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J&P 5 Hobbes

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From Thomas Hobbes we have the first political philosophy in the English language. Called "Father of Atheists," he was the first person to "scientifically" argue for human equality!

From Thomas Hobbes we have the first political philosophy in the English language. Called "Father of Atheists," he was the first person to "scientifically" argue for human equality!

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  • 1. HobbesJustice & Power, session v
  • 2. HobbesJustice & Power, session v
  • 3. Topics in This Sessioni. Introductionii.Wars of Religion & Early Stuartsiii.Hobbesiv.Leviathan, 1651v.Criticism
  • 4. Introduction
  • 5. Introduction
  • 6. Thomas Hobbes, 1588-1679, Leviathan, 1651 Little more than a century separates Machiavelli and our nextphilosopher, Thomas Hobbes. The epicenter of WesternCivilization has moved westward from Greece to Italy, and nowto England•. T major phenomena which were only beginning woduring the final years of Machiavelli’s life are of primesignificance for Hobbes and all the thinkers who follow: theReformation and the Scientific Revolution.
  • 7. Both of these complex movements stemmed from the breakupof medieval order. Both took shape in the intellectual climate ofdiscovery which the printing press•
  • 8. Both of these complex movements stemmed from the breakupof medieval order. Both took shape in the intellectual climate ofdiscovery which the printing press•
  • 9. Both of these complex movements stemmed from the breakupof medieval order. Both took shape in the intellectual climate ofdiscovery which the printing press• and the voyages to the NewWorld fostered.
  • 10. Both of these complex movements stemmed from the breakupof medieval order. Both took shape in the intellectual climate ofdiscovery which the printing press• and the voyages to the NewWorld fostered. Both were bitterly resisted as intolerablechallenges to the status quo. Both ushered in the conditionswhich we take for granted in America: no one “owns” the truth;ultimately, the individual is responsible for his own beliefs. Theawesome power represented by knowledge is not a statemonopoly administered by the state religion. Hobbes becamean enthusiastic student of “the new learning.” He discussed hisviews with such luminaries as Francis Bacon• and Galileo.
  • 11. Both of these complex movements stemmed from the breakupof medieval order. Both took shape in the intellectual climate ofdiscovery which the printing press• and the voyages to the NewWorld fostered. Both were bitterly resisted as intolerablechallenges to the status quo. Both ushered in the conditionswhich we take for granted in America: no one “owns” the truth;ultimately, the individual is responsible for his own beliefs. Theawesome power represented by knowledge is not a statemonopoly administered by the state religion. Hobbes becamean enthusiastic student of “the new learning.” He discussed hisviews with such luminaries as Francis Bacon• and Galileo. Hisefforts to develop theories of human behavior which didn’trequire a theological foundation and his willingness to engage inacademic disputes earned him the epithet “father of atheists.”
  • 12. Both of these complex movements stemmed from the breakupof medieval order. Both took shape in the intellectual climate ofdiscovery which the printing press• and the voyages to the NewWorld fostered. Both were bitterly resisted as intolerablechallenges to the status quo. Both ushered in the conditionswhich we take for granted in America: no one “owns” the truth;ultimately, the individual is responsible for his own beliefs. Theawesome power represented by knowledge is not a statemonopoly administered by the state religion. Hobbes becamean enthusiastic student of “the new learning.” He discussed hisviews with such luminaries as Francis Bacon• and Galileo. Hisefforts to develop theories of human behavior which didn’trequire a theological foundation and his willingness to engage inacademic disputes earned him the epithet “father of atheists.”
  • 13. Both of these complex movements stemmed from the breakupof medieval order. Both took shape in the intellectual climate ofdiscovery which the printing press• and the voyages to the NewWorld fostered. Both were bitterly resisted as intolerablechallenges to the status quo. Both ushered in the conditionswhich we take for granted in America: no one “owns” the truth;ultimately, the individual is responsible for his own beliefs. Theawesome power represented by knowledge is not a statemonopoly administered by the state religion. Hobbes becamean enthusiastic student of “the new learning.” He discussed hisviews with such luminaries as Francis Bacon• and Galileo. Hisefforts to develop theories of human behavior which didn’trequire a theological foundation and his willingness to engage inacademic disputes earned him the epithet “father of atheists.”
