Machiavelli                             Justice & Power, session ivThursday, September 20, 12
Topics in This Session             i.Introduction             ii.Renaissance Italy             iii.Machiavelli            ...
IntroductionThursday, September 20, 12
IntroductionThursday, September 20, 12
Turning from the world depicted in Aristotle’s Politics to              that in The Prince, one is tempted to be overcome ...
When the three are compared certain issues arise. First there                is the tension between theoretical* and pract...
When the three are compared certain issues arise. First there                is the tension between theoretical* and pract...
As Alexander’s armies spread the Greek language                throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, a Hellenistic culture...
As Alexander’s armies spread the Greek language                throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, a Hellenistic culture...
As Alexander’s armies spread the Greek language                throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, a Hellenistic culture...
After almost three centuries of persecution and growth,                this church captured the state power when one of it...
After almost three centuries of persecution and growth,                this church captured the state power when one of it...
T milestones of Western thought are Augustine’s* City of                    wo                God*, written at the beginni...
T milestones of Western thought are Augustine’s* City of                    wo                God*, written at the beginni...
Two milestones of Western thought are Augustine’s City of God, written at                the beginning of the fifth century...
Two milestones of Western thought are Augustine’s City of God, written at                the beginning of the fifth century...
DUO SUNT                                  494 AD                    regnum                                   et           ...
During this [5th] century, the western half of the empire                “fell” to the barbarians. The thousand years betw...
During this [5th] century, the western half of the empire                “fell” to the barbarians. The thousand years betw...
During this [5th] century, the western half of the empire                “fell” to the barbarians. The thousand years betw...
During this [5th] century, the western half of the empire                “fell” to the barbarians. The thousand years betw...
During this [5th] century, the western half of the empire                “fell” to the barbarians. The thousand years betw...
It should be apparent to the thoughtful student that it is               impossible to speak of Medieval Christendom in ge...
It should be apparent to the thoughtful student that it is               impossible to speak of Medieval Christendom in ge...
It should be apparent to the thoughtful student that it is               impossible to speak of Medieval Christendom in ge...
It should be apparent to the thoughtful student that it is               impossible to speak of Medieval Christendom in ge...
After Charlemagne was crowned emperor in the West on               Christmas Day, 800 A.D.*, the condition began to develo...
After Charlemagne was crowned emperor in the West on               Christmas Day, 800 A.D.*, the condition began to develo...
After Charlemagne was crowned emperor in the West on               Christmas Day, 800 A.D.*, the condition began to develo...
The medieval popes hoped to use the crusading movement,               which they had begun in 1095, to increase their auth...
The medieval popes hoped to use the crusading movement,               which they had begun in 1095, to increase their auth...
As the pursuit of wealth and power by the Church led many               to question its moral authority, reform movements ...
As the pursuit of wealth and power by the Church led many               to question its moral authority, reform movements ...
As the pursuit of wealth and power by the Church led many               to question its moral authority, reform movements ...
As the pursuit of wealth and power by the Church led many               to question its moral authority, reform movements ...
As the pursuit of wealth and power by the Church led many               to question its moral authority, reform movements ...
As the pursuit of wealth and power by the Church led many to question its               moral authority, reform movements ...
As the pursuit of wealth and power by the Church led many to question its               moral authority, reform movements ...
The first revival of classical texts ironically had to come from Islamic and                Jewish sources because Christia...
Jacopo Pontormo, postumous portrait of Cosimo de’ Medici the Elder                                                (1389–14...
So much for the two thousand year gulf between our three                philosophers. Machiavelli’s polis Florence would h...
The Platonic Academy was a 15th century discussion group in                Florence. It was founded after Gemistus Pletho ...
The Platonic Academy was a 15th century discussion group in                Florence. It was founded after Gemistus Pletho ...
The Platonic Academy was a 15th century discussion group in                Florence. It was founded after Gemistus Pletho ...
The Platonic Academy was a 15th century discussion group in                Florence. It was founded after Gemistus Pletho ...
The Platonic Academy was a 15th century discussion group in                Florence. It was founded after Gemistus Pletho ...
So much for the two thousand year gulf between our three                philosophers. Machiavelli’s polis Florence would h...
Renaissance ItalyThursday, September 20, 12
The Siege of Florence by Giorgio Vasari 1558.                             Renaissance ItalyThursday, September 20, 12
II. Renaissance Italy                     A. End of the Middle Ages                        1. feudalism                   ...
feudalism                                           lord                                           vassal (a lesser noblem...
Popes & Emperors                    Gregory vii            Canossa, 1077         Henry iv                                 ...
Popes & Kings                                               Unam Sanctam, 1302                   Philip iv                ...
Council of Constance, 1414-1417                1408-Council of Pisa deposed both &                elected a third         ...
Council of Constance, 1414-1417                1408-Council of Pisa deposed both &                elected a third         ...
Council of Constance, 1414-1417                1408-Council of Pisa deposed both &                elected a third         ...
Crusades                1095-Urban ii, Deo lo vult!, also to                strengthen the role of the papacyThursday, Sep...
Crusades                1095-Urban ii, Deo lo vult!, also to                strengthen the role of the papacy             ...
Crusades                1095-Urban ii, Deo lo vult!, also to                strengthen the role of the papacy             ...
HumanismThursday, September 20, 12
Humanism                                                            ἄνθρωπος µέτρον                                       ...
II. B. Humanism                             1. guomo universaleThursday, September 20, 12
II. B. Humanism                                         2. Classical vs Christian Humanists       Giovanni Pico della Mira...
II. B. Humanism                             2. Classical vs Christian Humanists                                           ...
Duchy of Tuscany Becomes the Florentine RepublicThursday, September 20, 12
Thursday, September 20, 12
Florence             Firenzi              Arno              RiverThursday, September 20, 12
Florence             Firenzi              Arno              River              PisaThursday, September 20, 12
The Big Five            Florence             Firenzi              Arno              River              PisaThursday, Septe...
The Big Five                             Republic of Genoa            Florence             Firenzi              Arno      ...
The Big Five                             Republic of Genoa            Florence                             Venetian Republ...
The Big Five                             Republic of Genoa            Florence                             Venetian Republ...
The Big Five                             Republic of Genoa            Florence                             Venetian Republ...
The Big Five                             Republic of Genoa            Florence                             Venetian Republ...
II.B.4. Lorenzo the Magnificent, 1449-1492          de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissanc...
The Artists He Patronized         LeonardoThursday, September 20, 12
The Artists He Patronized         LeonardoThursday, September 20, 12
The Artists He Patronized         LeonardoThursday, September 20, 12
The Artists He Patronized         LeonardoThursday, September 20, 12
The Artists He Patronized         Leonardo Michaelangelo BuonarrotiThursday, September 20, 12
The Artists He Patronized         Leonardo Michaelangelo BuonarrotiThursday, September 20, 12
The Artists He Patronized         Leonardo Michaelangelo BuonarrotiThursday, September 20, 12
The Artists He Patronized         Leonardo Michaelangelo BuonarrotiThursday, September 20, 12
The Artists He Patronized         Leonardo Michaelangelo Buonarroti Sandro BotticelliThursday, September 20, 12
The Artists He Patronized         Leonardo Michaelangelo Buonarroti Sandro BotticelliThursday, September 20, 12
The Artists He Patronized         Leonardo Michaelangelo Buonarroti Sandro Botticelli Domenico GhirlandaioThursday, Septem...
The Artists He Patronized         Leonardo Michaelangelo Buonarroti Sandro Botticelli Domenico GhirlandaioThursday, Septem...
The Artists He Patronized                                                                  Andrea del Verrochio         Le...
The Artists He Patronized                                                                  Andrea del Verrochio         Le...
The Artists He Patronized                                                                  Andrea del Verrochio         Le...
The Artists He Patronized                                                                  Andrea del Verrochio         Le...
The Artists He Patronized                                                                  Andrea del Verrochio         Le...
The Artists He Patronized                                                                  Andrea del Verrochio         Le...
The Artists He Patronized                                                                   Antonio del Pollaiolo         ...
The Artists He Patronized                                                                   Antonio del Pollaiolo         ...
The Artists He Patronized                                                                   Antonio del Pollaiolo         ...
The Artists He Patronized                                                                   Antonio del Pollaiolo         ...
The Pazzi ConspiracyThursday, September 20, 12
T della Rovere nobles: Cardinal Guiliano, later Pope Julius II; and Francesco, then Pope Sixtus IV     woThursday, Septemb...
the Pazzi banking family of Florence deeply resented their                powerful rivals, the Medici                anoth...
