IntroductionJustice & Power--session i
IntroductionJustice & Power--session i
Topics in This Sessioni. Forward 2012ii.T Approaches    woiii.Political Understandingiv.American Politicsv.Where To?vi. Ac...
Forward  2012
Forward  2012
The purpose of this series of presentations is to encourage theviewer to reflect deeply on the meaning of justice and itsre...
Bonasera: I went to the police, like a good American. These two boys [who had rapedhis daughter] were brought to trial. Th...
Bonasera: I went to the police, like a good American. These two boys [who had rapedhis daughter] were brought to trial. Th...
In Mario Puzo’s The Godfather, this unforgettable openingscene demonstrates the human sense of outrage which criesout for ...
Every revolution---ours, the French, the Russian, evenMussolini’s and Hitler’s---promises to institute a new politicalorde...
Every revolution---ours, the French, the Russian, evenMussolini’s and Hitler’s---promises to institute a new politicalorde...
That  to  secure  these  rights,  Governments  are  instituted  among  Men,  deriving  their  just  powers  from  the  con...
Every revolution---ours, the French, the Russian, evenMussolini’s and Hitler’s---promises to institute a new politicalorde...
We  the  People,  in  order  to  …     establish  justice….    Preamble  to  the  U.S.  Constitution,  1787
The challenge is to apply power so that more rather than lessjustice results.                                or     School...
The challenge is to apply power so that more rather than lessjustice results.
The challenge is to apply power so that more rather than lessjustice results.  Throughout the history of mankind, the sanc...
The challenge is to apply power so that more rather thanless justice resultsJustice without power to enforce it is impoten...
frontispiece    1977
T Approaches wo
skills     T Approaches      wo                plan
Preface  “Suppose you were given the choice of knowing how to do allsorts of things really well but having no sense of wha...
Preface  “Suppose you were given the choice of knowing how to do allsorts of things really well but having no sense of wha...
“At the national level we might envision two groups of people,two parties, like the above two individuals. The Life Techni...
“At the national level we might envision two groups of people,two parties, like the above two individuals. The Life Techni...
The need for know-how is widely recognized. America hasespecially enshrined the pragmatic spirit of Yankee ingenuity, the“...
The need for know-how is widely recognized. America hasespecially enshrined the pragmatic spirit of Yankee ingenuity, the“...
The need for know-how is widely recognized. America hasespecially enshrined the pragmatic spirit of Yankee ingenuity, the“...
The need for know-how is widely recognized. America hasespecially enshrined the pragmatic spirit of Yankee ingenuity, the“...
The need for know-how is widely recognized. America hasespecially enshrined the pragmatic spirit of Yankee ingenuity, the“...
The need for know-how is widely recognized. America hasespecially enshrined the pragmatic spirit of Yankee ingenuity, the“...
The need for know-how is widely recognized. America hasespecially enshrined the pragmatic spirit of Yankee ingenuity, the“...
The need for know-how is widely recognized. America hasespecially enshrined the pragmatic spirit of Yankee ingenuity, the“...
The need for know-how is widely recognized. America hasespecially enshrined the pragmatic spirit of Yankee ingenuity, the“...
“In developing a mature understanding of political affairsit is helpful to begin with three concepts:   “practical” politi...
“Practical” Political Sense….”The first type of knowledge is the product of experience “in the streets”apart from schools a...
“Practical” Political Sense….”The first type of knowledge is the product of experience “in the streets”apart from schools a...
“Practical” Political Sense….”The first type of knowledge is the product of experience “in the streets”apart from schools a...
….”The first type of knowledge is the product of experience “inthe streets” apart from schools and reading. It is oftenasso...
In developing a mature understanding of political affairs itis helpful to begin with three concepts:   “practical” politic...
“Political science and philosophy are the product of schools[beginning in Athens at Plato’s Academy and Aristotle’sLyceum]...
Those with “street smarts” may have the technical skills to gainand maintain power. Even “ivory tower” intellectuals withp...
“ Our study this quarter will not be limited to this narrow notionof political philosophy as prescriptive or normative (ru...
II“It is not a simple thing to begin a study of so complex andimportant a subject as our contemporary political culture. M...
II“It is not a simple thing to begin a study of so complex andimportant a subject as our contemporary political culture. M...
II“It is not a simple thing to begin a study of so complex andimportant a subject as our contemporary political culture. M...
“It is not a simple thing to begin a study of so complexand important a subject as our contemporary politicalculture. Many...
Political Understanding
“Your political growth began with your earliestyears and experiences.
“Your political growth began with your earliestyears and experiences. Today it is as if you arelooking at the world throug...
“Your political growth began with your earliestyears and experiences. Today it is as if you arelooking at the world throug...
Plato                                                                     Aristotle    Your political growth began with yo...
“It has become commonplace to see in today’s [1977‘s]press reference to what Alvin Toffler called “futureshock.”
“It has become commonplace to see in today’s [1977‘s]press reference to what Alvin Toffler called “futureshock.”
It has become commonplace to see in today’s pressreference to what Alvin Toffler called “futureshock.” Weregularly note the...
It has become commonplace to see in today’s pressreference to what Alvin Toffler called “futureshock.” Weregularly note the...
It has become commonplace to see in today’s pressreference to what Alvin Toffler called “futureshock.” Weregularly note the...
It has become commonplace to see in today’s pressreference to what Alvin Toffler called “futureshock.” Weregularly note the...
“The last decade in America’s history [the ‘Sixties]ended with a bitter confrontation. Its intensity is almostimpossible t...
The last decade in America’s history [the ‘Sixties] endedwith a bitter confrontation. Its intensity is almostimpossible to...
The last decade in America’s history [the ‘Sixties] endedwith a bitter confrontation. Its intensity is almostimpossible to...
The last decade in America’s history [the ‘Sixties] endedwith a bitter confrontation. Its intensity is almostimpossible to...
The last decade in America’s history [the ‘Sixties] endedwith a bitter confrontation. Its intensity is almostimpossible to...