  • 14. In an influential twentieth century study, The Structure ofScientific Revolution, Thomas S. Kuhn• describes what he calls“dominant paradigms.”
  • 15. In an influential twentieth century study, The Structure ofScientific Revolution, Thomas S. Kuhn• describes what he calls“dominant paradigms.” Every period operates with acharacteristic way of perceiving reality, according to Kuhn. This“dominant paradigm” is embodied in an unquestioned, tacitunderstanding widely shared and transmitted, not by overt“teaching” but by the type of models which people use toconceptualize everyday tasks. Hobbes’ age was the time when atraditional, organic paradigm was being replaced by a largelymechanical one as being the more useful image to have of theuniverse. Perhaps man is not the “political animal” of Aristotle.Perhaps he is a robot capable of a wholly mechanicalexplanation, if only we give the scientist enough data.
  • 16. Hobbes lived during the final years of the Wars of Religion.Like all the men we will study, his interest was not narrowlyfocused on politics. Although most widely recognized today asa defender of absolutism, he is ironically the first writer to argue“scientifically” that all men are equal. The violence of his ageshould give us empathy for his stress on the primacy of order insociety. A fitting tribute to his significance is given by WilliamEbenstein: “The Leviathan is not an apology for the Stuartmonarchy, nor a grammar of despotic government, but the firstgeneral theory of politics in the English language.” (GreatPolitical Thinkers, p. 358).
  • 17. Hobbes lived during the final years of the Wars of Religion.Like all the men we will study, his interest was not narrowlyfocused on politics. Although most widely recognized today asa defender of absolutism, he is ironically the first writer to argue“scientifically” that all men are equal. The violence of his ageshould give us empathy for his stress on the primacy of order insociety. A fitting tribute to his significance is given by WilliamEbenstein: “The Leviathan is not an apology for the Stuartmonarchy, nor a grammar of despotic government, but the firstgeneral theory of politics in the English language.” (GreatPolitical Thinkers, p. 358).
  • 18. Hobbes use of language is reminiscent of Shakespeare’s. Forboth you must read carefully and be aware that meanings ofsome words have changed since the seventeenth century. T to rysavor the irony and force which Hobbes achieves when hepractices economy and careful choice of words. As youcompare his conclusions with those of the three we havealready studied, consider also how he has arrived at theseviews. How does he argue for them? Does he make his case?
  • 19. Wars of Religion & Early Stuarts
  • 20. Wars of Religion & Early Stuarts
  • 21. II. Wars of Religion, 1524-1648; and Early Stuarts, 1603-49. A. James I, 1603-25 1. Spanish Armada, 1588 a. “Fear and I were twins.” b. Elizabethan Settlement 2. Church of England a. sovereignty and prerogative b. divine right of kings c. Guy Fawkes, November 5, 1605 d. King James Version (KJV), 1611 e. C. of E., Anglican, Episcopalian 3. a. Puritans, Congregationalists b. Calvinists, Presbyterians, and Covenanters c. Independents d. Fifth Monarchy Men B. the Continent C. Charles I, 1625-49 D. Interregnum, 1649-60
  • 22. James Stuart James VI of Scotland,1567-1625 James I of England, 1603-1625When the Virgin Queen, Elizabeth Idied, the Act of Settlement brought her Protestant nephew, son ofCatholic Mary Queen of Scots, to the throne
  • 23. II.A.1.a. “Fear and I were twins.”The portrait was made in approximately 1588 to commemorate the defeat of the Spanish Armada (depicted in thebackground). Elizabeth Is international power is reflected by the hand resting on the globe
  • 24. II.A.1.a. “Fear and I were twins.”
  • 25. II.A.1.b. Elizabethan Settlement
  • 26. Church of England sovereignty prerogative divine right of kings “No bishop, no king”-James IWestminster Abbey West Side
  • 27. Detail from a contemporary engraving of the Gunpowder Plotters. The Dutch artist probably never actually saw or met any of the conspirators, but it has become a popular representation nonetheless.