Thursday, September 20, 12
MachiavelliThursday, September 20, 12
Machiavelli                         Statue of Machiavelli at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, ItalyThursday, September 20, 12
III. Machiavelli                     A. Early Years                        1. family                        2. training   ...
1469-born to an attorney father, his             family had produced 13 Gonfalonieri,             educated as a humanist  ...
1452-born to a physician father and                                         noble mother, educated as a humanist          ...
CHAPTER VI                                  OF NEW DOMINIONS WHICH HAVE                                   BEEN ACQUIRED BY...
CHAPTER VI                                           (CONT.)             ….it is necessary to order things so that when [t...
1498--hanged, body burned, ashes scattered in the Arno River                                               CHAPTER VI     ...
III.B.War & Peace 1. French intervention (chap.3)                1489-Pope Innocent viii, being at odds with              ...
III.B.War & Peace 1. French intervention (chap.3)                1489-Pope Innocent viii, being at odds with              ...
III.B.War & Peace 1. French intervention (chap.3)                1489-Pope Innocent viii, being at odds with              ...
III.B.War & Peace 1. French intervention (chap.3)                1489-Pope Innocent viii, being at odds with              ...
In the Italian War of 1499–1504, [French king Louis XII] successfully                secured Milan itself in the year 1499...
Louis XII entering Genoa in 1507. Miniature by Jean BourdichonThursday, September 20, 12
CHAPTER III                                               CONCERNING MIXED                                                ...
III.B.2.a--Paolo Vitelli-the condottieri (warlords)           1494-when Charles invaded Italy, Pisa           claimed its ...
CHAPTER XII                                          HOW MANY KINDS OF SOLDIERY                                           ...
CHAPTER XII                                             HOW MANY KINDS OF SOLDIERY                                        ...
CHAPTER XII                                          HOW MANY KINDS OF SOLDIERY                                           ...
III.B.3--Mission to Louis XII                                          Machiavelli’s diplomatic career                    ...
NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI                                                     TO                                LORENZO THE MAGN...
THE NEW MONARCHIES         Next the seignoria sent Machiavelli on a diplomatic mission to King Louis of France.         Fr...
born in Catalonia to an “ecclesiastical family.” His                                         uncle was bishop of Valencia ...
born in Catalonia to an “ecclesiastical family.” His                                         uncle was bishop of Valencia ...
born in Catalonia to an “ecclesiastical family.” His                                         uncle was bishop of Valencia ...
born in Catalonia to an “ecclesiastical family.” His                                         uncle was bishop of Valencia ...
born in Catalonia to an “ecclesiastical family.” His                                         uncle was bishop of Valencia ...
CHAPTER XVIII                                  IN WHAT WAY PRINCES MUST                                         KEEP FAITH...
Pope Alexander’s Family                1470-Vannozza dei Cattanei, age 28, one of many                mistresses of then c...
Pope Alexander’s Family                1470-Vannozza dei Cattanei, age 28, one of many                mistresses of then c...
Pope Alexander’s Family                1470-Vannozza dei Cattanei, age 28, one of many                mistresses of then c...
Pope Alexander’s Family                1470-Vannozza dei Cattanei, age 28, one of many                mistresses of then c...
Pope Alexander’s Family                1470-Vannozza dei Cattanei, age 28, one of many                mistresses of then c...
Pope Alexander’s Family                1470-Vannozza dei Cattanei, age 28, one of many                mistresses of then c...
Cesare changes careers                                         1490-age 15, made bishop of Pamplona                       ...
Cesare changes careers                                         1490-age 15, made bishop of Pamplona                       ...
Cesare expands the family business            1500-the pope sent Cesare to Romagna to subdue the            turbulent loca...
CHAPTER VII                                             OF NEW DOMINIONS ACQUIRED                                         ...
CHAPTER VII                                             OF NEW DOMINIONS ACQUIRED                                         ...
III.C.1.a--Lucrezia Borgia                                                             1little is known with certainty. He...
III.C.1.a--Lucrezia Borgia                                                             1little is known with certainty. He...
III.C.2 Pope Julius IIThursday, September 20, 12
III.C.2 Pope Julius II           1471-elevated to bishop after his uncle became Pope Sixtus iv           then made Cardina...
1510-T Augustinian monks from Erfurt went to Rome to see Pope                  wo            Julius regarding a matter tha...
Thursday, September 20, 12
Thursday, September 20, 12
Thursday, September 20, 12
Thursday, September 20, 12
Thursday, September 20, 12
Thursday, September 20, 12
Thursday, September 20, 12
J&P session iv-Machiavelli
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J&P session iv-Machiavelli
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My biggest contribution to this well-documented masterpiece is the introduction which summarizes the two millennia between Aristotle and Machiavelli! It was fun finding the visuals to make this interesting.

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J&P session iv-Machiavelli

  1. 1. Machiavelli Justice & Power, session ivThursday, September 20, 12
  2. 2. Topics in This Session i.Introduction ii.Renaissance Italy iii.Machiavelli iv.The Prince v.CriticismThursday, September 20, 12
  3. 3. IntroductionThursday, September 20, 12
  4. 4. IntroductionThursday, September 20, 12
  5. 5. Turning from the world depicted in Aristotle’s Politics to that in The Prince, one is tempted to be overcome by the contrasts. It might seem that in eighteen and a half centuries an unbridgeable gulf had grown. Common wisdom depicts Plato and Aristotle as high minded, moral, and idealistic. If Machiavelli is known at all, it is as an immoral, cynical, schemer. The differences between the two* Greek philosophers and the renaissance Italian politician seem all important. But, as a disciple of Socrates, you have learned to be wary of first appearances. Justice & Power, p. 10Thursday, September 20, 12
  6. 6. When the three are compared certain issues arise. First there is the tension between theoretical* and practical knowledge which was introduced in the Preface. Second, there is the question of morality. Significant changes in the relationship of church and state occurred during the intervening years. These changes recast the terms of the persistent question: what is the relationship between faith* and reason? The rivalry between philosophy and theology, the secular and the sacred approaches to knowledge, was keenly felt during the Renaissance. The key to understanding Machiavelli’s seeming rejection of the theoretical approach and moral “preachiness” of Plato and Aristotle lies in the religious and political events of the nearly two thousand years which separate them. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  7. 7. When the three are compared certain issues arise. First there is the tension between theoretical* and practical knowledge which was introduced in the Preface. Second, there is the question of morality. Significant changes in the relationship of church and state occurred during the intervening years. These changes recast the terms of the persistent question: what is the relationship between faith* and reason? The rivalry between philosophy and theology, the secular and the sacred approaches to knowledge, was keenly felt during the Renaissance. The key to understanding Machiavelli’s seeming rejection of the theoretical approach and moral “preachiness” of Plato and Aristotle lies in the religious and political events of the nearly two thousand years which separate them. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  8. 8. As Alexander’s armies spread the Greek language throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, a Hellenistic culture began to make all separate “nations” (tribes) part of the Cosmopolis.* One such small and fiercely independent ethnic group was the Jews. Rome expanded eastward when Alexander’s successors fought among themselves. A Roman governor, Pontius Pilate, executed a reputed blasphemer and troublemaker, Jesus of Nazareth.* Roman justice must have claimed hundreds of thousands* of lives, but none so significant as this one. Jesus’ disciples had an experience on the third day after his death* which led to the creation of one of the world’s great religions. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  9. 9. As Alexander’s armies spread the Greek language throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, a Hellenistic culture began to make all separate “nations” (tribes) part of the Cosmopolis.* One such small and fiercely independent ethnic group was the Jews. Rome expanded eastward when Alexander’s successors fought among themselves. A Roman governor, Pontius Pilate, executed a reputed blasphemer and troublemaker, Jesus of Nazareth.