The last decade in America’s history [the ‘Sixties] endedwith a bitter confrontation. Its intensity is almostimpossible to...
“What does it mean to be an American?  “What is this country all about? Sociologist Robert Bellahcoined a term, “American ...
“What does it mean to be an American?  “What is this country all about? Sociologist Robert Bellahcoined a term, “American ...
“What does it mean to be an American?  “What is this country all about? Sociologist Robert Bellahcoined a term, “American ...
“What does it mean to be an American?  “What is this country all about? Sociologist Robert Bellahcoined a term, “American ...
“What does it mean to be an American?  “What is this country all about? Sociologist Robert Bellahcoined a term, “American ...
“What does it mean to be an American?  “What is this country all about? Sociologist Robert Bellahcoined a term, ‘American ...
“A recent U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations,Daniel P. Moynihan, struck a sobering note when hepointed out the vulnerab...
“A recent U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations,Daniel P. Moynihan, struck a sobering note when hepointed out the vulnerab...
“A recent U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations,Daniel P. Moynihan, struck a sobering note when hepointed out the vulnerab...
“In the aftermath of World War I this optimism began tofade.                                                      Ibid.
“In the aftermath of World War I this optimism began tofade. The Irish nationalist poet William Butler Yeats wrotelines th...
“In the aftermath of World War I this optimism began tofade. The Irish nationalist poet William Butler Yeats wrotelines th...
Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold;Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world,The blood dimmed tide is loosed, and every...
“In the aftermath of World War I this optimism began tofade. The Irish nationalist poet William Butler Yeats wrotelines th...
Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold;Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world,The blood dimmed tide is loosed, and every...
“In the aftermath of World War I this optimism began tofade. The Irish nationalist poet William Butler Yeats wrotelines th...
Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold;Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world,The blood dimmed tide is loosed, and every...
“In the aftermath of World War I this optimism began tofade. The Irish nationalist poet William Butler Yeats wrotelines th...
Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold;Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world,The blood dimmed tide is loosed, and every...
American Politics
American PoliticsMartin Luther King’s March on Washington, 1963
American confidence rose with what Ike later called the“Crusade in Europe,”                                                ...
American confidence rose with what Ike later called the“Crusade in Europe,” but hardly had peace come in 1945 whenthe Cold ...
Soviet                                                      tanks       American confidence rose with what Ike later called...
“American confidence rose with what Ike later called the“Crusade in Europe,” but hardly had peace come in 1945 whenthe Cold...
Troop Strength, 1959
“For more than thirty years now [in 1982] the United Statesand the Soviet Union have contended for hegemony in ashrinking ...
“For more than thirty years now [in 1982] the United Statesand the Soviet Union have contended for hegemony in ashrinking ...
1948Tito and Stalin clash. Yugoslavia is expelled from Cominform
1956When Nasser seized the Suez Canal our British and French allies              invaded. We refused to back them.
1958Chairman Mao Zedong and Premier Nikita Khrushchev, publicly      international allies, privately ideological enemies.
1963Ngo Dinh Diem and Ho Chi Minh fight openly.
1963Ngo Dinh Diem and Ho Chi Minh fight openly. First Kennedy intervenes,   then Johnson escalates. The country is divided,...
For more than thirty years now [in 1982] the United Statesand the Soviet Union have contended for hegemony in ashrinking w...
“For more than thirty years now [in 1982] the United Statesand the Soviet Union have contended for hegemony in ashrinking ...
Where To?
Where To?
Once again, in 2012, we live in     “interesting” times.
In the thirty years since the preceding words were written in1982, many amazing events have occurred. Who could havepredic...
In the thirty years since the preceding words were written in1982, many amazing events have occurred. Who could havepredic...
In the thirty years since the preceding words were written in1982, many amazing events have occurred. Who could havepredic...
In the thirty years since the preceding words were written in1982, many amazing events have occurred. Who could havepredic...
In the thirty years since those words were written in 1982many amazing events have occurred. Who could havepredicted then ...
In the thirty years since those words were written in 1982many amazing events have occurred. Who could havepredicted then ...
IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade [1982-1992] or so,it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very ...
In the thirty years since those words were written in 1982many amazing events have occurred. Who could havepredicted then ...
Some would minimize American exceptionalism,apologize for what they regard as our past hubris. Theysuggest we should “lead...
Some would minimize American exceptionalism,apologize for what they regard as our past hubris. Theysuggest we should “lead...
Some would minimize American exceptionalism,apologize for what they regard as our past hubris. Theysuggest we should “lead...
A City upon a Hill is a phrase from the parable of Salt and Light in JesusSermon on the Mount. In Matthew 5:14, he tells h...
A City upon a Hill is a phrase from the parable of Salt and Light in JesusSermon on the Mount. In Matthew 5:14, he tells h...
On 9 January 1961, President-Elect John F. Kennedy returned the phraseto prominence during an address delivered to the Gen...
President Ronald Reagan used the image as well, in his 1984 acceptanceof the Republican Party nomination and in his Januar...
“Jefferson once scorned the impossibility of ‘a peopleboth ignorant and free.’   “Those who expect to be both ignorant and...
“Jefferson once scorned the impossibility of ‘a peopleboth ignorant and free.’ In this, your last year in thepublic school...
Four score and seven years ago ourfathers brought forth on this continenta new nation, conceived in liberty, anddedicated ...
“Jefferson once scorned the impossibility of ‘a peopleboth ignorant and free.’ In this, your last year in thepublic school...
Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
Once upon a time, in a school district on the east side ofCincinnati, in a nation long since transformed, there was anidea...
The Dedication
my date, as we chaperone a high                      school promThe Dedication
The Dedication
my date, as we chaperone a high                      school promThe Dedication
The Dedication
(ho de an•ex•EH•tas•tos BI•os ou bi•ōh•TOS an•THRŌ•pō)
“Callimachus the philologist remarked that a “big book is abig evil.”   (µεγα βιβλια µεγα κακον)   I should like to begin ...
“I would next like to express my thanks to the familywhose anonymous gift to the school has paid for thepublication costs ...