  • 28. “Remember, remember the Fifth of November…”
  • 29. AV or KJV 1611
  • 30. Established Church = C. of E., Anglican, (Episcopal)Non-conformists or Dissenters Puritans, Congregationalists Calvinists, Presbyterians, Covenanters Independents Fifth Monarchy Men
  • 31. II. Wars of Religion, 1524-1648; and Early Stuarts, 1603-49. A. James I, 1603-25 B. the Continent 1. France under Richelieu 2. Thirty Years War, 1618-48 C. Charles I, 1625-49 1. Petition of Right, 1628 2. Personal Rule, 1629-40 a. Hampden and Ship Money, 1637 b. Bishop’s War, 1638-40 3. Parliaments a. Short, 1640 b. Long, 1640-48 c. Rump, 1648-53 d. Bare-bones, 1659-60 D. Interregnum, 1649-60 1. Oliver Cromwell; Lord Protector, 1653-58 2. New Model Army and the Rule of Saints 3. Restoration, 1660
  • 32. II. Wars of Religion, 1524-1648; and Early Stuarts, 1603-49. A. James I, 1603-25 B. the Continent 1. France under Richelieu 2. Thirty Years War, 1618-48 C. Charles I, 1625-49 1. Petition of Right, 1628 2. Personal Rule, 1629-40 a. Hampden and Ship Money b. Bishop’s War, 1638-40 3. Parliaments a. Short, 1640 b. Long, 1640-48 c. Rump, 1648-53 d. Bare-bones, 1659-60 D. Interregnum, 1649-60 1. Oliver Cromwell; Lord Protector, 1653-58 2. New Model Army and the Rule of Saints 3. Restoration, 1660
  • 33. 1625-at his father’s death, Charles inherited a furious Parliament. Franco-Spanish war 1628-he submitted to the Petition of Right-no taxes without Parliament’s approval bitter at this check on his prerogative, Charles dismissed Parliament, vowing never to call them again Charles I he vowed to raise what he 1600 – 1649 needed by “creative” fiscalPortrait by Anthony van Dyck, 1636 policy
  • 34. Victorians chose him as the figure whoinspired the English Revolution1634-Charles began collecting amedieval levy called ship money toavoid having to reconvene Parliament1637-Hampden led the opposition tothis “end run” by refusing to payhe lost his case but became theleader of the Parliament men’sopposition“Would the payment of Ship Moneyhave made Hampden a pauper? No,but the payment of it, because it was John Hampdendemanded, would have made him a 1595 – 1643slave.”--Edmund Burke, 1794 as depicted in the 1851 Illustrated London Reading Book
  • 35. Victorians chose him as the figure whoinspired the English Revolution1634-Charles began collecting amedieval levy called ship money toavoid having to reconvene Parliament1637-Hampden led the opposition tothis “end run” by refusing to payhe lost his case but became theleader of the Parliament men’sopposition“Would the payment of Ship Moneyhave made Hampden a pauper? No,but the payment of it, because it was John Hampdendemanded, would have made him a 1595 – 1643slave.”--Edmund Burke, 1794 as depicted in the 1851 Illustrated London Reading Book
  • 36. Victorians chose him as the figure whoinspired the English Revolution1634-Charles began collecting amedieval levy called ship money toavoid having to reconvene Parliament1637-Hampden led the opposition tothis “end run” by refusing to payhe lost his case but became theleader of the Parliament men’sopposition“Would the payment of Ship Moneyhave made Hampden a pauper? No,but the payment of it, because it was John Hampdendemanded, would have made him a 1595 – 1643slave.”--Edmund Burke, 1794 as depicted in the 1851 Illustrated London Reading Book Statue of John Hampden in Market Square, Aylesbury
  • 37. religious passions fueled the English Civil War. The Established church faced a variety of Dissenters 1638-Laud and Charles decided to crack down on the Scottish Presbyterians with a new prayerbook 1638-40--the resulting Bishop’s War produced two symbols: the Covenant & the fiery cross its financial burden forced Charles to call Parliament back into session 1640-appalled by the rebellious nature of the men elected, Charles dismissed them and called for new elections--the so-called Short Parliament William LaudArchbishop of Canterbury the new election produced an even more 1573 –1633- 1645 militant Long Parliament and the stage was setPortrait by Anthony van Dyck, 1636 for war. East Anglican Oliver Cromwell