* Roman justice must have claimed hundreds of thousands* of lives, but none so significant as this one. Jesus’ disciples had an experience on the third day after his death* which led to the creation of one of the world’s great religions. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  10. 10. As Alexander’s armies spread the Greek language throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, a Hellenistic culture began to make all separate “nations” (tribes) part of the Cosmopolis.* One such small and fiercely independent ethnic group was the Jews. Rome expanded eastward when Alexander’s successors fought among themselves. A Roman governor, Pontius Pilate, executed a reputed blasphemer and troublemaker, Jesus of Nazareth.* Roman justice must have claimed hundreds of thousands* of lives, but none so significant as this one. Jesus’ disciples had an experience on the third day after his death* which led to the creation of one of the world’s great religions. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  11. 11. After almost three centuries of persecution and growth, this church captured the state power when one of its converts, Constantine*, became emperor in 313 AD. Then, a new approach to evangelism developed using the former persecutor, the state, as an instrument for spreading the Gospel and even forcing it upon pagans*. The corrupting influence of this power was clear to church leaders from the start, but no easy solution to the dilemma was found. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  12. 12. After almost three centuries of persecution and growth, this church captured the state power when one of its converts, Constantine*, became emperor in 313 AD. Then, a new approach to evangelism developed using the former persecutor, the state, as an instrument for spreading the Gospel and even forcing it upon pagans*. The corrupting influence of this power was clear to church leaders from the start, but no easy solution to the dilemma was found. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  13. 13. T milestones of Western thought are Augustine’s* City of wo God*, written at the beginning of the fifth century, and Pope Gelasius I’s doctrine of the two swords, developed at its end. Both deal with the conflict of church and state and the tension between the Kingdom of God and “this crooked and perverse age.” The “two cities” were, according to Augustine, the societies of those who wanted to live “after the flesh” and those who desired to live “after the spirit.” The church was to be the earthly place where the people of God were to be gathered. The purpose of the state was to assist the church. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  14. 14. T milestones of Western thought are Augustine’s* City of wo God*, written at the beginning of the fifth century, and Pope Gelasius I’s doctrine of the two swords, developed at its end. Both deal with the conflict of church and state and the tension between the Kingdom of God and “this crooked and perverse age.” The “two cities” were, according to Augustine, the societies of those who wanted to live “after the flesh” and those who desired to live “after the spirit.” The church was to be the earthly place where the people of God were to be gathered. The purpose of the state was to assist the church. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  15. 15. Two milestones of Western thought are Augustine’s City of God, written at the beginning of the fifth century, and Pope Gelasius I’s doctrine of the two swords, developed at its end. Both deal with the conflict of church and state and the tension between the Kingdom of God and “this crooked and perverse age.” The “two cities” were, according to Augustine, the societies of those who wanted to live “after the flesh” and those who desired to live “after the spirit.” The church was to be the earthly place where the people of God were to be gathered. The purpose of the state was to assist the church. Gelasius I* argued that there were two distinct areas of human affairs, the temporal (“this worldly”) and the spiritual (“other worldly”). The emperor was given the temporal rule, regnum, while the pope held the spiritual authority, sacerdotium. In his proper field, each was supreme --- under God. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  16. 16. Two milestones of Western thought are Augustine’s City of God, written at the beginning of the fifth century, and Pope Gelasius I’s doctrine of the two swords, developed at its end. Both deal with the conflict of church and state and the tension between the Kingdom of God and “this crooked and perverse age.” The “two cities” were, according to Augustine, the societies of those who wanted to live “after the flesh” and those who desired to live “after the spirit.” The church was to be the earthly place where the people of God were to be gathered. The purpose of the state was to assist the church. Gelasius I* argued that there were two distinct areas of human affairs, the temporal (“this worldly”) and the spiritual (“other worldly”). The emperor was given the temporal rule, regnum, while the pope held the spiritual authority, sacerdotium. In his proper field, each was supreme --- under God. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  17. 17. DUO SUNT 494 AD regnum et sacerdotium the two swordsThursday, September 20, 12
  18. 18. During this [5th] century, the western half of the empire “fell” to the barbarians. The thousand years between the time of Attila the Hun* and Machiavelli are called the Middle Ages. The first phase, the Dark Ages*, saw a decline in trade, city life, learning and culture. It was precisely the revival of these conditions which we call the Renaissance (literally “rebirth”) of Europe, the watershed which separated medieval and modern history. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  19. 19. During this [5th] century, the western half of the empire “fell” to the barbarians. The thousand years between the time of Attila the Hun* and Machiavelli are called the Middle Ages. The first phase, the Dark Ages*, saw a decline in trade, city life, learning and culture. It was precisely the revival of these conditions which we call the Renaissance (literally “rebirth”) of Europe, the watershed which separated medieval and modern history. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  20. 20. During this [5th] century, the western half of the empire “fell” to the barbarians. The thousand years between the time of Attila the Hun* and Machiavelli are called the Middle Ages. The first phase, the Dark Ages*, saw a decline in trade, city life, learning and culture. It was precisely the revival of these conditions which we call the Renaissance (literally “rebirth”) of Europe, the watershed which separated medieval and modern history. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  21. 21. During this [5th] century, the western half of the empire “fell” to the barbarians. The thousand years between the time of Attila the Hun* and Machiavelli are called the Middle Ages. The first phase, the Dark Ages*, saw a decline in trade, city life, learning and culture. It was precisely the revival of these conditions which we call the Renaissance (literally “rebirth”) of Europe, the watershed which separated medieval and modern history. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  22. 22. During this [5th] century, the western half of the empire “fell” to the barbarians. The thousand years between the time of Attila the Hun* and Machiavelli are called the Middle Ages. The first phase, the Dark Ages*, saw a decline in trade, city life, learning and culture. It was precisely the revival of these conditions which we call the Renaissance (literally “rebirth”) of Europe, the watershed which separated medieval and modern history. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  23. 23. It should be apparent to the thoughtful student that it is impossible to speak of Medieval Christendom in general terms without distorting through oversimplification. This thousand year period was remarkably diverse. There were many variations from place to place even during the same time. Still, the concepts of feudalism*, the manorial system*, and the Age of Faith are not so generalized* as to be useless. op. cit., p. 12.Thursday, September 20, 12
  24. 24. It should be apparent to the thoughtful student that it is impossible to speak of Medieval Christendom in general terms without distorting through oversimplification. This thousand year period was remarkably diverse. There were many variations from place to place even during the same time. Still, the concepts of feudalism*, the manorial system*, and the Age of Faith are not so generalized* as to be useless. op. cit., p. 12.Thursday, September 20, 12
  25. 25. It should be apparent to the thoughtful student that it is impossible to speak of Medieval Christendom in general terms without distorting through oversimplification. This thousand year period was remarkably diverse. There were many variations from place to place even during the same time. Still, the concepts of feudalism*, the manorial system*, and the Age of Faith are not so generalized* as to be useless. op. cit., p. 12.Thursday, September 20, 12
  26. 26. It should be apparent to the thoughtful student that it is impossible to speak of Medieval Christendom in general terms without distorting through oversimplification. This thousand year period was remarkably diverse. There were many variations from place to place even during the same time. Still, the concepts of feudalism*, the manorial system*, and the Age of Faith are not so generalized* as to be useless. op. cit., p. 12.Thursday, September 20, 12