“my colleaguesPaul Mattox taught his friends and students “a lot”besides physics    his daughter Kim helped check the text...
“The years since 1977 have been filled with criticism ofpublic education in America. The praise and appreciationof many of ...
The criticism of public education in America, if anything, hasheightened in the thirty years since I wrote that secondackn...
The criticism of public education in America, if anything, hasheightened in the thirty years since I wrote that secondackn...
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
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Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised
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This revised version should replace the earlier one. But I can't find the edit button to delete the earlier version. I've removed most of the "warts" caused by converting a .key to a .pdf. This is a third edition of a high school text I wrote first in 1977. It will ultimately review the ideas about government by looking at the works of ten thinkers from Plato to Karl Marx. This first presentation introduces the series.

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Justice & Power, Introduction, Revised

  1. 1. IntroductionJustice & Power--session i
  2. 2. IntroductionJustice & Power--session i
  3. 3. Topics in This Sessioni. Forward 2012ii.T Approaches woiii.Political Understandingiv.American Politicsv.Where To?vi. Acknowledgments
  4. 4. Forward 2012
  5. 5. Forward 2012
  6. 6. The purpose of this series of presentations is to encourage theviewer to reflect deeply on the meaning of justice and itsrelationship to power. Often people respond to situationsimpulsively without having a developed understanding of justiceand what might be necessary to produce it.
  7. 7. Bonasera: I went to the police, like a good American. These two boys [who had rapedhis daughter] were brought to trial. The judge sentenced them to three years in prison,and suspended the sentence. Suspended sentence! They went free that very day! Istood in the courtroom like a fool, and those two bastards, they smiled at me. Then Isaid to my wife, "For justice, we must go to Don Corleone."Don Corleone: Why did you go to the police? Why didnt you come to me first?
  8. 8. Bonasera: I went to the police, like a good American. These two boys [who had rapedhis daughter] were brought to trial. The judge sentenced them to three years in prison,and suspended the sentence. Suspended sentence! They went free that very day! Istood in the courtroom like a fool, and those two bastards, they smiled at me. Then Isaid to my wife, "For justice, we must go to Don Corleone."Don Corleone: Why did you go to the police? Why didnt you come to me first?
  9. 9. In Mario Puzo’s The Godfather, this unforgettable openingscene demonstrates the human sense of outrage which criesout for justice. The undertaker, Bonasera, goes first togovernment. When he learns, quite correctly, that ‘the system’lets him down, he turns to the traditional Sicilian process forregulating society--the Mafia, La Cosa Nostra (Our Thing). Hedoesn’t reflect on what impact his action might have on society,the long range consequences of organized crime.
  10. 10. Every revolution---ours, the French, the Russian, evenMussolini’s and Hitler’s---promises to institute a new politicalorder which will right wrongs and “establish justice.”
  11. 11. Every revolution---ours, the French, the Russian, evenMussolini’s and Hitler’s---promises to institute a new politicalorder which will right wrongs and “establish justice.”
  12. 12. That  to  secure  these  rights,  Governments  are  instituted  among  Men,  deriving  their  just  powers  from  the  consent  of  the  governed,  That  whenever  any  Form  of  Government  becomes  destructive  of  these  ends,  it  is  the  Right  of  the  People  to  alter  or  to  abolish  it,  and  to  institute  new  Government,  laying  its  foundation  on  such  principles  and  organizing  its  powers  in  such  form,  as  to  them  shall  seem  most  likely  to  effect  their  Safety  and  Happiness.-­‐‑-­‐‑The  Declaration  of  Independence,  1776
  13. 13. Every revolution---ours, the French, the Russian, evenMussolini’s and Hitler’s---promises to institute a new politicalorder which will right wrongs and “establish justice.”
  14. 14. We  the  People,  in  order  to  … establish  justice…. Preamble  to  the  U.S.  Constitution,  1787
  15. 15. The challenge is to apply power so that more rather than lessjustice results. or School Desegregation repression
  16. 16. The challenge is to apply power so that more rather than lessjustice results.
  17. 17. The challenge is to apply power so that more rather than lessjustice results. Throughout the history of mankind, the sanction of force has been elemental to the existence of social organizations. A careful reading of history reveals that physical force, or the threat of it, has been applied to the resolution of social and political problems since man formed the first primitive tribal group. That force, orchestrated as the situation demands, has continued to persist, assuring order; combatting enemies abroad or suppressing revolts at home; and, hopefully, upholding what is right. “Introduction to the West Point Military History Series,” p. ix
  18. 18. The challenge is to apply power so that more rather thanless justice resultsJustice without power to enforce it is impotentPower applied without justice at first produces resentment;and after “a long train of abuses,” revolutionJustice and power are the core principles of politicsWe will consider what ten great thinkers have said abouttheir application
  19. 19. frontispiece 1977
  20. 20. T Approaches wo
  21. 21. skills T Approaches wo plan
  22. 22. Preface “Suppose you were given the choice of knowing how to do allsorts of things really well but having no sense of what the rightthings to do were -- the activities that would give you a good,happy, fulfilled life. Or, on the other hand, you might choose tohave a deep insight into what should be done to build a good lifefor yourself but lack the skills or know-how to perform theseparate tasks to create such an existence. Let’s call a personchoosing the first alternative (skills but no plan) the lifetechnician, and a person choosing the second (plan but no skills)the life designer. Neither can reach his goal of a good life exceptby chance. Justice & Power, p. iii
  23. 23. Preface “Suppose you were given the choice of knowing how to do allsorts of things really well but having no sense of what the rightthings to do were -- the activities that would give you a good,happy, fulfilled life. Or, on the other hand, you might choose tohave a deep insight into what should be done to build a good lifefor yourself but lack the skills or know-how to perform theseparate tasks to create such an existence. Let’s call a personchoosing the first alternative (skills but no plan) the lifetechnician, and a person choosing the second (plan but no skills)the life designer. Neither can reach his goal of a good life exceptby chance. Justice & Power, p. iii
  24. 24. “At the national level we might envision two groups of people,two parties, like the above two individuals. The Life TechniciansParty would be expert in practical politics. They would have theskills to seize and keep control of the state. But they would haveno real policies, no plans to make the country a good place to live.The Life Designers would have an excellent program but no saavy,no organization, no chance to ever implement their policies. Againboth approaches would fall short and the country would not bemarkedly better for the presence of either group. Ibid.
