Friedrich Engels at the Café de la Régence. jbpThursday, March 7, 13
    • III. B. 2. c. Engels 1. 1842-after a brief tour of duty in the Household Artillery of the Prussian Army [which gave him his lifelong interest in military history], he was sent by his industrialist father to inspect the family’s textile mill in Manchester, England Friedrich Engels 1820 – 1895 photograph, 1840Thursday, March 7, 13
    • III. B. 2. c. Engels 1. 1842-after a brief tour in the Household Artillery of the Prussian Army, he was sent by his industrialist father to inspect the family’s textile mill in Manchester, England 2. there he met Mary Burns, a radical Irish mill worker in his father’s factory. They remained lifelong partners, never marrying. Engels would write the section in the Communist Manifesto denouncing marriage as bourgeois prostitution Mary Burns 1823(?)-1863Thursday, March 7, 13
    • III. B. 2. c. Engels 1. 1842-he was sent by his industrialist father to inspect the family’s textile mill in Manchester, England 2. there he met Mary Burns, a radical Irish mill worker in his father’s factory. They remained lifelong partners. 3. 1844-she introduced him to the working class slums where he developed the material for The Position of the English Working Classes. This is what gave him his “creds” with MarxThursday, March 7, 13
    • III. B. 2. c. 3. Position of the English Working Classes “Engels was the first to draw Marx’s attention to England as a laboratory in which industrial capitalism could be most accurately observed.” William Ebenstein Great Political Thinkers, p. 675Thursday, March 7, 13
    • op. cit.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • op. cit.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • III.B.1. Brussels, London, and “the next dance.” a. The League of the Just 1834- the Bund der Gerechten was founded by German émigrés as a utopian socialist/Christian communist movement-”All men are brothers,” &c. its goals were: "the establishment of the Kingdom of God on Earth, based on the ideals of love of ones neighbor, equality and justice"Thursday, March 7, 13
    • III.B.1. Brussels, London, and “the next dance.” a. The League of the Just 1. Wilhelm Weitling and “preaching” 1834- the Bund der Gerechten was founded by German émigrés as a utopian socialist/Christian communist movement-”All men are brothers,” &c. its goals were: "the establishment of the Kingdom of God on Earth, based on the ideals of love of ones neighbor, equality and justice" 1837-Wilhelm Weitling joined the League and took it “hard Left”--"a highly emotional mix of Babouvist communism, chiliastic Christianity, and millenarian populism"-Wiki Wilhelm Weitling 1845-when Marx arrived and joined the group he 1808 – 1871 criticized Weitling’s leadership style as “mere preaching”Thursday, March 7, 13
    • III.B.1. Brussels, London, and “the next dance.” a. The League of the Just 1. Wilhelm Weitling and “preaching” 1834- the Bund der Gerechten was founded by German émigrés as a utopian socialist/Christian communist movement-”All men are brothers,” &c. its goals were: "the establishment of the Kingdom of God on Earth, based on the ideals of love of ones neighbor, equality and justice" 1837-Wilhelm Weitling joined the League and took it “hard Left”--"a highly emotional mix of Babouvist communism, chiliastic Christianity, and millenarian populism" 1845-when Marx arrived and joined the group he criticized Weitling’s leadership style as “mere preaching” 1846-Brussels, Marx, Engels and a group of German exiles merge The League with the Communist Corresponding Committee. The police chase them out of Belgium 1847-a London “Congress” makes it official. Their plan Wilhelm Weitling was to “go public,” no longer a secret society 1808 – 1871 December 1847-Marx and Engels assigned to write the Manifesto of the Communist PartyThursday, March 7, 13
    • III.B.1. b. Hungry ‘Forties 1837- an American Panic (financial depression) spreads across the Atlantic to European banks holding American investments, sparking a European downturn this led to yet another “crisis of capitalism.” This was the phenomenon which accompanied the Industrial Revolution. There had been a series of “boom and bust” cycles, beginning in 1818-19.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • III.B.1. b. Hungry ‘Forties 1837- an American Panic (financial depression) spreads across the Atlantic to European banks holding American investments, sparking a European downturn this led to yet another “crisis of capitalism.” This was the phenomenon which accompanied the Industrial Revolution. There had been a series of “boom and bust” cycles, beginning in 1818-19. mid-‘40s-un- and under-employed workers’ misery was magnified by the European Potato Failure, most famously in Ireland the blight spread to other staple crops which constituted the diet of the poorThursday, March 7, 13