  27. 27. After Charlemagne was crowned emperor in the West on Christmas Day, 800 A.D.*, the condition began to develop which produced the central drama of the High Middle Ages -- the power struggles between popes and emperors. Both “lords spiritual” (bishops and other high ranking churchmen) and “lords temporal” (the nobility) sought to increase their authority and wealth at all levels of European society. Conflicts inevitably arose. Princes of the Church functioned in much the same way as the secular nobility: as landlords, judges over their subjects’ disputes, even as military leaders*. Often, the clergy were not distinguished by their piety or their learning. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  28. 28. After Charlemagne was crowned emperor in the West on Christmas Day, 800 A.D.*, the condition began to develop which produced the central drama of the High Middle Ages -- the power struggles between popes and emperors. Both “lords spiritual” (bishops and other high ranking churchmen) and “lords temporal” (the nobility) sought to increase their authority and wealth at all levels of European society. Conflicts inevitably arose. Princes of the Church functioned in much the same way as the secular nobility: as landlords, judges over their subjects’ disputes, even as military leaders*. Often, the clergy were not distinguished by their piety or their learning. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  29. 29. After Charlemagne was crowned emperor in the West on Christmas Day, 800 A.D.*, the condition began to develop which produced the central drama of the High Middle Ages -- the power struggles between popes and emperors. Both “lords spiritual” (bishops and other high ranking churchmen) and “lords temporal” (the nobility) sought to increase their authority and wealth at all levels of European society. Conflicts inevitably arose. Princes of the Church functioned in much the same way as the secular nobility: as landlords, judges over their subjects’ disputes, even as military leaders*. Often, the clergy were not distinguished by their piety or their learning. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  30. 30. The medieval popes hoped to use the crusading movement, which they had begun in 1095, to increase their authority as the leaders of Christendom. The original successes in the Holy Land, followed by a long, costly series of less effective crusades, did bring about important economic and social changes. Several Italian cities which never really “dried up” during the Dark Ages grew rich as the transporters of crusaders. Trade and the money economy became more important. Banking began. A merchant class*, newly influential, challenged noble families who depended on land and the feudal dues of their peasants for wealth. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  31. 31. The medieval popes hoped to use the crusading movement, which they had begun in 1095, to increase their authority as the leaders of Christendom. The original successes in the Holy Land, followed by a long, costly series of less effective crusades, did bring about important economic and social changes. Several Italian cities which never really “dried up” during the Dark Ages grew rich as the transporters of crusaders. Trade and the money economy became more important. Banking began. A merchant class*, newly influential, challenged noble families who depended on land and the feudal dues of their peasants for wealth. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  32. 32. As the pursuit of wealth and power by the Church led many to question its moral authority, reform movements developed. Some reformers, like the followers* of Peter Waldo were labeled heretics. Others, like the followers of Saints Francis* and Dominic in the early thirteenth century, were absorbed into religious orders and given approval by Rome, although with a certain wariness. The medieval universities as guardians of natural philosophy, canon law, and theology were the battleground for the so-called conflict between Faith and Reason. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  33. 33. As the pursuit of wealth and power by the Church led many to question its moral authority, reform movements developed. Some reformers, like the followers* of Peter Waldo were labeled heretics. Others, like the followers of Saints Francis* and Dominic in the early thirteenth century, were absorbed into religious orders and given approval by Rome, although with a certain wariness. The medieval universities as guardians of natural philosophy, canon law, and theology were the battleground for the so-called conflict between Faith and Reason. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  34. 34. As the pursuit of wealth and power by the Church led many to question its moral authority, reform movements developed. Some reformers, like the followers* of Peter Waldo were labeled heretics. Others, like the followers of Saints Francis* and Dominic in the early thirteenth century, were absorbed into religious orders and given approval by Rome, although with a certain wariness. The medieval universities as guardians of natural philosophy, canon law, and theology were the battleground for the so-called conflict between Faith and Reason. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  35. 35. As the pursuit of wealth and power by the Church led many to question its moral authority, reform movements developed. Some reformers, like the followers* of Peter Waldo were labeled heretics. Others, like the followers of Saints Francis* and Dominic in the early thirteenth century, were absorbed into religious orders and given approval by Rome, although with a certain wariness. The medieval universities as guardians of natural philosophy, canon law, and theology were the battleground for the so-called conflict between Faith and Reason. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  36. 36. As the pursuit of wealth and power by the Church led many to question its moral authority, reform movements developed. Some reformers, like the followers* of Peter Waldo were labeled heretics. Others, like the followers of Saints Francis* and Dominic in the early thirteenth century, were absorbed into religious orders and given approval by Rome, although with a certain wariness. The medieval universities as guardians of natural philosophy, canon law, and theology were the battleground for the so-called conflict between Faith and Reason. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  37. 37. As the pursuit of wealth and power by the Church led many to question its moral authority, reform movements developed. Some reformers, like the followers* of Peter Waldo were labeled heretics. Others, like the followers of Saints Francis* and Dominic in the early thirteenth century, were absorbed into religious orders and given approval by Rome, although with a certain wariness. The medieval universities as guardians of natural philosophy, canon law, and theology were the battleground for the so-called conflict between Faith and Reason. The great figure of medieval scholasticism was the Dominican Saint Thomas Aquinas*, 1225-1274. His Summa Theologica offered a synthesis between Christian doctrine and “pagan” Aristotelianism which continues to influence teaching at Catholic universities today. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  38. 38. As the pursuit of wealth and power by the Church led many to question its moral authority, reform movements developed. Some reformers, like the followers* of Peter Waldo were labeled heretics. Others, like the followers of Saints Francis* and Dominic in the early thirteenth century, were absorbed into religious orders and given approval by Rome, although with a certain wariness. The medieval universities as guardians of natural philosophy, canon law, and theology were the battleground for the so-called conflict between Faith and Reason. The great figure of medieval scholasticism was the Dominican Saint Thomas Aquinas*, 1225-1274. His Summa Theologica offered a synthesis between Christian doctrine and “pagan” Aristotelianism which continues to influence teaching at Catholic universities today. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  39. 39. The first revival of classical texts ironically had to come from Islamic and Jewish sources because Christian book burning had effectively eliminated the pagan works from monastic libraries. The crusading movement increased contact with Byzantium and led to a revival of Greek and the reclaiming of many texts long unknown in the West. This gave birth to Classical Humanism, which Robert Palmer has called “no less than a new conception of man himself...a sense of man’s tremendous powers.” In Machiavelli’s Italy during the Quattrocento (fifteenth century), Greek texts, Greek authors, and the Greek view of life enjoyed great esteem among the educated elite. Machiavelli’s city state, Florence, considered herself the new Athens. Artists turned to classical subject matter. Politicians used the rhetoric of Roman orators and appealed tothe tradition of Roman civic virtue. In short, Renaissance Italy made herself “new,” that is, different from the Middle Ages by a deliberate return to the spirit of classical antiquity. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  40. 40. Jacopo Pontormo, postumous portrait of Cosimo de’ Medici the Elder (1389–1464)Thursday, September 20, 12
  41. 41. So much for the two thousand year gulf between our three philosophers. Machiavelli’s polis Florence would have been quite understandable to Aristotle. He would have been able to converse with some of the scholars who lived in Lorenzo di Medici’s revived Academy*. Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  42. 42. The Platonic Academy was a 15th century discussion group in Florence. It was founded after Gemistus Pletho reintroduced Platos thoughts to Western Europe during the 1438 - 1439 Council of Florence. It was sponsored by Cosimo de Medici*, led by Marsilio Ficino and supported by Medici until death of Lorenzo Medici*. It was never a formal group but the members considered themselves a modern form of Platos Academy. Important members were Poliziano, Cristoforo Landino, Pico della Mirandola*, and Gentile de Becchi. The academy would proceed to translate into Latin all of Platos works, the Enneads Headquarters of the group, Villa di Careggi of Plotinus, and various other Neoplatonic works WikipediaThursday, September 20, 12