  • 38. religious passions fueled the English Civil War. The Established church faced a variety of Dissenters 1638-Laud and Charles decided to crack down on the Scottish Presbyterians with a new prayerbook 1638-40--the resulting Bishop’s War produced two symbols: the Covenant & the fiery cross its financial burden forced Charles to call Parliament back into session 1640-appalled by the rebellious nature of the men elected, Charles dismissed them and called for new elections--the so-called Short Parliament William LaudArchbishop of Canterbury the new election produced an even more 1573 –1633- 1645 militant Long Parliament and the stage was setPortrait by Anthony van Dyck, 1636 for war. East Anglican Oliver Cromwell
  • 39. religious passions fueled the English Civil War. The Established church faced a variety of Dissenters 1638-Laud and Charles decided to crack down on the Scottish Presbyterians with a new prayerbook 1638-40--the resulting Bishop’s War produced two symbols: the Covenant & the fiery cross its financial burden forced Charles to call Parliament back into session 1640-appalled by the rebellious nature of the men elected, Charles dismissed them and called for new elections--the so-called Short Parliament William LaudArchbishop of Canterbury the new election produced an even more 1573 –1633- 1645 militant Long Parliament and the stage was setPortrait by Anthony van Dyck, 1636 for war. East Anglican Oliver Cromwell Oliver Cromwell c. 1649 by Robert Walker
  • 40. The trial of Charles I, 20-29 January 1649
  • 41. The trial of Charles I, 20-29 January 1649
  • 42. The trial of Charles I, 20-29 January 1649Charles’ beheading January 30, 1649
  • 43. Cromwell dismisses the Rump , 1653"[Cromwell] commanded the Speaker to leave the Chair, and told themthey had sat long enough, unless they had done more good, crying outYou are no longer a Parliament, I say you are no Parliament. He told SirHenry Vane he was a Jugler [sic]; Henry Martin and Sir Peter Wentworth,that they were Whoremasters; Thomas Chaloner, he was a Drunkard; andAllen the Goldsmith that he cheated the Publick: Then he bid one of hisSoldiers take away that Fools Bauble the mace and Thomas Harrisonpulled the Speaker of the Chair; and in short Cromwell having turnedthem all out of the House, lockd up the Doors and returned to Whitehall." Thomas Salmon in his Chronological Historian (London, 1723, 106“You have sat too long for any good you have been doing lately ...Depart, I say; and let us have done with you. In the name of God, go!”
  • 44. Hobbes
  • 45. Hobbes
  • 46. III. Hobbes A. Early Years 1. Parson Hobbes 2. Magdalen College, Oxford 3. William Cavendish, 2nd Earl of Devonshire a. the Grand Tour, 1610 b. patronage B. Scientific Revolution 1. astronomy: Copernicus to Galileo 2. induction: Francis Bacon 3. Cartesianism: Rene Descartes a. doubt, cogito ergo sum b. analytic geometry c. deductive system building C. Hobbes turns to science
  • 47. Parson Hobbes“an impecunious vicar and something of a“character”--Ebenstein“after a Saturday evening at cards, he fell asleepin the pulpit, awoke with the cry “clubs is trump!”after brawling with a fellow clergyman outside hischurch, he abandoned his wife and threechildrenHobbes (jr.) was raised by his maternal uncle, aglover, who fostered his precocity read and wrote at four Greek and Latin at six Oxford at fifteen Thomas Hobbes, Sr. (stock image)
  • 48. III. Hobbes A. Early Years 1. Parson Hobbes 2. Magdalen College, Oxford 3. William Cavendish, 2nd Earl of Devonshire a. the Grand Tour, 1610 b. patronage B. Scientific Revolution 1. astronomy: Copernicus to Galileo 2. induction: Francis Bacon 3. Cartesianism: Rene Descartes a. doubt, cogito ergo sum b. analytic geometry c. deductive system building C. Hobbes turns to science