    • III.B.1. b. Hungry ‘Forties the blight spread to other staple crops which constituted the diet of the poor government responses were totally inadequate and the preconditions for revolution were laid 25 February, 1848-Lamartine in front of the Hotel de Ville of Paris declares a republic (but rejects the red flag of radicalism)Thursday, March 7, 13
    • III.B.3.d. Revolution of 1848.1. extent 2. causes 3. course 1. in Prince Metternich’s famous phrase, “When Paris sneezes Europe catches cold.” Beginning in France, with the fall of the ‘July Monarchy,’ the revolution spread eastward as far as tsarist Russia. Britain was the only other country where revolution was narrowly avoided 2. the long range causes were liberalism, nationalism, the industrial revolution and the rise of the bourgeoisie. The immediate cause was the “Hungry ‘Forties’ 3. at first the liberal revolutionary forces triumphed everywhere (except as noted in 1., above). Then the forces of reaction regained the upper hand and, by 1852, had reversed the revolution. --“Not through speeches and majority decisions will the great questions of the day be decided - that was the great mistake of 1848 and 1849 - but by iron and blood.”--Bismarck, 1862Thursday, March 7, 13
    • III.B.3.d. 1848.1. extent 2. causes 3. course 4. Marx’s role Just as he and Engels finished the Communist Manifesto, the revolution began in Paris. Hopeful, Marx returned there and when the revolution spread to the Germanies he went back to Köln and began publishing the Neue Rheinische Zeitung with revolutionary demands. As reaction gained the upper hand, his paper was suppressed and he was charged with all manner of offenses. However, the jury was impressed with his self-defense, acquitted him, and even gave him a standing ovation. With Jenny expecting their fourth child, barred from returning to Belgium or Paris, they moved to London, their home for the rest of their lives. jbpThursday, March 7, 13
    • III. Marx A. Early Life B. The Young Marx C. Maturity 1. living conditions 2. New York Tribune 3. First International, 1864-1876 4. Capital, vol. I, 1867; vol. II, 1885; vol. III, 1894Thursday, March 7, 13
    • III.C. Maturity 1. living conditions Despite a small inheritance and some support from Jenny’s family, Marx was dependent on his income as a writer and the generosity of his friend Engels. The 1850s were his absolute “bottom.” Their only surviving son, Edgar (1847-55) died in Karl’s arms. Engels lent the money to bury him. The children learned to lie to bill collectors.The family’s housing fell from lower middle class to proletarian. This is the period when Karl would sit in the reading room of the British Museum researching Capital (vol. I, 1867). He often pawned his overcoat. jbp op. cit.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • Die Familie Marx 1860 Laura (15), Eleanor(4), daughter Jenny (17) “Uncle” Friedrich (40) , Karl (42)Thursday, March 7, 13
    • Jenny Carolina and Jenny Laura Marx (1858). All the Marx daughters were named in honor of their motherThursday, March 7, 13
    • Thursday, March 7, 13
    • III.C. 2. The New York Tribune 1841-progressive Horace Greeley founded this paper in NYC to promote abolitionist sentiment among the working population. He charged 2¢ when most dailies sold for 6¢. The idea of aiming for this audience began in Britain and America in the second quarter of the 19th century. “With a run of about 50,000 issues, the Tribune was the most widely circulated journal in the United States.”-WikiThursday, March 7, 13
    • III.C. 2. The New York Tribune 1841-progressive Horace Greeley founded this paper in NYC to promote abolitionist sentiment among the working population. He charged 2¢ when most dailies sold for 6¢. The idea of aiming for this audience began in Britain and America in the second quarter of the 19th century. “With a run of about 50,000 issues, the Tribune was the most widely circulated journal in the United States.”-Wiki 1852-Marx became a “stringer” for the Tribune, he had no financial backing to found his own paper. He liked the idea that he could reach “working class and progressive elements” and generate some income at the same time. His contact at the “Trib” was Charles Dana.• They had met in Köln in 1848 when Dana was covering the revolution. during the next decade Marx wrote articles on politics, the European reaction to the slavery question, and, with Engels’ help, articles on the Crimean War (1853-56)Thursday, March 7, 13