  43. 43. The Platonic Academy was a 15th century discussion group in Florence. It was founded after Gemistus Pletho reintroduced Platos thoughts to Western Europe during the 1438 - 1439 Council of Florence. It was sponsored by Cosimo de Medici*, led by Marsilio Ficino and supported by Medici until death of Lorenzo Medici*. It was never a formal group but the members considered themselves a modern form of Platos Academy. Important members were Poliziano, Cristoforo Landino, Pico della Mirandola*, and Gentile de Becchi. The academy would proceed to translate into Latin all of Platos works, the Enneads of Plotinus, and various other Neoplatonic works WikipediaThursday, September 20, 12
  44. 44. The Platonic Academy was a 15th century discussion group in Florence. It was founded after Gemistus Pletho reintroduced Platos thoughts to Western Europe during the 1438 - 1439 Council of Florence. It was sponsored by Cosimo de Medici*, led by Marsilio Ficino and supported by Medici until death of Lorenzo Medici*. It was never a formal group but the members considered themselves a modern form of Platos Academy. Important members were Poliziano, Cristoforo Landino, Pico della Mirandola*, and Gentile de Becchi. The academy would proceed to translate into Latin all of Platos works, the Enneads of Plotinus, and various other Neoplatonic works WikipediaThursday, September 20, 12
  45. 45. The Platonic Academy was a 15th century discussion group in Florence. It was founded after Gemistus Pletho reintroduced Platos thoughts to Western Europe during the 1438 - 1439 Council of Florence. It was sponsored by Cosimo de Medici*, led by Marsilio Ficino and supported by Medici until death of Lorenzo Medici*. It was never a formal group but the members considered themselves a modern form of Platos Academy. Important members were Poliziano, Cristoforo Landino, Pico della Mirandola*, and Gentile de Becchi. The academy would proceed to translate into Latin all of Platos works, the Enneads of Plotinus, and various other Neoplatonic works WikipediaThursday, September 20, 12
  46. 46. The Platonic Academy was a 15th century discussion group in Florence. It was founded after Gemistus Pletho reintroduced Platos thoughts to Western Europe during the 1438 - 1439 Council of Florence. It was sponsored by Cosimo de Medici*, led by Marsilio Ficino and supported by Medici until death of Lorenzo Medici*. It was never a formal group but the members considered themselves a modern form of Platos Academy. Important members were Poliziano, Cristoforo Landino, Pico della Mirandola*, and Gentile de Becchi. The academy would proceed to translate into Latin all of Platos works, the Enneads of Plotinus, and various other Neoplatonic works WikipediaThursday, September 20, 12
  47. 47. So much for the two thousand year gulf between our three philosophers. Machiavelli’s polis Florence would have been quite understandable to Aristotle. He would have been able to converse with some of the scholars who lived in Lorenzo di Medici’s revived Academy*. But the questions of practical versus theoretical knowledge and cynical versus moral prescriptions must await the criticism following our examination of the life and work of Machiavelli. As you study, try to understand his philosophy of history. How did he approach the past? Why? What were its lessons for him? Why? What was his attitude toward religion? Why? Ibid.Thursday, September 20, 12
  48. 48. Renaissance ItalyThursday, September 20, 12
  49. 49. The Siege of Florence by Giorgio Vasari 1558. Renaissance ItalyThursday, September 20, 12
  50. 50. II. Renaissance Italy A. End of the Middle Ages 1. feudalism 2. popes and emperors a. Gregory VII vs. Henry IV b. Innocent III vs. Frederick III 1. Guelphs vs. Ghibbelines 3. Great Schism, 1378-1417 a. Avignon and “Babylonian Captivity,” 1308 b. Council of Constance, 1414-17 c. Conciliarism 4. Crusades a. Commercial Revolution b. social change B. Humanism 1. guomo universale 2. Classical vs. Christian Humanists 3. Florentine Republic 4. Lorenzo the Magnificent, 1449-92 5. Sixtus IV - Pazzi Conspiracy, 1478Thursday, September 20, 12
  51. 51. feudalism lord vassal (a lesser nobleman, NOT a serf) fief (feodum, Lat.) land held by the vassal, conferred by the lord homage fealty diffidatio 10th century representation of Roland swearing fealty sovereignty (the monopoly of justice & power) sovereign liege lord (king)Thursday, September 20, 12
  52. 52. Popes & Emperors Gregory vii Canossa, 1077 Henry iv Guelphs vs. Ghibbelines (Welf vs Waibling) 12th -13th centuries Innocent iii Investiture Friederich ii Innocent iiiThursday, September 20, 12
  53. 53. Popes & Kings Unam Sanctam, 1302 Philip iv Boniface viii Philippe le bel I.A.3. Great [Western] Schism, 1378-1417 a. Avignon and “Babylonian Captivity,” 1308 Innocent iiiThursday, September 20, 12
  54. 54. Council of Constance, 1414-1417 1408-Council of Pisa deposed both & elected a third now there were three claimants! 1414-an ecumenical council met at Constance to resolve the schismThursday, September 20, 12
  55. 55. Council of Constance, 1414-1417 1408-Council of Pisa deposed both & elected a third now there were three claimants! 1414-an ecumenical council met at Constance to resolve the schism 1415-the proto-Protestants, John Wycliff and Jan Hus were condemnedThursday, September 20, 12
  56. 56. Council of Constance, 1414-1417 1408-Council of Pisa deposed both & elected a third now there were three claimants! 1414-an ecumenical council met at Constance to resolve the schism 1415-the proto-Protestants, John Wycliff and Jan Hus were condemned 1417-Martin V was elected pope and the anti-popes were deposed “high water mark” of conciliarism Habemus Papam!Thursday, September 20, 12
  57. 57. Crusades 1095-Urban ii, Deo lo vult!, also to strengthen the role of the papacyThursday, September 20, 12
  58. 58. Crusades 1095-Urban ii, Deo lo vult!, also to strengthen the role of the papacy Western Christendom began a war to reestablish control of OutremerThursday, September 20, 12
  59. 59. Crusades 1095-Urban ii, Deo lo vult!, also to strengthen the role of the papacy Western Christendom began a war to reestablish control of Outremer this major endeavor stimulated the growth of banking, trade, cities and a new class this Commercial Revolution produced a social system outside the feudal division of Clergy, nobility, and peasantryThursday, September 20, 12
  60. 60. HumanismThursday, September 20, 12
  61. 61. Humanism ἄνθρωπος µέτρον Man [is the] measure [of all things] motto of Protagoras Vitruvian man--Leonardo da Vinci, c. 1487Thursday, September 20, 12
  62. 62. II. B. Humanism 1. guomo universaleThursday, September 20, 12
  63. 63. II. B. Humanism 2. Classical vs Christian Humanists Giovanni Pico della Mirandola 1463 – 1494, unknown artistThursday, September 20, 12
  64. 64. II. B. Humanism 2. Classical vs Christian Humanists Desiderius Erasmus. By Hans Holbein the younger, 1523.Thursday, September 20, 12
  65. 65. Duchy of Tuscany Becomes the Florentine RepublicThursday, September 20, 12
  66. 66. Thursday, September 20, 12
  67. 67. Florence Firenzi Arno RiverThursday, September 20, 12
  68. 68. Florence Firenzi Arno River PisaThursday, September 20, 12
  69. 69. The Big Five Florence Firenzi Arno River PisaThursday, September 20, 12
  70. 70. The Big Five Republic of Genoa Florence Firenzi Arno River PisaThursday, September 20, 12
  71. 71. The Big Five Republic of Genoa Florence Venetian Republic Firenzi Arno River PisaThursday, September 20, 12
  72. 72. The Big Five Republic of Genoa Florence Venetian Republic Firenzi Arno River Duchy of Milan PisaThursday, September 20, 12
  73. 73. The Big Five Republic of Genoa Florence Venetian Republic Firenzi Arno River Duchy of Milan Pisa The Papal StatesThursday, September 20, 12
  74. 74. The Big Five Republic of Genoa Florence Venetian Republic Firenzi Arno River Duchy of Milan Pisa The Papal States Kingdom of the Two SiciliesThursday, September 20, 12
  75. 75. II.B.4. Lorenzo the Magnificent, 1449-1492 de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic during the Italian Renaissance; diplomat, politician and patron of the arts he gave large sums from his family’s banking business to artists who created master works of art his life coincided with the high point of the early Italian Renaissance; his death marked the end of the Golden Age of FlorenceThursday, September 20, 12
  76. 76. The Artists He Patronized LeonardoThursday, September 20, 12
  77. 77. The Artists He Patronized LeonardoThursday, September 20, 12
  78. 78. The Artists He Patronized LeonardoThursday, September 20, 12
  79. 79. The Artists He Patronized LeonardoThursday, September 20, 12
  80. 80. The Artists He Patronized Leonardo Michaelangelo BuonarrotiThursday, September 20, 12
  81. 81. The Artists He Patronized Leonardo Michaelangelo BuonarrotiThursday, September 20, 12
  82. 82. The Artists He Patronized Leonardo Michaelangelo BuonarrotiThursday, September 20, 12
  83. 83. The Artists He Patronized Leonardo Michaelangelo BuonarrotiThursday, September 20, 12
  84. 84. The Artists He Patronized Leonardo Michaelangelo Buonarroti Sandro BotticelliThursday, September 20, 12
  85. 85. The Artists He Patronized Leonardo Michaelangelo Buonarroti Sandro BotticelliThursday, September 20, 12
  86. 86. The Artists He Patronized Leonardo Michaelangelo Buonarroti Sandro Botticelli Domenico GhirlandaioThursday, September 20, 12