  • 49. Paris, 1610Although King Henry IV was a man of kindness, compassion andgood humor, and was much loved by his people, Henry was thesubject of attempts on his life by Pierre Barrière in August 1593and Jean Châtel in December 1594.He was ultimately assassinated in Paris on 14 May 1610 by aCatholic fanatic, François Ravaillac, who stabbed the king todeath in Rue de la Ferronnerie, while his coachs progress wasstopped by traffic congestion for the Queens coronationceremony, as depicted in the engraving by Gaspar Bouttats. Wikipedia
  • 50. Paris, 1610Although King Henry IV was a man of kindness, compassion andgood humor, and was much loved by his people, Henry was thesubject of attempts on his life by Pierre Barrière in August 1593and Jean Châtel in December 1594.He was ultimately assassinated in Paris on 14 May 1610 by aCatholic fanatic, François Ravaillac, who stabbed the king todeath in Rue de la Ferronnerie, while his coachs progress wasstopped by traffic congestion for the Queens coronationceremony, as depicted in the engraving by Gaspar Bouttats. Wikipedia
  • 51. Paris, 1610Although King Henry IV was a man of kindness, compassion andgood humor, and was much loved by his people, Henry was thesubject of attempts on his life by Pierre Barrière in August 1593and Jean Châtel in December 1594.He was ultimately assassinated in Paris on 14 May 1610 by aCatholic fanatic, François Ravaillac, who stabbed the king todeath in Rue de la Ferronnerie, while his coachs progress wasstopped by traffic congestion for the Queens coronationceremony, as depicted in the engraving by Gaspar Bouttats. Wikipedia
  • 52. Paris, 1610Although King Henry IV was a man of kindness, compassion andgood humor, and was much loved by his people, Henry was thesubject of attempts on his life by Pierre Barrière in August 1593and Jean Châtel in December 1594.He was ultimately assassinated in Paris on 14 May 1610 by aCatholic fanatic, François Ravaillac, who stabbed the king todeath in Rue de la Ferronnerie, while his coachs progress wasstopped by traffic congestion for the Queens coronationceremony, as depicted in the engraving by Gaspar Bouttats. Wikipedia
  • 53. III. Hobbes A. Early Years 1. Parson Hobbes 2. Magdalen College, Oxford 3. William Cavendish, 2nd Earl of Devonshire a. the Grand Tour, 1610 b. patronage B. Scientific Revolution 1. astronomy: Copernicus to Galileo 2. induction: Francis Bacon 3. Cartesianism: Rene Descartes a. doubt, cogito ergo sum b. analytic geometry c. deductive system building C. Hobbes turns to science
  • 54. III. Hobbes A. Early Years 1. Parson Hobbes 2. Magdalen College, Oxford 3. William Cavendish, 2nd Earl of Devonshire a. the Grand Tour, 1610 b. patronage B. Scientific Revolution 1. astronomy: Copernicus to Galileo 2. induction: Francis Bacon 3. Cartesianism: Rene Descartes a. doubt, cogito ergo sum b. analytic geometry c. deductive system building C. Hobbes turns to science
  • 55. III. Hobbes A. Early Years 1. Parson Hobbes 2. Magdalen College, Oxford 3. William Cavendish, 2nd Earl of Devonshire a. the Grand Tour, 1610 b. patronage B. Scientific Revolution 1. astronomy: Copernicus to Galileo 2. induction: Francis Bacon ΑΓΕ$ΜΕΤΡΗΤΟΣ ΜΗΔΕΙΣ ΕΙΣΙΤ$ 3. Cartesianism: Rene Descartes AGEŌMETRĒTOS MĒDEIS EISITŌ a. doubt, cogito ergo sum LET NO ONE UNTRAINED IN GEOMETRY ENTER b. analytic geometry MOTTO OVER THE GATEWAY TO PLATO’S ACADEMY c. deductive system building C. Hobbes turns to science
  • 56. III. Hobbes A. Early Years 1. Parson Hobbes 2. Magdalen College, Oxford 3. William Cavendish, 2nd Earl of Devonshire a. the Grand Tour, 1610 b. patronage B. Scientific Revolution 1. astronomy: Copernicus to Galileo 2. induction: Francis Bacon 3. Cartesianism: Rene Descartes a. doubt, cogito ergo sum b. analytic geometry c. deductive system building C. Hobbes turns to science
  • 57. Galileo & heliocentrism1543-Copernicus had feared to publishduring his lifetime1600-Dominican friar Giordano Bruno wasburned at the stake for his Copernicanviews
  • 58. Galileo & heliocentrism1543-Copernicus had feared to publishduring his lifetime1600-Dominican friar Giordano Bruno wasburned at the stake for his Copernicanviews1610- “Starry Messenger” published theobservations Galileo had made with histelescope Venice 1610