    • III.C. 2. The New York Tribune 1841-progressive Horace Greeley founded this paper in NYC to promote abolitionist sentiment among the working population. He charged 2¢ when most dailies sold for 6¢. The idea of aiming for this audience began in Britain and America in the second quarter of the 19th century. “With a run of about 50,000 issues, the Tribune was the most widely circulated journal in the United States.”-Wiki 1852-Marx became a “stringer” for the Tribune, he had no financial backing to found his own paper. He liked the idea that he could reach “working class and progressive elements” and generate some income at the same time. His contact at the “Trib” was Charles Dana. They had met in Köln in 1848 when Dana was covering the revolution. during the next decade Marx wrote articles on politics, the European reaction to the slavery question, and, with Engels’ help, articles on the Crimean War (1853-56)Thursday, March 7, 13
    • An example of Marx’s writing for the Trib a rebellion of [Australian] miners on the Ballarat goldfields in 1854, has become a symbol of democratic protest and national identity….The Chartist-influenced Ballarat Reform League argued that the people at Ballarat had been provoked by maladministration and injustice, and called for manhood suffrage.... On 11 November a large public meeting resolved that ‘it is the inalienable right of every citizen to have a voice in making the laws he is called upon to obey—that taxation without representation is tyranny’. Karl Marx was to observe [to his American readers] : ‘It is not difficult to notice that these in reality are the same reasons which led to the declaration of independence of the United States of America.’ The Oxford Companion to Australian History (1 rev ed.), 2001Thursday, March 7, 13
    • III.C. 3. First International, 1864-1876 op. cit.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • III.C. 3. First International, 1864-1876 Frederick Engels Karl Marx Germany op. cit.Marx March 7, 13 Thursday,
    • III.C. 3. First International, 1864-1876 op. cit.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • III.C. 3. First International, 1864-1876 op. cit.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • III.C. 3. First International, 1864-1876 op. cit.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • III.C. 4. Das Kapital (Capital); vol. i (1867), ii (1885), iii (1895) Marx’s culminating work. Engels would see it to completion after his friend’s death. “...the motivating force of capitalism is the exploitation of labor, whose unpaid work is the ultimate source of profit and surplus value. The employer can claim right to the profits...because he or she owns the means of production, which are legally protected by the capitalist state through property rights. In producing capital ... the workers continually reproduce the economic conditions by which they labor. Capital proposes an explanation of the "laws of motion" of the capitalist economic system..., by describing the dynamics of the accumulation of capital, the growth of wage labor, the transformation of the workplace, the concentration of capital, commercial competition, the banking system, the decline of the profit rate, land- rents, et cetera.” WikiThursday, March 7, 13
    • After his beloved Jenny’s death in December, 1881, Marx developed a catarrh which kept him in misery for his last 15 months. With the death of their first born, Jenny Carolina, his will to live failed him. Bronchitis brought him final release in March, 1883. Between nine and eleven attended his funeral. Engels delivered his eulogy containing this simple tribute: On the 14th of March, at a quarter to three in the afternoon, the greatest living thinker ceased to think. He had been left alone for scarcely two minutes, and when we came back we found him in his armchair, peacefully gone to sleep—but forever.--Wiki He died a stateless person. His original grave bore a simple marker.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • MARX’S GRAVE IN HIGHGATE CEMETERY, LONDON this monument was erected in 1954 by the British Communist PartyThursday, March 7, 13
    • BerlinThursday, March 7, 13
    • MoscowThursday, March 7, 13
    • Moscow PROLETARIANS OF EVERY LAND UNITE!Thursday, March 7, 13
    • The Communist Manifesto 1848Thursday, March 7, 13
    • The Communist Manifesto 1848 Proletarians of every land uniteThursday, March 7, 13