  87. 87. The Artists He Patronized Leonardo Michaelangelo Buonarroti Sandro Botticelli Domenico GhirlandaioThursday, September 20, 12
  88. 88. The Artists He Patronized Andrea del Verrochio Leonardo Michaelangelo Buonarroti Sandro Botticelli Domenico GhirlandaioThursday, September 20, 12
  89. 89. The Artists He Patronized Andrea del Verrochio Leonardo Michaelangelo Buonarroti Sandro Botticelli Domenico GhirlandaioThursday, September 20, 12
  90. 90. The Artists He Patronized Andrea del Verrochio Leonardo Michaelangelo Buonarroti Sandro Botticelli Domenico GhirlandaioThursday, September 20, 12
  91. 91. The Artists He Patronized Andrea del Verrochio Leonardo Michaelangelo Buonarroti Sandro Botticelli Domenico GhirlandaioThursday, September 20, 12
  92. 92. The Artists He Patronized Andrea del Verrochio Leonardo Michaelangelo Buonarroti Sandro Botticelli Domenico GhirlandaioThursday, September 20, 12
  93. 93. The Artists He Patronized Andrea del Verrochio Leonardo Michaelangelo Buonarroti Sandro Botticelli Domenico GhirlandaioThursday, September 20, 12
  94. 94. The Artists He Patronized Antonio del Pollaiolo Andrea del Verrochio Leonardo Michaelangelo Buonarroti Sandro Botticelli Domenico GhirlandaioThursday, September 20, 12
  95. 95. The Artists He Patronized Antonio del Pollaiolo Andrea del Verrochio Leonardo Michaelangelo Buonarroti Sandro Botticelli Domenico GhirlandaioThursday, September 20, 12
  96. 96. The Artists He Patronized Antonio del Pollaiolo Andrea del Verrochio Leonardo Michaelangelo Buonarroti Sandro Botticelli Domenico GhirlandaioThursday, September 20, 12
  97. 97. The Artists He Patronized Antonio del Pollaiolo Andrea del Verrochio Leonardo Michaelangelo Buonarroti Sandro Botticelli Domenico GhirlandaioThursday, September 20, 12
  98. 98. The Pazzi ConspiracyThursday, September 20, 12
  99. 99. T della Rovere nobles: Cardinal Guiliano, later Pope Julius II; and Francesco, then Pope Sixtus IV woThursday, September 20, 12
  100. 100. the Pazzi banking family of Florence deeply resented their powerful rivals, the Medici another rival family, the Salviati, began the conspiracy to assassinate Lorenzo and his brother Giuliano at high mass at the Duomo Pope Sixtus, a della Rovere, whose family also resented the Medici, approved a coup against them, “as long as no one is killed” the assassins killed Giuliano but failed to get Lorenzo, whose vengeance was legendaryThursday, September 20, 12
  101. 101. Thursday, September 20, 12
  102. 102. MachiavelliThursday, September 20, 12
  103. 103. Machiavelli Statue of Machiavelli at the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, ItalyThursday, September 20, 12
  104. 104. III. Machiavelli A. Early Years 1. family 2. training 3. Girolamo Savonarola, d. 1498 -- “the prophet unarmed” (chap. 6) B. War ad Peace 1. French intervention (chap. 3) 2. Pisa, 1495-99 (chap. 12) a. Paolo Vitelli- the condottieri b. mercenaries 3. mission to Louis XII, 1462-98-1515 a. New Monarchies b. nationalism and vernaculars C. Renaissance Papacy 1. Alexander VI, 1492-1502 (chap. 3 et seq.) a. Cesare and Lucrezia Borgia b. “massacre” of Senigallia, 1502 (chap. 7) 2. Julius II, 1503-08 (chap. 2 et seq.) 3. Leo X, 1513-21 (Giovanni di Medici, 1475-1521) D. Exile 1. coup of 1512 a. Florentine Republic becomes Duchy of Tuscany b. Medici restoration 2. country life (Dedication)Thursday, September 20, 12
  105. 105. 1469-born to an attorney father, his family had produced 13 Gonfalonieri, educated as a humanist taught grammar, rhetoric, and Latin (ironically, never learned Greek) became a prolific and skilled writer in the new vernacular trained in the law, he would follow his father’s profession and was subject to the political “ins and outs” of this turbulent time Medici in = Machiavelli out; Florentine Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli Republic = Machiavelli in 1469 – 1527Thursday, September 20, 12
  106. 106. 1452-born to a physician father and noble mother, educated as a humanist 1475-became a Dominican friar, reformer 1490-Pico & Lorenzo bring him to Florence where he preaches radical reform, “bonfire of the vanities” 1494-French King Charles viii invades Italy. Savonarola convinces him to spare Florence, establishes a Christian republic Pope Alexander vi condemns, then excommunicates, and brands him a Girolamo Savonarola heretic 1452–1498Thursday, September 20, 12
  107. 107. CHAPTER VI OF NEW DOMINIONS WHICH HAVE BEEN ACQUIRED BY ONE’S OWN ARMS AND ABILITY ...Those who by the exercise of abilities...become princes, obtain their dominions with difficulty but retain them easily, and the difficulty...arises in part from the new rules...that they have to introduce in order to establish their position more securely. It must be considered that there is nothing more difficult to carry out, nor more doubtful of success, nor more dangerous to handle, than to initiate a new order of things….Thus it comes about that all armed prophets have conquered and unarmed ones have failed….it is necessary to order things so that when [the people] no longer believe, they can be made to believe by force.Thursday, September 20, 12
  108. 108. CHAPTER VI (CONT.) ….it is necessary to order things so that when [the people] no longer believe, they can be made to believe by force. Moses, Cyrus, Theseus, and Romulus would not have been able to keep their constitutions observed for so long had they been disarmed, as happened in our own time with Fra Girolamo Savonarola, who failed entirely in his new rules when the multitude began to disbelieve in him, and he had no means of holding fast those who had believed nor of compelling the unbelievers to believe….Thursday, September 20, 12
  109. 109. 1498--hanged, body burned, ashes scattered in the Arno River CHAPTER VI (CONT.) ….it is necessary to order things so that when [the people] no longer believe, they can be made to believe by force. Moses, Cyrus, Theseus, and Romulus would not have been able to keep their constitutions observed for so long had they been disarmed, as happened in our own time with Fra Girolamo Savonarola, who failed entirely in his new rules when the multitude began to disbelieve in him, and he had no means of holding fast those who had believed nor of compelling the unbelievers to believe….Thursday, September 20, 12
  110. 110. III.B.War & Peace 1. French intervention (chap.3) 1489-Pope Innocent viii, being at odds with Ferdinand i of Naples, offered Naples to Charles, King of France Charles VIII 1470-83-98Thursday, September 20, 12
  111. 111. III.B.War & Peace 1. French intervention (chap.3) 1489-Pope Innocent viii, being at odds with Ferdinand i of Naples, offered Naples to Charles, King of France 1494-Charles entered Italy with 25,000 men (including 8,000 Swiss mercenaries) and the Charles VIII 1470-83-98 first artillery train of EuropeThursday, September 20, 12
  112. 112. III.B.War & Peace 1. French intervention (chap.3) 1489-Pope Innocent viii, being at odds with Ferdinand i of Naples, offered Naples to Charles, King of France 1494-Charles entered Italy with 25,000 men (including 8,000 Swiss mercenaries) and the Charles VIII 1470-83-98 first artillery train of Europe 1495-his easy conquests provoked an Italian alliance which drove him back to FranceThursday, September 20, 12
  113. 113. III.B.War & Peace 1. French intervention (chap.3) 1489-Pope Innocent viii, being at odds with Ferdinand i of Naples, offered Naples to Charles, King of France 1494-Charles entered Italy with 25,000 men (including 8,000 Swiss mercenaries) and the Charles VIII 1470-83-98 first artillery train of Europe 1495-his easy conquests provoked an Italian alliance which drove him back to France 1499-his successor invaded once again, with the help of the Venetians, to capture Milan Louis XII 1462-98-15Thursday, September 20, 12
  114. 114. In the Italian War of 1499–1504, [French king Louis XII] successfully secured Milan itself in the year 1499 from his enemy, Ludovico Sforza, and it remained a French stronghold for twelve years.* His greatest success came in his war with Venice, with the victory at the Battle of Agnadello in 1509. Things became much more difficult for him from 1510 onwards, especially after Julius II, the great warrior Pope, took control of the Vatican and formed the "Holy League" to oppose the ambitions of the French in Italy. The French were eventually driven from Milan by the Swiss in the year 1513. WikipediaThursday, September 20, 12
  115. 115. Louis XII entering Genoa in 1507. Miniature by Jean BourdichonThursday, September 20, 12
  116. 116. CHAPTER III CONCERNING MIXED PRINCIPALITIES But let us turn to France and inquire whether she has done any of the things mentioned. I will speak of Louis (and not of Charles) as the one whose conduct is the better to be observed, he having held possession of Italy for the longest period; and you will see that he has done the opposite to those things which ought to be done to retain a state composed of divers elements. King Louis was brought into Italy by the ambition of the Venetians, who desired to obtain half the state of Lombardy by his intervention. I will not blame the course taken by the king, because, wishing to get a foothold in Italy, and having no friends there--seeing rather that every door was shut to him owing to the conduct of Charles--he was forced to accept those friendships which he could get, and he would have succeeded very quickly in his design if in other matters he had not made some mistakes. The king, however, having acquired Lombardy, regained at once the authority which Charles had lost: Genoa yielded; the Florentines became his friends; the Marquess of Mantua, the Duke of Ferrara, ... the Lucchese, the Pisans, the Sienese--everybody made advances to him to become his friend. Then could the Venetians realize the rashness of the course taken by them, which, in order that they might secure two towns in Lombardy, had made the king master of two-thirds of Italy.Thursday, September 20, 12