  25. 25. “At the national level we might envision two groups of people,two parties, like the above two individuals. The Life TechniciansParty would be expert in practical politics. They would have theskills to seize and keep control of the state. But they would haveno real policies, no plans to make the country a good place to live.The Life Designers would have an excellent program but no saavy,no organization, no chance to ever implement their policies. Againboth approaches would fall short and the country would not bemarkedly better for the presence of either group. Ibid. Life Technicians Life Designers
  26. 26. The need for know-how is widely recognized. America hasespecially enshrined the pragmatic spirit of Yankee ingenuity, the“can-do” attitude Ibid.
  27. 27. The need for know-how is widely recognized. America hasespecially enshrined the pragmatic spirit of Yankee ingenuity, the“can-do” attitude which is disdainful of “ivory tower” intellectuals. Ibid.
  28. 28. The need for know-how is widely recognized. America hasespecially enshrined the pragmatic spirit of Yankee ingenuity, the“can-do” attitude which is disdainful of “ivory tower” intellectuals. Ibid.
  29. 29. The need for know-how is widely recognized. America hasespecially enshrined the pragmatic spirit of Yankee ingenuity, the“can-do” attitude which is disdainful of “ivory tower” intellectuals.Still, a moment’s reflection shows that mere activity without anunderlying order is the same as chaos which ancient civilizationsdirectly equated with evil. Ibid.
  30. 30. The need for know-how is widely recognized. America hasespecially enshrined the pragmatic spirit of Yankee ingenuity, the“can-do” attitude which is disdainful of “ivory tower” intellectuals.Still, a moment’s reflection shows that mere activity without anunderlying order is the same as chaos which ancient civilizationsdirectly equated with evil. Ibid.
  31. 31. The need for know-how is widely recognized. America hasespecially enshrined the pragmatic spirit of Yankee ingenuity, the“can-do” attitude which is disdainful of “ivory tower” intellectuals.Still, a moment’s reflection shows that mere activity without anunderlying order is the same as chaos which ancient civilizationsdirectly equated with evil. Ibid.
  32. 32. The need for know-how is widely recognized. America hasespecially enshrined the pragmatic spirit of Yankee ingenuity, the“can-do” attitude which is disdainful of “ivory tower” intellectuals.Still, a moment’s reflection shows that mere activity without anunderlying order is the same as chaos which ancient civilizationsdirectly equated with evil. Ibid.
  33. 33. The need for know-how is widely recognized. America hasespecially enshrined the pragmatic spirit of Yankee ingenuity, the“can-do” attitude which is disdainful of “ivory tower” intellectuals.Still, a moment’s reflection shows that mere activity without anunderlying order is the same as chaos which ancient civilizationsdirectly equated with evil. Ibid.
  34. 34. The need for know-how is widely recognized. America hasespecially enshrined the pragmatic spirit of Yankee ingenuity, the“can-do” attitude which is disdainful of “ivory tower” intellectuals.Still, a moment’s reflection shows that mere activity without anunderlying order is the same as chaos which ancient civilizationsdirectly equated with evil. Ibid.
  35. 35. “In developing a mature understanding of political affairsit is helpful to begin with three concepts: “practical” political sense political science political philosophy
  36. 36. “Practical” Political Sense….”The first type of knowledge is the product of experience “in the streets”apart from schools and reading. It is often associated with political figuressuch as Hitler Ibid.
  37. 37. “Practical” Political Sense….”The first type of knowledge is the product of experience “in the streets”apart from schools and reading. It is often associated with political figuressuch as Hitler Ibid.
  38. 38. “Practical” Political Sense….”The first type of knowledge is the product of experience “in the streets”apart from schools and reading. It is often associated with political figuressuch as Hitler or Cincinnati’s “Boss” Cox who have minimal schooling but greatpolitical acumen. Ibid.
  39. 39. ….”The first type of knowledge is the product of experience “inthe streets” apart from schools and reading. It is oftenassociated with political figures such as Hitler or Cincinnati’s“Boss” Cox who have minimal schooling but great politicalacumen. A mythology built up about gifted “men of the people”tends to obscure any later self-education which such maypursue. For obvious reasons, as the above two examples bearout, such unschooled leaders do not receive the praises ofhistorians and others who make their living schooling the young. Ibid.
  40. 40. In developing a mature understanding of political affairs itis helpful to begin with three concepts: “practical” political sense political science political philosophy
  41. 41. “Political science and philosophy are the product of schools[beginning in Athens at Plato’s Academy and Aristotle’sLyceum] though they are not carried on there exclusively. Tothe degree that [these studies] lose touch with “the real world,”they become futile. Much ink has been spilled in the twentiethcentury by scholars arguing about the history and merits---indeed the limits or boundaries---of each field of study. Simply,political science is descriptive while political philosophy isprescriptive.Political science tells about “what is” (and why it is) whilepolitical philosophy invites us to speculate upon “what ought tobe.” Ibid.
  42. 42. Those with “street smarts” may have the technical skills to gainand maintain power. Even “ivory tower” intellectuals withpolitical science degrees can achieve power. But if their goalsare based on a defective political philosophy the results arebound to disappoint.
  43. 43. “ Our study this quarter will not be limited to this narrow notionof political philosophy as prescriptive or normative (rule-making). Rather we will review the political history of our culturewith emphasis on how influential thinkers’ ideas haveconditioned the “what is” of today. You may find it a fascinatingjourney. Once your study has reached the twentieth centuryyou will be better prepared to assume your responsibility toposit the “what ought to be” and work toward the “what can be”of our country’s future. Powers, op. cit.
  44. 44. II“It is not a simple thing to begin a study of so complex andimportant a subject as our contemporary political culture. Manyhonest and intelligent people argue hotly about politicalquestions. Ibid.