    • IV. The Communist Manifesto A. Usage 1. nouns a. class=the bourgeoisie & the proletariat b. one= bourgeois & proletarian c. many=bourgeois & proletarians 2. adjectives a. bourgeois & proletarian B. Preamble 1. historical review of commissioning 2. purpose and style C. Section 1-Bourgeois and Proletarians 1. definitions and contrasts 2. materialistic interpretation of history a. infrastructure and superstructure b. dialectic c. the four epochs 3. Marxist description of the Industrial Revolution a. causes b. progress c. results d. directionThursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.B. Preamble-1.commissioning 2. purpose and style 1. December 1847-the newly created Communist League authorized Marx and Engels to publish “their views, their aims, their tendencies” 2. the purpose was to launch a public movement in contrast to a conspiratorial one. The style of the preamble was one of almost embarrassing exaggeration. A group of at most several hundred claims that it is “haunting Europe” and provoking fear and reaction by “all European powers.” Unlike Marx’s later Capital, a dense theoretical work, the Manifesto is written as propaganda to be easily understood by readers of limited educationThursday, March 7, 13
    • A specter is haunting Europe--the specter of Communism. All the powers of Old Europe have entered into a holy alliance to exorcise this specter: Pope and Czar, Metternich and Guizot, French radicals and German police spies. Where is the party in opposition that has not been decried as communistic by its opponents in power? Where the opposition that has not hurled back the branding reproach of Communism, against the more advanced opposition parties, as well as against its reactionary adversaries? T things result from this fact. wo I. Communism is already acknowledged by all European powers to be in itself a power. II. It is high time that Communists should openly, in the face of the whole world, publish their views, their aims, their tendencies, and meet this nursery tale of the specter of Communism with a Manifesto of the party itself. T this end Communists of various nationalities have assembled in London, o and sketched the following Manifesto to be published in English, French, German, Italian, Flemish, and Danish languages.--the PreambleThursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.C.Bourgeois and Proletarians 1. memorize “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles.”--1st sentence of section I--thesis statementThursday, March 7, 13
    • By “bourgeoisie” is meant the class of modern capitalists, the owners of the means of social production and employers of wage labor. By proletariat, the class of modern wage laborers who, having no means of production of their own, is reduced to selling their labor power in order to live. [note by Engels to the English edition of 1888]Thursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.C.2. materialistic interpretation of history a. infrastructure and superstructure Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor and oppressed, stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on an uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary re-constitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the contending classes op. cit.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.C.2. materialistic interpretation of history b. dialectic op. cit.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.C.2. materialistic interpretation of history b. dialectic “Freeman and slave, patrician and plebeian, lord and serf, guild-master and journeyman, in a word, oppressor [THESIS] and oppressed [ANTITHESIS], stood in constant opposition to one another, carried on an uninterrupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight that each time ended, either in a revolutionary re- constitution of society at large, or in the common ruin of the contending classes.” Manifesto, I.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.C.2. b-dialectic see IV.G.3-consciousness, below op. cit.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.C.2.c. the four epochs op. cit.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.C.3. Marxist description of the Industrial Revolution a. causes “The bourgeoisie, wherever it has got the upper hand, has put an end to all feudal, patriarchal, idyllic relations. It ... has left remaining no other nexus between man and man than naked self-interest, than callous “cash payment” ... for exploitation, veiled by religious and political illusions, it has substituted naked, shameless, direct, brutal exploitation ... Constant revolutionizing of production, uninterrupted disturbance of all social conditions, everlasting uncertainty and agitation distinguish the bourgeois epoch from all earlier ones.” Manifesto, I.