  117. 117. III.B.2.a--Paolo Vitelli-the condottieri (warlords) 1494-when Charles invaded Italy, Pisa claimed its independence from Florence and proclaimed a Second Pisan Republic 1498-Machiavelli came as liaison to the siege of Pisa conducted by the mercenary condottiere Vitelli 1499-after much blood and treasure had been expended victory seemed at hand Vitelli “went on strike” for more money Depiction of Farinata deglai Uberti by Andrea del Castagno, showing a 15th century condottieros typical attire.Thursday, September 20, 12
  118. 118. CHAPTER XII HOW MANY KINDS OF SOLDIERY THERE ARE & CONCERNING MERCENARIES ...Mercenaries and auxiliaries are useless and dangerous; and if one holds his state based on these arms, he will stand neither firm nor safe; for they are disunited, ambitious, and without discipline, unfaithful, valiant before friends, cowardly before enemies; they have neither the fear of God nor fidelity to men, and destruction is deferred only so long as the attack is; for in peace one is robbed by them, and in war by the enemy. The fact is, they have no other attraction or reason for keeping the field than a trifle of stipend, which is not sufficient to make them willing to die for you. They are ready enough to be your soldiers whilst you do not make war, but if war comes they take themselves off or run from the foe; which I should have little trouble to prove, for the ruin of Italy has been caused by nothing else than by resting all her hopes for many years on mercenaries, and although they formerly made some display and appeared valiant amongst themselves, yet when the foreigners came they showed what they were. Thus it was that Charles, King of France, was allowed to seize Italy with chalk in hand;(*) and he [Savonarola]who told us that our sins were the cause of it told the truth, but they were not the sins he imagined, but those which I have related….Thursday, September 20, 12
  119. 119. CHAPTER XII HOW MANY KINDS OF SOLDIERY THERE ARE & CONCERNING MERCENARIES ...Mercenaries and auxiliaries are useless and dangerous; and if one holds his state based on these arms, he will stand neither firm nor safe; for they are disunited, ambitious, and without discipline, unfaithful, valiant before friends, cowardly before enemies; they have neither the fear of God nor fidelity to men, and destruction is deferred only so long as the attack is; for in peace one is robbed by them, and in war by the enemy. The fact is, they have no other attraction or reason for keeping the field than a trifle of stipend, which is not sufficient to make them willing to die for you. They are ready enough to be your soldiers whilst you do not make war, but if war comes they take themselves off or run from the foe; which I should have little trouble to prove, for the ruin of Italy has been caused by nothing else than by resting all her hopes for many years on mercenaries, and although they formerly made some display and appeared valiant amongst themselves, yet when the foreigners came they showed what they were. Thus it was that Charles, King of France, was allowed to seize Italy with chalk in hand;(*) and he [Savonarola]who told us that our sins were * thecause of it is that he didn’t need they wereto conquer, only aimagined, but to markwhich the implication told the truth, but the sword not the sins he piece of chalk those the doors where his troops would be billeted in the cities which surrendered without a fight I have related….Thursday, September 20, 12
  120. 120. CHAPTER XII HOW MANY KINDS OF SOLDIERY THERE ARE & CONCERNING MERCENARIES ...Mercenaries and auxiliaries are useless and dangerous; and if one holds his state based on these arms, he will stand neither firm nor safe; for they are disunited, ambitious, and without discipline, unfaithful, valiant before friends, cowardly before enemies; they have neither the fear of God nor fidelity to men, and destruction is deferred only so long as the attack is; for in peace one is robbed by them, and in war by the enemy. The fact is, they have no other attraction or reason for keeping the field than a trifle of stipend, which is not sufficient to make them willing to die for you. They are ready enough to be your soldiers whilst you do not make war, but if war comes they take themselves off or run from the foe; which I should have little trouble to prove, for the ruin of Italy has been caused by nothing else than by resting all her hopes for many years on mercenaries, and although they formerly made some display and appeared valiant amongst themselves, yet when the foreigners came they showed what they were. Thus it was that Charles, King of France, was allowed to seize Italy with chalk in hand;(*) and he [Savonarola]who told us that our sins were the cause of it told the truth, but they were not the sins he imagined, but those which I have related….Thursday, September 20, 12
  121. 121. III.B.3--Mission to Louis XII Machiavelli’s diplomatic career 1498-(age 29)shortly after Savonarola’s execution, he was elected head of the second chancery of the now secular republic this chancery was responsible for military and diplomatic affairs he went on missions to France, to Ferdinand in Spain, to Germany, the Papacy and to lesser Italian states this first-hand experience forms one of Detail of a portrait by Santi di Tito the two pillars of his experience for writingThursday, September 20, 12
  122. 122. NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI TO LORENZO THE MAGNIFICENT* SON OF PIERO DI MEDICI ...to offer to Your Highness some humble testimony of my devotion, I have been unable to find among my possessions anything which I hold so dear or esteem so highly as that knowledge of the deeds of great men which I have acquired through a long experience of modern events and a constant study of the past. ________ * using this title “Magnifico” is flattery on Machiavelli’s part. This Lorenzo is the nephew of the famous “il Magnifico”Thursday, September 20, 12
  123. 123. THE NEW MONARCHIES Next the seignoria sent Machiavelli on a diplomatic mission to King Louis of France. France, England and Spain were examples of the phenomenon known as the new monarchies. As the medieval social order was breaking down due to the Commercial Revolution, these monarchs created nation states. This complex phenomenon involved an alliance between the emerging urban bourgeoisie and the crown. The monarchs developed a monopoly of justice and power at the expense of their feuding nobility. It was paid for by taxes on commerce (which bought those artillery trains which Charles had used in 1494). Nobles could no longer safely rebel in their castles. The bourgeoisie paid in order to have better business conditions: relative peace, uniform taxes and regulations over the larger areas of the new nation states. Printing encouraged the trend from Latin to the vernaculars. Regions began to consider themselves part of a greater polity. French rather than Burgundian. Machiavelli was painfully aware of Italy’s wasteful divisions and repeated civil wars. He began to dream of a new Italian monarchy with Florence as its capital. The seed was planted during this mission.--jbpThursday, September 20, 12
  124. 124. born in Catalonia to an “ecclesiastical family.” His uncle was bishop of Valencia 1455-adopted his maternal family name, Borgia, when his mother’s brother became Pope Calixtus iii 1457-became vice chancellor at the Vatican 1492-having served under five popes was elected to the papacy. Allegedly, one vote cost four mule loads of silver Pope Alexander VI 1493-confirmed Spain’s new possessions born Rodrigo Lanzol; 1431 – 1492--1503Thursday, September 20, 12
  125. 125. born in Catalonia to an “ecclesiastical family.” His uncle was bishop of Valencia 1455-adopted his maternal family name, Borgia, when his mother’s brother became Pope Calixtus iii 1457-became vice chancellor at the Vatican 1492-having served under five popes was elected to the papacy. Allegedly, one vote cost four mule loads of silver Pope Alexander VI 1493-confirmed Spain’s new possessions born Rodrigo Lanzol; 1431 – 1492--1503Thursday, September 20, 12
  126. 126. born in Catalonia to an “ecclesiastical family.” His uncle was bishop of Valencia 1455-adopted his maternal family name, Borgia, when his mother’s brother became Pope Calixtus iii 1457-became vice chancellor at the Vatican 1492-having served under five popes was elected to the papacy. Allegedly, one vote cost four mule loads of silver Pope Alexander VI 1493-confirmed Spain’s new possessions born Rodrigo Lanzol; 1431 – 1492--1503Thursday, September 20, 12
  127. 127. born in Catalonia to an “ecclesiastical family.” His uncle was bishop of Valencia 1455-adopted his maternal family name, Borgia, when his mother’s brother became Pope Calixtus iii 1457-became vice chancellor at the Vatican 1492-having served under five popes was elected to the papacy. Allegedly, one vote cost four mule loads of silver Pope Alexander VI 1493-confirmed Spain’s new possessions born Rodrigo Lanzol; 1431 – 1492--1503 a major “player” in the military diplomacy of the eraThursday, September 20, 12
  128. 128. born in Catalonia to an “ecclesiastical family.” His uncle was bishop of Valencia 1455-adopted his maternal family name, Borgia, when his mother’s brother became Pope Calixtus iii 1457-became vice chancellor at the Vatican 1492-having served under five popes was elected to the papacy. Allegedly, one vote cost four mule loads of silver Pope Alexander VI 1493-confirmed Spain’s new possessions born Rodrigo Lanzol; 1431 – 1492--1503 second-to-last a major “player” in the military diplomacy of the non-Italian pope era until John Paul iiThursday, September 20, 12