  45. 45. II“It is not a simple thing to begin a study of so complex andimportant a subject as our contemporary political culture. Manyhonest and intelligent people argue hotly about politicalquestions. Ibid.
  46. 46. II“It is not a simple thing to begin a study of so complex andimportant a subject as our contemporary political culture. Manyhonest and intelligent people argue hotly about politicalquestions. Ibid.
  47. 47. “It is not a simple thing to begin a study of so complexand important a subject as our contemporary politicalculture. Many honest and learned people argue hotlyabout political questions. As you study the presentAmerican scene, to “see” things at all requires a context, afabric, a design to “fit” things into. Without some matrix toprovide meaning the thing remains part of the background,not “seen” at all. Ibid.
  48. 48. Political Understanding
  49. 49. “Your political growth began with your earliestyears and experiences.
  50. 50. “Your political growth began with your earliestyears and experiences. Today it is as if you arelooking at the world through tinted spectacleswhich your family and the larger society haveplaced over your eyes without either yourknowledge or consent.
  51. 51. “Your political growth began with your earliestyears and experiences. Today it is as if you arelooking at the world through tinted spectacleswhich your family and the larger society haveplaced over your eyes without either yourknowledge or consent.
  52. 52. Plato Aristotle Your political growth began with your earliest years andexperiences. Today it is as if you are looking at the world Machiavellithrough tinted spectacles which your family and the larger Hobbessociety have placed over your eyes without either your Lockeknowledge or consent. Our study will offer you ten new and Montesquieudifferent “spectacles” through which to look at the affairs of Rousseaumen in states. At the end you are not supposed to have traded Jeffersonyour “own” spectacles for another pair. Nor is it imagined that Burkeyou will have reached a pinnacle and can then see the world as Marxit really is “without spectacles.” But if you read thoughtfullyand participate in class, your vision will have increased andthings which form part of the background to less aware politicalobservers will jump out in bold relief for you. bold relief Ibid.
  53. 53. “It has become commonplace to see in today’s [1977‘s]press reference to what Alvin Toffler called “futureshock.”
  54. 54. “It has become commonplace to see in today’s [1977‘s]press reference to what Alvin Toffler called “futureshock.”
  55. 55. It has become commonplace to see in today’s pressreference to what Alvin Toffler called “futureshock.” Weregularly note the adverse effect upon others andourselves of the accelerated rate at which change occurs.There is a widespread feeling that all the old rules havegone by the boards. As the founder of modern automotiveculture, Henry Ford, remarked, “History is bunk.” Ibid.
  56. 56. It has become commonplace to see in today’s pressreference to what Alvin Toffler called “futureshock.” Weregularly note the adverse effect upon others andourselves of the accelerated rate at which change occurs.There is a widespread feeling that all the old rules havegone by the boards. As the founder of modern automotiveculture, Henry Ford, remarked, “History is bunk.” Ibid.
  57. 57. It has become commonplace to see in today’s pressreference to what Alvin Toffler called “futureshock.” Weregularly note the adverse effect upon others andourselves of the accelerated rate at which change occurs.There is a widespread feeling that all the old rules havegone by the boards. As the founder of modern automotiveculture, Henry Ford, remarked, “History is bunk.” Ibid.
  58. 58. It has become commonplace to see in today’s pressreference to what Alvin Toffler called “futureshock.” Weregularly note the adverse effect upon others andourselves of the accelerated rate at which change occurs.There is a widespread feeling that all the old rules havegone by the boards. As the founder of modernautomotive culture, Henry Ford, remarked, “History isbunk.” This atmosphere of uncertainty appears to be theproduct of what can only be referred to as an explosionof technology. Ibid.
  59. 59. “The last decade in America’s history [the ‘Sixties]ended with a bitter confrontation. Its intensity is almostimpossible to recall during this present [1977] lull. On oneside of this “terrible simplification” were the dissenters.They wanted to say no to everything which they believedhad produced the power structure, America’s ‘military-industrial complex.’ Ibid.
  60. 60. The last decade in America’s history [the ‘Sixties] endedwith a bitter confrontation. Its intensity is almostimpossible to recall during this present [1977] lull. On oneside of this “terrible simplification” were the dissenters.They wanted to say no to everything which they believedhad produced the power structure, America’s “military-industrial complex.” Opposed were those who felt thatthey had to affirm anything and everything which theybelieved stood threatened. Both sides claimed to be the“real” Americans. Ibid.
  61. 61. The last decade in America’s history [the ‘Sixties] endedwith a bitter confrontation. Its intensity is almostimpossible to recall during this present [1977] lull. On oneside of this “terrible simplification” were the dissenters.They wanted to say no to everything which they believedhad produced the power structure, America’s “military-industrial complex.” Opposed were those who felt thatthey had to affirm anything and everything which theybelieved stood threatened. Both sides claimed to be the“real” Americans. Ibid.
  62. 62. The last decade in America’s history [the ‘Sixties] endedwith a bitter confrontation. Its intensity is almostimpossible to recall during this present [1977] lull. On oneside of this “terrible simplification” were the dissenters.They wanted to say no to everything which they believedhad produced the power structure, America’s “military-industrial complex.” Opposed were those who felt thatthey had to affirm anything and everything which theybelieved stood threatened. Both sides claimed to be the“real” Americans. Ibid.
  63. 63. The last decade in America’s history [the ‘Sixties] endedwith a bitter confrontation. Its intensity is almostimpossible to recall during this present [1977] lull. On oneside of this “terrible simplification” were the dissenters.They wanted to say no to everything which they believedhad produced the power structure, America’s “military-industrial complex.” Opposed were those who felt thatthey had to affirm anything and everything which theybelieved stood threatened. Both sides claimed to be the“real” Americans. It was not a period which encouragedmoderation. Ibid.