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.C.3. Marxist description of the Industrial Revolution b. progress “The bourgeoisie has played a most revolutionary role in history…. “...has torn away from the family its sentimental veil, and has reduced the family relation to a mere money relation…. “...cannot exist without constantly revolutionizing the instruments of production, and thereby the relations of production, and with them the whole relations of society…. “...has subjected the country to the rule of the towns. It has created enormous cities...and has thus rescued a considerable part of the population from the idiocy of rural life. Just...so it has made barbarian...countries dependent on the civilized ones, nations of peasants on nations of bourgeois, the East on the West…. “...in a word, the feudal relations of property became no longer compatible with the already developed productive forces; they became so many fetters. They had to be burst asunder; they were burst asunder.” Manifesto, I.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.C.3. Marxist description of the Industrial Revolution b. progress (cont.) “The weapons with which the bourgeoisie felled feudalism to the ground are now turned against the bourgeoisie itself. “But not only has the bourgeoisie forged the weapons that bring death to itself; it has also called into existence the men who are to wield those weapons---the modern working class---the proletariat. Manifesto, I.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.C.3. Marxist description of the Industrial Revolution b. progress (cont.) “The work of the proletarians has lost all individual character, and, consequently, all charm for the workman. He becomes an appendage of the machine, and it is only the most simple, monotonous, and most easily acquired knack, that is required of him. Manifesto, I.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • A silent film depiction of the proletariat A famous dystopian film, but with a happy ending! As in HG Wells’ The Time Machine, proles live underground and are dark. The bourgeois are dressed in white and live in the sunlight and lead frivolous lives. The workers have ten hour shifts where they are enslaved to the machines, characterized in one intertitle as MOLOCH! “Metropolis” by Fritz Lang & Thea von Harbou, 1927Thursday, March 7, 13
    • notice the downcast heads, as in Les Mis “Metropolis” by Fritz Lang & Thea von Harbou, 1927Thursday, March 7, 13
    • notice the downcast heads, as in Les Mis “Metropolis” by Fritz Lang & Thea von Harbou, 1927Thursday, March 7, 13
    • after their shift they arrive at their drab underground dwelling placeThursday, March 7, 13
    • “The work of the proletarians has lost all individual character, and, consequently, all charm for the workman. He becomes an appendage of the machine, and it is only the most simple, monotonous, and most easily acquired knack, that is required of him. -- Manifesto, Section 1Thursday, March 7, 13
    • The machine has become a futuristic clock counting down the interminable 10-hour shiftThursday, March 7, 13
    • Here the frivolous sons of the bourgeoisie disport themselvesThursday, March 7, 13
    • Here the frivolous sons of the bourgeoisie disport themselvesThursday, March 7, 13
    • A more light-hearted “talkie” from the next decade The public domain clips which follow fail to convey the frustration, bordering on misery which the little tramp experiences when “enslaved by the machine.”Thursday, March 7, 13
    • Thursday, March 7, 13
    • Thursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.C.3. Marxist description of the Industrial Revolution b. progress (cont.) “The work of the proletarians has lost all individual character, and, consequently, all charm for the workman. He becomes an appendage of the machine, and it is only the most simple, monotonous, and most easily acquired knack, that is required of him. Hence the cost of production of a workman is restricted...to the means of subsistence that he requires for his maintenance, and for the propagation of his race [the Iron Law of Wages]…. “Modern industry has converted the little workshop of the patriarchal master into the great factory of the industrial capitalist….[The proletarians] are daily and hourly enslaved by the machine, by the overseer, and, above all, by the individual bourgeois manufacturer himself…. “The lower strata of the middle class...sink gradually into the proletariat …. Thus the proletariat is recruited from all classes of the population.” Manifesto, I.