  • 59. Galileo & heliocentrism1543-Copernicus had feared to publishduring his lifetime1600-Dominican friar Giordano Bruno wasburned at the stake for his Copernicanviews1610- “Starry Messenger” published theobservations Galileo had made with histelescope1616- he was summoned to Rome and warned Venice 1610
  • 60. Galileo & heliocentrism1543-Copernicus had feared to publishduring his lifetime1600-Dominican friar Giordano Bruno wasburned at the stake for his Copernicanviews1610- “Starry Messenger” published theobservations Galileo had made with histelescope1616- he was summoned to Rome and warned Venice 1610
  • 61. Galileo & heliocentrism1543-Copernicus had feared to publishduring his lifetime1600-Dominican friar Giordano Bruno wasburned at the stake for his Copernicanviews1610- “Starry Messenger” published theobservations Galileo had made with histelescope1616- he was summoned to Rome and warned1633- declared a heretic and put underhouse arrest for the rest of his life Venice 1610
  • 62. Francis Bacon--induction Bacon has been called the creator of empiricism His works established and popularized inductive methodologies for scientific inquiry, often called simply the scientific method His demand for a planned procedure of investigating all things natural marked a new turn in the rhetorical and theoretical framework for science, much of which still surrounds conceptions of proper methodology today his scientific works called for an universal reform of knowledge and the application of science and Francis Bacon invention to improve mankind’s material conditions1st Viscount St Alban(s), KC (1561 – 1626) 1620-Hobbes met, admired him, and worked as his secretary
  • 63. Novum Organum Scientiarum, 1620 (The New Instrument of Science) Aristotle’s treatise on logic had been called the Organon. It was primarily deductive deduction argues from general principles to specific cases, e.g., “All men are mortal, Socrates is a man, therefore, we deduce, Socrates is mortal” the Novum Organon proposes to seek general principles through experimentation, to induce them, from the specific finding to the general thus, no principle was to be accepted on authority, not Aristotle’s, not the Church’s the way was paved for doubt and modern science
  • 64. Rene Descartes--deductionamazingly enlightened education by the Jesuits atLa Flechelike the Greek Skeptics, Descartes began hisintellectual adventure with doubt. He rejected allprinciples until he reached his famous “cogitoergo sum” (je pense, donc je suis)analytic geometry: y=mx +b (Cartesian coordinates)deductive system building1641-Hobbes was invited by Descartes to give acritique of Descartes’ “First Philosophy” Renatus Cartesius 1596 –1650as a thoroughgoing materialist, Hobbes rejectedthe spiritual aspects
  • 65. III. Hobbes A. Early Years B. Scientific Revolution C. Hobbes turns to science 1. From Thucydides to Euclid, 1610 2. materialism a. De Corpore, 1655: physics b. De Homine, 1658: psychology c. De Cive, 1642 3. emigration, 1640--51 a. “the first of all that fled” b. Prince of Wales, 1646-47 c. troubles in France 4. final years, 1651-79
  • 66. ELEMENTORUMPHILOSOPHIAE SECTIO TERTIAE DE CIVE Proverbs 8:15 Per me Reges regnant et legum conditores iusta decernunt [By me kings reign, and rulers decree what is just] Paris 1642
  • 67. De Cive is the first of a trilogy of works written by Hobbes dealing with humanknowledge, the other two works in the trilogy being De Corpore (‘On thebody’), published in 1655 and De Homine (On man), published in 1658. Becauseof the political turmoil of the time, namely the unrest leading up to the Civil Warof 1642, Hobbes hastily "ripened and plucked" the work which wouldsystematically come last: De Cive. This work comprises three parts: Libertas(liberty), Imperium (dominion), and Religio (religion). In the first part, hedescribes man’s natural condition, dealing with the natural laws; in the second,the necessity of establishing a stable government is indicated. Finally, in thethird part, he writes something about religion.The famous phrase Bellum omnium contra omnes (war of all against all)appeared first in De Cive. Wikipedia