  64. 64. The last decade in America’s history [the ‘Sixties] endedwith a bitter confrontation. Its intensity is almostimpossible to recall during this present [1977] lull. On oneside of this “terrible simplification” were the dissenters.They wanted to say no to everything which they believedhad produced the power structure, America’s “military-industrial complex.” Opposed were those who felt thatthey had to affirm anything and everything which theybelieved stood threatened. Both sides claimed to be the“real” Americans. It was not a period which encouragedmoderation. Ibid.
  65. 65. “What does it mean to be an American? “What is this country all about? Sociologist Robert Bellahcoined a term, “American civil religion,” to describe what heconsiders to be the core faith of our nation.
  66. 66. “What does it mean to be an American? “What is this country all about? Sociologist Robert Bellahcoined a term, “American civil religion,” to describe what heconsiders to be the core faith of our nation.
  67. 67. “What does it mean to be an American? “What is this country all about? Sociologist Robert Bellahcoined a term, “American civil religion,” to describe what heconsiders to be the core faith of our nation.
  68. 68. “What does it mean to be an American? “What is this country all about? Sociologist Robert Bellahcoined a term, “American civil religion,” to describe what heconsiders to be the core faith of our nation. It serves thesame function in our country which an established religionmight in another, for instance, Lutheranism in Sweden. Inthe ten year debate following Bellah’s article manyexaminations by thinkers in diverse fields have tried to naildown the religion of American ‘true believers.’
  69. 69. “What does it mean to be an American? “What is this country all about? Sociologist Robert Bellahcoined a term, “American civil religion,” to describe what heconsiders to be the core faith of our nation. It serves thesame function in our country which an established religionmight in another, for instance, Lutheranism in Sweden. Inthe ten year debate following Bellah’s article manyexaminations by thinkers in diverse fields have tried to naildown the religion of American ‘true believers.’
  70. 70. “What does it mean to be an American? “What is this country all about? Sociologist Robert Bellahcoined a term, ‘American civil religion,’ to describe what heconsiders to be the core faith of our nation. It serves thesame function in our country which an established religionmight in another, for instance, Lutheranism in Sweden. I ntten year debate following Bellah’s article many examinationsby thinkers in diverse fields have tried to nail down thereligion of American ‘true believers.’ Almost coincidentallyto this learned dialogue, the American people experienced abicentennial with serious thought as well as souvenirs. Ibid.
  71. 71. “A recent U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations,Daniel P. Moynihan, struck a sobering note when hepointed out the vulnerability of democracy in the worldtoday. . Ibid
  72. 72. “A recent U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations,Daniel P. Moynihan, struck a sobering note when hepointed out the vulnerability of democracy in the worldtoday. During the first two hundred years it seemed clearthat our type of political order was an example which therest of the world would soon follow. Indeed most of theNew World nations of Latin America modeled theirconstitutions after ours. Tyrants everywhere were on thedefensive. Ibid.
  73. 73. “A recent U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations,Daniel P. Moynihan, struck a sobering note when hepointed out the vulnerability of democracy in the worldtoday. During the first two hundred years it seemed clearthat our type of political order was an example which therest of the world would soon follow. Indeed most of theNew World nations of Latin America modeled theirconstitutions after ours. Tyrants everywhere were on thedefensive. Ibid.
  74. 74. “In the aftermath of World War I this optimism began tofade. Ibid.
  75. 75. “In the aftermath of World War I this optimism began tofade. The Irish nationalist poet William Butler Yeats wrotelines that were prophetic of the years ahead: Ibid.
  76. 76. “In the aftermath of World War I this optimism began tofade. The Irish nationalist poet William Butler Yeats wrotelines that were prophetic of the years ahead: Ibid.
  77. 77. Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold;Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world,The blood dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhereThe ceremony of innocence is drowned;The best lack all conviction, while the worstAre full of passionate intensity. Yeats, “The Second Coming” written 1919 published 1920
  78. 78. “In the aftermath of World War I this optimism began tofade. The Irish nationalist poet William Butler Yeats wrotelines that were prophetic of the years ahead: Ibid.
  79. 79. Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold;Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world,The blood dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhereThe ceremony of innocence is drowned;The best lack all conviction, while the worstAre full of passionate intensity. Yeats, “The Second Coming” written 1919 published 1920
  80. 80. “In the aftermath of World War I this optimism began tofade. The Irish nationalist poet William Butler Yeats wrotelines that were prophetic of the years ahead: Ibid.
  81. 81. Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold;Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world,The blood dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhereThe ceremony of innocence is drowned;The best lack all conviction, while the worstAre full of passionate intensity. Yeats, “The Second Coming” written 1919 published 1920
  82. 82. “In the aftermath of World War I this optimism began tofade. The Irish nationalist poet William Butler Yeats wrotelines that were prophetic of the years ahead: Ibid.
  83. 83. Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold;Mere anarchy is loosed upon the world,The blood dimmed tide is loosed, and everywhereThe ceremony of innocence is drowned;The best lack all conviction, while the worstAre full of passionate intensity. Yeats, “The Second Coming” written 1919 published 1920
  84. 84. American Politics
  85. 85. American PoliticsMartin Luther King’s March on Washington, 1963
  86. 86. American confidence rose with what Ike later called the“Crusade in Europe,” Ibid.
  87. 87. American confidence rose with what Ike later called the“Crusade in Europe,” but hardly had peace come in 1945 whenthe Cold War Ibid.
  88. 88. Soviet tanks American confidence rose with what Ike later called the “Crusade in Europe,” but hardly had peace come in 1945 when the Cold War Ibid.US tanks Berlin, 1948 “Checkpoint ‘Charlie’
  89. 89. “American confidence rose with what Ike later called the“Crusade in Europe,” but hardly had peace come in 1945 whenthe Cold War created a more intractable challenge for Americaand those other countries which together with us make up theWest or the “Free World.” Ibid.
  90. 90. Troop Strength, 1959
  91. 91. “For more than thirty years now [in 1982] the United Statesand the Soviet Union have contended for hegemony in ashrinking world where nuclear weapons have assured thatthere will be no bystanders.