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.C.3. Marxist description of the Industrial Revolution c. results “ “But with the development of industry the proletariat not only increases in number; it becomes concentrated in greater masses, its strength grows….the growing competition among the bourgeois, and the resulting commercial crises [depressions], makes the wages of the workers ever more fluctuating….the workers begin to form combinations [unions] against the bourgeoisie…. “The social conditions of the old society no longer exist for the proletariat. The proletarian is without property; his relations to his wife and children has no longer anything in common with bourgeois family relations….Law, morality, religion, are to him so many bourgeois prejudices, behind which lurk in ambush just as many bourgeois interests…. “All previous historical movements were movements of minorities….The proletarian movement is the self-conscious, independent movement of the immense majority, in the interest of the immense majority. Manifesto, I.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.C.3. Marxist description of the Industrial Revolution d. direction op. cit.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.C.3. Marxist description of the Industrial Revolution “What the bourgeoisie therefore produces above all, are its own grave-diggers. Its fall d. direction and the victory of the proletariat are equally inevitable.” --the final sentences of Section 1 op. cit.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • A. Usage B. Preamble C. Bourgeois and Proletarians D. Section 2-Proletarians and Communists 1. distinguishing qualities 2. immediate aim 3. refutation of bourgeois criticisms a. property b. laziness c. culture d. family e. sex f. anti-nation g. consciousness 4. centralization of production a. ten point agenda b. resultant association E. Section 3-Socialist and Communist Literature F. Section 4-Position of the Communists... 1. necessity of a bourgeois revolution 2. final appeal G. Other Major Marxist Concepts 1. surplus value 2. the prophesy 3. consciousnessThursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.D.1-distinguishing qualities “The Communists are distinguished from the other working class parties by this only: 1. In the national struggles of the proletarians of the different countries, they point out…the common interests of the entire proletariat, independently of all nationality. 2. In the various stages of development which the struggle...has to pass through, they always and everywhere represent the interests of the movement as a whole…. “The distinguishing feature of Communism is not the abolition of property generally, but the abolition of bourgeois property. But modern bourgeois private property is the final...expression of the system...that is based on class antagonism and the exploitation of the many by the few.” Manifesto, 2.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.D.-immediate aim “The immediate aim of the Communists is the same as that of all the other proletarian parties: Formation of the proletariat into a class, overthrow of the bourgeois supremacy, conquest of political power by the proletariat…. Manifesto, 2.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.D.3.-refutation of bourgeois criticisms a. Communists want abolition of property. f. “The Communists are further reproached Bourgeois have already abolished it for all with desiring to abolish countries and but themselves!-only bourgeois property nationality. The workingmen have no country. We cannot take from them what b. laziness. You are the lazy ones! they have not got…” c. “That culture, the loss of which [they] g.“The charges against Communism made lament, is, for the enormous majority, a from a religious, a philosophical, and, mere training to act as a machine.” generally, from an ideological standpoint are not deserving of serious examination. d. “Abolition of the family! ...the present Does it require deep intuition to family exists only among the bourgeoisie. … comprehend that man’s ideas, views, and the practical absence of the family among conceptions, in one word, man’s the proletarians, and in prostitution….” consciousness, changes with every change in the conditions of his material existence, e. “But you Communists would introduce in his social relations and in his social community of women, screams the whole life….The ruling ideas of each age have bourgeoisie in chorus.” --Engels’ riff on ever been the ideas of its ruling class….” bourgeois marriage.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.D.4.a.-The 10 point agenda 1. Abolition of property in land 6. Centralization of the means of communication and transport in the 2.Heavy progressive income tax hands of the state 3. Abolition of all right of inheritance 7.Extension of factories owned by the state 4. Confiscation of the property of all emigrants and rebels 8. Equal obligation of all to work 5. Centralization of credit in the 9. Gradual abolition of the distinction hands of the state, by means of a between town and country by national bank with state capital and combining agriculture & industry an exclusive monopoly 10. Free education for all children in public schools. Abolition of child factory labor &c.