  129. 129. CHAPTER XVIII IN WHAT WAY PRINCES MUST KEEP FAITH I will only mention one modern instance, Alexander VI did nothing else but deceive men, he thought of nothing else, and found occasion for it; no man was ever more able to give assurances, or affirmed things with stronger oaths, and no man observed them less; however, he always succeeded in his deceptions, as he well knew this aspect of things.Thursday, September 20, 12
  130. 130. Pope Alexander’s Family 1470-Vannozza dei Cattanei, age 28, one of many mistresses of then cardinal Borja, age 39. Her relationship lasted the longest. Mother of:Thursday, September 20, 12
  131. 131. Pope Alexander’s Family 1470-Vannozza dei Cattanei, age 28, one of many mistresses of then cardinal Borja, age 39. Her relationship lasted the longest. Mother of: 1475-Cesare, later made cardinal, renounced to become the family’s condottiereThursday, September 20, 12
  132. 132. Pope Alexander’s Family 1470-Vannozza dei Cattanei, age 28, one of many mistresses of then cardinal Borja, age 39. Her relationship lasted the longest. Mother of: 1475-Cesare, later made cardinal, renounced to become the family’s condottiere 1475-Giovanni, became Duke of GandiaThursday, September 20, 12
  133. 133. Pope Alexander’s Family 1470-Vannozza dei Cattanei, age 28, one of many mistresses of then cardinal Borja, age 39. Her relationship lasted the longest. Mother of: 1475-Cesare, later made cardinal, renounced to become the family’s condottiere 1475-Giovanni, became Duke of Gandia 1480-Lucrezia, of the multiple husbandsThursday, September 20, 12
  134. 134. Pope Alexander’s Family 1470-Vannozza dei Cattanei, age 28, one of many mistresses of then cardinal Borja, age 39. Her relationship lasted the longest. Mother of: 1475-Cesare, later made cardinal, renounced to become the family’s condottiere 1475-Giovanni, became Duke of Gandia 1480-Lucrezia, of the multiple husbands 1481 (or ’82)-Gioffre, married the king of Naples’ daughter Sancha of AragonThursday, September 20, 12
  135. 135. Pope Alexander’s Family 1470-Vannozza dei Cattanei, age 28, one of many mistresses of then cardinal Borja, age 39. Her relationship lasted the longest. Mother of: 1475-Cesare, later made cardinal, renounced to become the family’s condottiere 1475-Giovanni, became Duke of Gandia 1480-Lucrezia, of the multiple husbands 1481 (or ’82)-Gioffre, married the king of Naples’ daughter Sancha of Aragon 1493-her place in his (age 62)affections was taken by the beautiful Gulia Farnese, age 19Thursday, September 20, 12
  136. 136. Cesare changes careers 1490-age 15, made bishop of Pamplona 1492-elevated to cardinal after his father bought the papacy. His younger brother Juan (Giovanni) was made commander of the papal army 1497-Juan’s body was found in the Tiber. Some fingered Cesare. They both had been “doing” their younger brother’s wife 1498-Cesare became the first person to resign as 1475-1507 cardinal. He took over as the family’s consigliere, anonymous head of the papal army: Italian mercenaries & 300 painter cavalry plus 4,ooo Swiss mercenariesThursday, September 20, 12
  137. 137. Cesare changes careers 1490-age 15, made bishop of Pamplona 1492-elevated to cardinal after his father bought the papacy. His younger brother Juan (Giovanni) was made commander of the papal army 1497-Juan’s body was found in the Tiber. Some fingered Cesare. They both had been “doing” their younger brother’s wife 1498-Cesare became the first person to resign as 1475-1507 cardinal. He took over as the family’s consigliere, anonymous head of the papal army: Italian mercenaries & 300 painter cavalry plus 4,ooo Swiss mercenaries he then began to conquer the RomagnaThursday, September 20, 12
  138. 138. Cesare expands the family business 1500-the pope sent Cesare to Romagna to subdue the turbulent local despots, and with the help of the French king, carve a principality for himself out of those territories owing nominal allegiance to Rome Malatesta of Rimini and Sforza of Pesaro fled, but Manfredi, “a handsome and virtuous youth of 18” held out 1501-when he surrendered on the promise of his life, “Cesare broke his word, sent him as prisoner to Rome where he was afterwards foully outraged and put to death” 1502-Cesare similarly lulled the suspicion of two rebellious nobles and had them strangled at Senigallia (III.C.1.b.) observe how Machiavelli describes his “hero”Thursday, September 20, 12
  139. 139. CHAPTER VII OF NEW DOMINIONS ACQUIRED BY THE POWER OF OTHERS OR BY FORTUNE Cesare Borgia...acquired the state by the influence of his father and lost it when that influence failed, and that although every measure was adopted by him and everything done that a prudent and capable man could do to establish himself firmly in a state that the arms and the favors of others had given him….I know of no better precepts for a new prince to follow than may be found in his actions…. In wishing to aggrandize the duke his son, Alexander VI had to meet very great difficulties….It was, therefore, necessary to disturb the existing condition and bring about disorders in the states of Italy….The king [Louis of France] came thus into Italy with the aid of the Venetians and the consent of Alexander...the pope obtained troops from him for his enterprise in the Romagna…. [Cesare] had recourse to stratagem. He dissembled his aims so well that the Orsini made their peace with him, being represented by Signor Paulo whose suspicions the duke disarmed with every courtesy, presenting him with robes, money and horses, so that in their simplicity they were induced to come to Sinigaglia and fell into his hands.Thursday, September 20, 12
  140. 140. CHAPTER VII OF NEW DOMINIONS ACQUIRED BY THE POWER OF OTHERS OR BY FORTUNE It is seen that his foundations were good, for the Romagna awaited him for more than a month. In Rome, although but half alive, he remained secure; and whilst the Baglioni, the Vitelli, and the Orsini might come to Rome, they could not effect anything against him. If he could not have made pope him whom he wished, at least the one whom he did not wish would not have been elected. But if he had been in sound health at the death of Alexander [his father], everything would have been different to him. On the day that Julius the Second was elected, he told me that he had thought of everything that might occur at the death of his father, and had provided a remedy for all, except that he had never anticipated that, when the death did happen, he himself would be on the point to die.Thursday, September 20, 12
  141. 141. III.C.1.a--Lucrezia Borgia 1little is known with certainty. Her reputed poisonings and incest with her brother Cesare were imputed by Borgia enemies she was married three times to advance the ambitions of her father 1493-to Giovanni Sforza, annulled after he’d served his purpose 1498-to Neapolitan Alfonso of Aragon, half- brother of Sancha, her sister-in-law 1500-Alfonso was murdered, reputedly by 1480-1519 Cesare by Pinturicchio fresco in the Borgia rooms of 1501-married Alfonso I d’Este, gave him eight the Vatican childrenThursday, September 20, 12
  142. 142. III.C.1.a--Lucrezia Borgia 1little is known with certainty. Her reputed poisonings and incest with her brother Cesare were imputed by Borgia enemies she was married three times to advance the ambitions of her father 1493-to Giovanni Sforza, annulled after he’d served his purpose 1498-to Neapolitan Alfonso of Aragon, half- brother of Sancha, her sister-in-law 1500-Alfonso was murdered, reputedly by 1480-1519 Cesare by Pinturicchio fresco in the Borgia rooms of 1501-married Alfonso I d’Este, gave him eight the Vatican children one of numerous paintings where she represents the Virgin MaryThursday, September 20, 12
  143. 143. III.C.2 Pope Julius IIThursday, September 20, 12
  144. 144. III.C.2 Pope Julius II 1471-elevated to bishop after his uncle became Pope Sixtus iv then made Cardinal of San Pietro in Vincula and given another seven bishoprics 1492-able papal legate to France, he gained great influence in the college of cardinals and rivaled Roderigo Borgia, whom he accused of simony when he lost the election to him 1503-after Alexander II died he became pope at last the only pope to lead his troops in battle, he is even more famous as a patron of the arts--Michelangelo & Bramante (here a cardinal, age 34) nicknamed "The Fearsome Pope" (Il Papa Terribile) and "The 1505-his celebrated tomb was commissioned but only Warrior Pope" (Il Papa Guerriero), born Giuliano della Rovere, completed forty years later on a much reduced scale 1443-1503-1513Thursday, September 20, 12
  145. 145. 1510-T Augustinian monks from Erfurt went to Rome to see Pope wo Julius regarding a matter that required settlement. Disillusionments of various sorts set in at once. ...The abysmal ignorance, frivolity, and levity of the Italian priests stupefied him. They could rattle through six or seven masses while he was saying one. And when he was only at the Gospel, they had finished and would say to him "Passa! Passa!" - "Get a move on!" ....Some of the Italian clergy however were flippantly unbelieving and would address the sacrament saying "Bread thou art and bread thou wilt remain." T a devout believer from the unsophisticated Northland o such disclosures were truly shocking. ...He need not have been a scandalmonger to know that the district of ill fame was frequented by ecclesiastics. He heard there were those who considered themselves virtuous because they confined themselves to women. The unsavory memory of Pope Alexander VI was still a stench. Catholic historians recognize candidly the scandal of the Renaissance popes, and the Catholic Reformation was as greatly concerned as the Protestant about such abuses. Roland Bainton, Here I Stand, quoted at http://wiki.answers.com/Q/ What_did_Martin_Luther_witness_in_Rome_that_upset_himThursday, September 20, 12
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