  92. 92. “For more than thirty years now [in 1982] the United Statesand the Soviet Union have contended for hegemony in ashrinking world where nuclear weapons have assured thatthere will be no bystanders. The nature of the conflict haschanged dramatically as the client states of each superpowerhave developed or declined and divisions have occurredwithin each camp.
  93. 93. 1948Tito and Stalin clash. Yugoslavia is expelled from Cominform
  94. 94. 1956When Nasser seized the Suez Canal our British and French allies invaded. We refused to back them.
  95. 95. 1958Chairman Mao Zedong and Premier Nikita Khrushchev, publicly international allies, privately ideological enemies.
  96. 96. 1963Ngo Dinh Diem and Ho Chi Minh fight openly.
  97. 97. 1963Ngo Dinh Diem and Ho Chi Minh fight openly. First Kennedy intervenes, then Johnson escalates. The country is divided, then humiliated.
  98. 98. For more than thirty years now [in 1982] the United Statesand the Soviet Union have contended for hegemony in ashrinking world where nuclear weapons have assured thatthere will be no bystanders. The nature of the conflict haschanged dramatically as the client states of each superpowerhave developed or declined and divisions have occurredwithin each camp. T believe that this power struggle in our o“global village” is at heart a contest for resources or marketsis to adopt a Marxist interpretation of history.
  99. 99. “For more than thirty years now [in 1982] the United Statesand the Soviet Union have contended for hegemony in ashrinking world where nuclear weapons have assured thatthere will be no bystanders. The nature of the conflict haschanged dramatically as the client states of each superpowerhave developed or declined and divisions have occurredwithin each camp. T believe that this power struggle in our o“global village” is at heart a contest for resources or marketsis to adopt a Marxist interpretation of history. The issue ofthe present [1982] decisive conflict in the history of mankindis nothing other than which political philosophies, if any, shallprevail.”
  100. 100. Where To?
  101. 101. Where To?
  102. 102. Once again, in 2012, we live in “interesting” times.
  103. 103. In the thirty years since the preceding words were written in1982, many amazing events have occurred. Who could havepredicted then that a former movie actor, two Poles, and areformist Communist politician would together bring aboutthe collapse of the mighty Soviet Union?
  104. 104. In the thirty years since the preceding words were written in1982, many amazing events have occurred. Who could havepredicted then that a former movie actor, two Poles, and areformist Communist politician would together bring aboutthe collapse of the mighty Soviet Union?
  105. 105. In the thirty years since the preceding words were written in1982, many amazing events have occurred. Who could havepredicted then that a former movie actor, two Poles, and areformist Communist politician would together bring aboutthe collapse of the mighty Soviet Union?
  106. 106. In the thirty years since the preceding words were written in1982, many amazing events have occurred. Who could havepredicted then that a former movie actor, two Poles, and areformist Communist politician would together bring aboutthe collapse of the mighty Soviet Union?
  107. 107. In the thirty years since those words were written in 1982many amazing events have occurred. Who could havepredicted then that a former movie actor, two Poles, and areformist Soviet politician would together create the collapseof the mighty Soviet Union? That didn’t bring about “the end of history,” as one brashpolitical scientist predicted in 1992.
  108. 108. In the thirty years since those words were written in 1982many amazing events have occurred. Who could havepredicted then that a former movie actor, two Poles, and areformist Soviet politician would together create the collapseof the mighty Soviet Union? That didn’t bring about “the end of history,” as one brashpolitical scientist predicted in 1992.
  109. 109. IN WATCHING the flow of events over the past decade [1982-1992] or so,it is hard to avoid the feeling that something very fundamental hashappened in world history. The past year has seen a flood of articlescommemorating the end of the Cold War, and the fact that "peace" seemsto be breaking out in many regions of the world. Most of these analyseslack any larger conceptual framework for distinguishing between what isessential and what is contingent or accidental in world history, and arepredictably superficial. If Mr. Gorbachev were ousted from the Kremlin ora new Ayatollah proclaimed the millennium from a desolate MiddleEastern capital, these same commentators would scramble to announce therebirth of a new era of conflict.And yet, all of these people sense dimly that there is some larger processat work, a process that gives coherence and order to the daily headlines... Francis Fukuyama, “The End of History”
  110. 110. In the thirty years since those words were written in 1982many amazing events have occurred. Who could havepredicted then that a former movie actor, two Poles, and areformist Soviet politician would together create the collapseof the mighty Soviet Union? That didn’t bring about “the end of history,” as one brashpolitical scientist predicted in 1992. Not just “...a newAyatollah,” but a host of characters, both great and small,combined to destroy that millennial optimism.
  111. 111. Some would minimize American exceptionalism,apologize for what they regard as our past hubris. Theysuggest we should “lead from behind.”
  112. 112. Some would minimize American exceptionalism,apologize for what they regard as our past hubris. Theysuggest we should “lead from behind.” Others would liketo see us disengage from world leadership entirely andconcentrate on our domestic challenges.
  113. 113. Some would minimize American exceptionalism,apologize for what they regard as our past hubris. Theysuggest we should “lead from behind.” Others would liketo see us disengage from world leadership entirely andconcentrate on our domestic challenges. Still otherstake inspiration from the Reagan years and wish toresume the role of “a city upon a hill.”