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.D.4.a.-The 10 point agenda--USA, 2013 1. Abolition of property in land 6. Centralization of the means of communication and transport in the 2.Heavy progressive income tax hands of the state--FCC, PBS, Amtrak, Dept. of Transportation 3. Abolition of all right of inheritance 7. Extension of factories owned by the 4. Confiscation of the property of all state--from almost none to some, eg emigrants and rebels TVA, Fed Prison Industries 5. Centralization of credit in the hands of 8. Equal obligation of all to work the state, by means of a national bank with state capital and an exclusive 9. Gradual abolition of the distinction monopoly--the Fed, Fannie & Freddie between town and country by combining and many other credit agencies agriculture & industry KEY 10. Free education for all children in public Partly achieved More fully achieved schools. Abolition of child factory laborThursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.D.4.b.-resultant association “When in the course of development, class distinctions have disappeared, and all production has been concentrated…, the public power will lose its political character. Political power...is merely the organized power of one class for oppressing another…. “In place of the old bourgeois society, with its classes and class antagonisms, we shall have an association, in which the free development of each is the condition for the free development of all.” Manifesto, 2.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.E.-Section 3-Socialist and Communist Literature This part of the Manifesto is only of interest to specialists in the history of the labor movement. Here they list and attack all the “wrong-headed” rivals to the Communist movement. There is 1. Reactionary Socialism a. Feudal Socialism & Clerical Socialism b. Petty Bourgeois Socialism c. German or “True” Socialism. Then there is 2. Conservative or Bourgeois Socialism & 3. Critical-Utopian Socialism and Communism. With this last grouping we come to the utopians whom we have briefly sketched out before in section ii, St Simon, Fourier and Owen. It is here that the term is coined! Despite some praise for this last group, it is clear that they leave much to be desired.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.F.-Section 4-Position of the Communists in Relation to the Various Existing Opposition Parties- 1. necessity of a bourgeois revolution This last section is by far the shortest. It begins with the assertion that the Bourgeois revolution is a prerequisite to a successful proletarian revolution. Therefore “Germany” [not yet a single nation] is the most likely place for this to happen. Manifesto, 4.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.F.-Section 4-Position of the Communists in Relation to the Various Existing Opposition Parties- 2. final appeal The Manifesto concludes with an oft-quoted appeal to the workers of the world: “The Communists disdain to conceal their views and aims. They openly declare that their ends can be attained only by the forcible overthrow of all existing social conditions. Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. “Workingmen of all countries unite!” Manifesto, 4.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.G.Other Major concepts-1--surplus value ...refers roughly to the new value created by workers that is in excess of their own labor-cost and which is therefore available to be appropriated by the capitalist, according to Marx; it allows then for profit and in so doing is the basis of capital accumulation. "Surplus-value and the rate of surplus-value are... the invisible essence to be investigated, whereas the rate of profit and hence the form of surplus-value as profit are visible surface phenomena" - Karl Marx, Capital, vol. 3, Pelican edition, p. 134 For Marx, the gigantic increase in wealth and population from the 19th century onwards was mainly due to the competitive striving to obtain maximum surplus-value from the employment of labor, resulting in an equally gigantic increase of productivity and capital resources. T the extent that increasingly the economic o surplus is convertible into money and expressed in money, the amassment of wealth is possible on a larger and larger scale…. WikiThursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.G.2.-- the prophesy op. cit.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.G.2.-- the prophesy op. cit.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • IV.G.3.--consciousness Marx wrote often about consciousness (Bewusstzein), class- consciousness, false consciousness, consciousness-raising, &c. One of his most famous maxims is ; “It is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence but their social existence that forms their consciousness.” Hence his rejection of Hegel’s idealism and his replacement of the dialectic of ideas with dialectical materialism.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • CriticismThursday, March 7, 13