  • 68. III. Hobbes A. Early Years B. Scientific Revolution C. Hobbes turns to science 1. From Thucydides to Euclid, 1610 2. materialism a. De Corpore, 1655: physics b. De Homine, 1658: psychology c. De Cive, 1642 3. emigration, 1640--51 a. “the first of all that fled” b. Prince of Wales, 1646-47 c. troubles in France 4. final years, 1651-79
  • 69. Leviathan 1651
  • 70. Leviathan 1651
  • 71. Leviathan 1651
  • 72. IV. Leviathan, 1651; chaps., 47, pp. 240 (Great Books ed.) A. Introduction 1. meaning of title? 2. analogy to the body B. Chap 13 1. “proof” of human equality 2. three causes of quarrels 3. condition of war a. description -- memorize (SPNBS) b. proofs c. indians and “state of nature” C. Chap 14 D. Chap 15 E. Chap 17 F. Other concepts
  • 73. Nature (the art whereby God hath made and governes the world) is bythe art of man, as in many other things, so in this also imitated, that itcan make an Artificial Animal. For seeing life is but a motion of Limbs,the begining whereof is in some principall part within; why may we notsay, that all Automata (Engines that move themselves by springs andwheeles as doth a watch) have an artificiall life? For what is the Heart,but a Spring; and the Nerves, but so many Strings; and the Joynts,but so many Wheeles, giving motion to the whole Body, such as wasintended by the Artificer? Art goes yet further, imitating that Rationalland most excellent worke of Nature, Man. For by Art is created thatgreat LEVIATHAN called a COMMON-WEALTH, or STATE, (in latineCIVITAS) which is but an Artificiall Man; though of greater stature andstrength than the Naturall, for whose protection and defence it wasintended; (cont.)
  • 74. and in which, the Soveraignty is an Artificiall Soul, as giving life andmotion to the whole body; The Magistrates, and other Officers ofJudicature and Execution, artificiall Joynts; Reward and Punishment(by which fastned to the seat of the Soveraignty, every joynt andmember is moved to performe his duty) are the Nerves, that do thesame in the Body Naturall; The Wealth and Riches of all the particularmembers, are the Strength; Salus Populi (the Peoples Safety) itsBusinesse; Counsellors, by whom all things needfull for it to know, aresuggested unto it, are the Memory; Equity and Lawes, an artificiallReason and Will; Concord, Health; Sedition, Sicknesse; and Civill War,Death. Lastly, the Pacts and Covenants, by which the parts of thisBody Politique were at first made, set together, and united, resemblethat Fiat, or the Let Us Make Man, pronounced by God in theCreation. Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, “Introduction”
  • 75. natural man mechanical man state heart spring nerves strings reward and punishment joints wheels magistrates & others soul sovereign strength wealth of every member safety business memory counselorsreason & will equity & laws health concord sickness sedition death civil war
  • 76. As God’s Fiat (Latin for “let it be made”) created man, sothe pacts and covenants create the “Body Politique.”Next, Hobbes will describe the need for a state arisingfrom man’s condition in “the state of nature” and thecovenant which he will make.
  • 77. IV.B.1--”proof” of human equalityCHAPTER XIII. OF THE NATURALL CONDITION OF MANKIND, ASCONCERNING THEIR FELICITY, AND MISERYNature hath made men so equall, in the faculties of body, and mind; as thatthough there bee found one man sometimes manifestly stronger in body, or ofquicker mind then another; yet when all is reckoned together, the differencebetween man, and man, is not so considerable, as that one man can thereuponclaim to himselfe any benefit, to which another may not pretend, as well as he.For as to the strength of body, the weakest has strength enough to kill thestrongest, either by secret machination, or by confederacy with others, thatare in the same danger with himselfe.