  114. 114. A City upon a Hill is a phrase from the parable of Salt and Light in JesusSermon on the Mount. In Matthew 5:14, he tells his listeners, "You are thelight of the world. A city that is set on a hill cannot be hidden." Wikipedia
  115. 115. A City upon a Hill is a phrase from the parable of Salt and Light in JesusSermon on the Mount. In Matthew 5:14, he tells his listeners, "You are thelight of the world. A city that is set on a hill cannot be hidden."The phrase entered the American lexicon early in its history, in the PuritanJohn Winthrops 1630 sermon "A Model of Christian Charity". Winthropadmonished the future Massachusetts Bay colonists that their newcommunity would be a "city upon a hill", watched by the world---whichbecame the ideal the New England colonists placed upon their hilly capitalcity, Boston. Winthrops sermon gave rise to the widespread belief inAmerican folklore that the United States of America is Gods countrybecause metaphorically it is a Shining City upon a Hill, an early example ofAmerican exceptionalism. [emphasis added--jbp] Wikipedia
  116. 116. On 9 January 1961, President-Elect John F. Kennedy returned the phraseto prominence during an address delivered to the General Court ofMassachusetts: ...I have been guided by the standard John Winthrop set before his shipmates on the flagship Arbella three hundred and thirty-one years ago, as they, too, faced the task of building a new government on a perilous frontier. "We must always consider", he said, "that we shall be as a city upon a hill—the eyes of all people are upon us". Today the eyes of all people are truly upon us—and our governments.... Wikipedia
  117. 117. President Ronald Reagan used the image as well, in his 1984 acceptanceof the Republican Party nomination and in his January 11, 1989, farewellspeech to the nation: ...Ive spoken of the shining city all my political life, but I dont know if I ever quite communicated what I saw when I said it. But in my mind it was a tall proud city built on rocks stronger than oceans, wind-swept, God-blessed, and teeming with people of all kinds living in harmony and peace, a city with free ports that hummed with commerce and creativity, and if there had to be city walls, the walls had doors and the doors were open to anyone with the will and the heart to get here. Thats how I saw it and see it still... Wikipedia
  118. 118. “Jefferson once scorned the impossibility of ‘a peopleboth ignorant and free.’ “Those who expect to be both ignorant and free, expect what never was and never will be.”
  119. 119. “Jefferson once scorned the impossibility of ‘a peopleboth ignorant and free.’ In this, your last year in thepublic schools, you will prepare to make yourcontribution to what Lincoln characterized as anexperiment in the political history of mankind. The fateof this nation, “so conceived and so dedicated,” is noless uncertain today than it was in 1863.
  120. 120. Four score and seven years ago ourfathers brought forth on this continenta new nation, conceived in liberty, anddedicated to the proposition that allmen are created equal.Now we are engaged in a great civilwar, testing whether that nation, orany nation, so conceived and sodedicated, can long endure.
  121. 121. “Jefferson once scorned the impossibility of ‘a peopleboth ignorant and free.’ In this, your last year in thepublic schools, you will prepare to make yourcontribution to what Lincoln characterized as anexperiment in the political history of mankind. The fateof this nation, “so conceived and so dedicated,” is noless uncertain today than it was in 1863.As we enter our third century, the type of politicalphilosophy which animates our people will decidewhether we can---indeed, whether we should---celebrate a tricentennial.” James B. Powers,”Justice & Power; A Primer in Political Philosophy,” 1982
  122. 122. Acknowledgments
  123. 123. Acknowledgments
  124. 124. Once upon a time, in a school district on the east side ofCincinnati, in a nation long since transformed, there was anidealistic high school teacher of American Government. Thisseries of presentations is based on a small book which hewrote in 1977 for his seniors. He planned an eight weekintroduction to the required civics class. It reviewed WesternCiv for students, most of whose knowledge of it was skimpy atbest. The premise then, and still today, was that knowing thesephilosophers and their ideas is the necessary foundation formaking intelligent choices as a citizen in our democraticrepublic.
  125. 125. The Dedication
  126. 126. my date, as we chaperone a high school promThe Dedication
  127. 127. The Dedication
  128. 128. my date, as we chaperone a high school promThe Dedication
  129. 129. The Dedication
  130. 130. (ho de an•ex•EH•tas•tos BI•os ou bi•ōh•TOS an•THRŌ•pō)
  131. 131. “Callimachus the philologist remarked that a “big book is abig evil.” (µεγα βιβλια µεγα κακον) I should like to begin bythanking those former students who have helped meappreciate the need for brevity. During the seven years that Ihave taught “the philosophers” at Indian Hill, thisintroduction has been one of the most popular parts of thesenior government course. I have been stimulated often bystudents’ comments both written and oral. The material andapproach here owes much to them.
  132. 132. “I would next like to express my thanks to the familywhose anonymous gift to the school has paid for thepublication costs of this guide. Perhaps the greatestsingle fringe benefit of teaching in this system is theopportunity to meet so many public-spirited adults.
  133. 133. “my colleaguesPaul Mattox taught his friends and students “a lot”besides physics his daughter Kim helped check the text for student comprehensibilityPaul Connell has patiently listened to me rave about allthis for thirteen years. His insights as a former collegephilosophy prof have inspired meBob West helped me with his English skillsBill Kincaid, our Franklin, with the printingDr. Anna Graham showed me long ago that seniors don’trequire either pablum or spoon feeding. Every beginningteacher should be as fortunate in his mentor as I was August, 1977
  134. 134. “The years since 1977 have been filled with criticism ofpublic education in America. The praise and appreciationof many of my students for this work has been a mostwelcome respite. It is better for their suggestions. [onestudent, who later served in the Bush White House, wroteback that this class was better than his freshman WesternCiv class at Harvard!] Diane McDonald and Bill Kincaidare true professionals. It is a privilege to work and studyin a community which affirms the value of examining thepast. July, 1982 Indian Hill, Ohio
  135. 135. The criticism of public education in America, if anything, hasheightened in the thirty years since I wrote that secondacknowledgment. I have been retired for twenty-two of them.“You can take the teacher out of the classroom, but…”My heartfelt thanks to Marty Selzer who created the Mt SaintJoseph Life-Learn program and asked me to teach a class forthe Ohio bicentennial in 2003.And again, having so many interested and interesting studentsis the great reward for this wonderful vocation. July, 2012 Cincinnati, Ohio
  136. 136. The criticism of public education in America, if anything, hasheightened in the thirty years since I wrote that secondacknowledgment. I have been retired for twenty-two of them.“You can take the teacher out of the classroom, but…”My heartfelt thanks to Marty Selzer who created the Mt SaintJoseph Life-Learn program and asked me to teach a class forthe Ohio bicentennial in 2003.And again, having so many interested and interesting studentsis the great reward for this wonderful vocation. My belovedKate (nee Catherine) continues to be my muse. Once again,her suggestions have made a great contribution to this project. July, 2012 Cincinnati, Ohio

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