    • Criticism “Man at the Crossroads” mural by Diego Rivera, 1934Thursday, March 7, 13
    • detail of Lenin and the “progressive” peoples Criticism “Man at the Crossroads” mural by Diego Rivera, 1934Thursday, March 7, 13
    • V. Criticism 1. Marx and science 2. Marx and philosophy 3. Marx and history 4. history of MarxismThursday, March 7, 13
    • V.1. Marx and science Regardless of moral judgements about the consequences of Marx’s writings there is no denying their significance. He was one of the great contributors to the 19th century birth of social science. The so-called “sof t sciences” of sociology, anthropology, economics and political science have been profoundly influenced if not created by him. Whether he succeeded or not, there’s no denying his prodigious work to apply scientific method to replace utopian socialism with “scientific socialism.”Thursday, March 7, 13
    • V.2. Marx and philosophy Beginning as an 18-year-old undergraduate he chose to defy his father and embark on a career in philosophy. Although he later would say that his role was to be a political activist and a scientist, his real success is as a political philosopher. The search for truth about justice and power which began with Plato and Greek philosophy animated his lifelong scholarship.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • V.3. Marx and history Modern historical method was birthed in 19th century German universities. It’s “father” was Leopold von Ranke with his enjoinder to tell it “as it really was.”Thursday, March 7, 13
    • V.3. Marx and history Modern historical method was birthed in 19th century German universities. It’s “father” was Leopold von Ranke with his enjoinder to tell it “as it really was.” Marx profoundly influenced historical studies by his emphasis on government reports and economic data, both largely ignored by previous historians. Thereafter history would no longer be the “drum and bugle” story of kings, wars and politics, ignoring economic and social factors. In the 20th century there would be a movement to re- write history “from the bottom up,” and not just by Marxist historians intent on romanticizing the proletariat. Economic history is a huge specialization, largely thanks to Marx.Thursday, March 7, 13
    • note the giant placard of the “Genius V.4. history of Marxism Leader of all progressive peoples” It is too early to confine Marxism to “the dustbin of history.*” Although it seems to a majority of western observers that it is a failed ideology, there is a dedicated minority in the West of faithful Marxists and what used to be called fellow travelers. And a dedicated minority was all it took in 1917. After the death of “the greatest living thinker” in 1883, the true believers of Marxism began the struggle to interpret him and resolve the “difficulties” of his prophesy. From Engels to President Obama’s dismissed advisor Van Jones there is a 120-year history of Marxism. But that’s another story... * “You are pitiful isolated individuals; you are bankrupts; your role is played out. Go where you belong from now on — into the dustbin of history!”--T rotsky to Martov, 25 October 1917 Socialist Realism poster, 1950Thursday, March 7, 13
    • V.4. history of Marxism photograph of the reality, Cuba, 2010Thursday, March 7, 13
    • V.4. history of Marxism It is too early to confine Marxism to “the dustbin of history.*” Although it seems to a majority of western observers that it is a failed ideology, there is a dedicated minority in the West of faithful Marxists and what used to be called fellow travelers. And a dedicated minority was all it took in 1917. After the death of “the greatest living thinker” in 1883, the true believers of Marxism began the struggle to interpret him and resolve the “difficulties” of his prophesy. From Engels to President Obama’s dismissed advisor Van Jones there is a 120-year history of Marxism. But that’s another story... * “You are pitiful isolated individuals; you are bankrupts; your role is played out. Go where you belong from now on — into the dustbin of history!”--T rotsky to Martov, 25 October 1917Thursday, March 7, 13