  • 78. And as to the faculties of the mind, (setting aside the arts grounded uponwords, and especially that skill of proceeding upon generall, and infallible rules,called Science; which very few have, and but in few things; as being not a nativefaculty, born with us; nor attained,(as Prudence,) while we look after somewhatels,) I find yet a greater equality amongst men, than that of strength. ForPrudence, is but Experience; which equall time, equally bestowes on all men, inthose things they equally apply themselves unto. That which may perhapsmake such equality incredible, is but a vain conceipt of ones owne wisdome,which almost all men think they have in a greater degree, than the Vulgar; thatis, than all men but themselves, and a few others, whom by Fame, or forconcurring with themselves, they approve. For such is the nature of men, thathowsoever they may acknowledge many others to be more witty, or moreeloquent, or more learned; Yet they will hardly believe there be many so wise asthemselves: For they see their own wit at hand, and other mens at a distance.But this proveth rather that men are in that point equall, than unequall. Forthere is not ordinarily a greater signe of the equall distribution of any thing,than that every man is contented with his share.
  • 79. IV.B.2--three causes of quarrelsFrom this equality of ability, ariseth equality of hope in the attaining of ourEnds. And therefore if any two men desire the same thing, which neverthelessethey cannot both enjoy, they become enemies; and in the way to their End,(which is principally their owne conservation, and sometimes their delectationonly,) endeavour to destroy, or subdue one an other. And from hence it comesto passe, that where an Invader hath no more to feare, than an other manssingle power; if one plant, sow, build, or possesse a convenient Seat, othersmay probably be expected to come prepared with forces united, todispossesse, and deprive him, not only of the fruit of his labour, but also of hislife, or liberty. And the Invader again is in the like danger of another.
  • 80. So that in the nature of man, we find three principall causes of quarrel. First,Competition; Secondly, Diffidence; Thirdly, Glory.The first, maketh men invade for Gain; the second, for Safety; and the third, forReputation. The first use Violence, to make themselves Masters of other menspersons, wives, children, and cattell; the second, to defend them; the third, fortrifles, as a word, a smile, a different opinion, and any other signe ofundervalue, either direct in their Persons, or by reflexion in their Kindred, theirFriends, their Nation, their Profession, or their Name.
  • 81. IV.B.3--the condition of warThere Is Alwayes Warre Of Every One Against Every One Hereby it is manifest,that during the time men live without a common Power to keep them all in awe,they are in that condition which is called Warre; and such a warre, as is of everyman, against every man. For WARRE, consisteth not in Battell onely, or the actof fighting; but in a tract of time, wherein the Will to contend by Battell issufficiently known: and therefore the notion of Time, is to be considered in thenature of Warre; as it is in the nature of Weather. For as the nature of Fouleweather, lyeth not in a showre or two of rain; but in an inclination thereto ofmany dayes together: So the nature of War, consisteth not in actuall fighting;but in the known disposition thereto, during all the time there is no assuranceto the contrary. All other time is PEACE.
  • 82. IV.B.3.a--SPNBSIn such condition, there is no place for industry; because the fruitthereof is uncertain: and consequently no culture of the earth; nonavigation, nor use of the commodities that may be imported by sea;no commodious building; no instruments of moving, and removing,such things as require much force; no knowledge of the face of theearth; no account of time; no arts; no letters; no society; and whichis worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death; and thelife of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.
  • 83. Before moving on to the solution to this condition of “war of allagainst all,” Hobbes offers proofs of his description: the locked doors and armed travelers in “civilized “ England the condition of the savages in North America the attitude of European nation-states “...in the state and posture of Gladiators;having their weapons pointing, and their eyes fixed on one another;that is, their Forts, Garrisons, and Guns upon the Frontiers of theirKingdomes; and continuall Spyes upon their neighbours; which is a posture of War.”
  • 84. IV. Leviathan, 1651; chaps., 47, pp. 240 (Great Books ed.) A. Introduction B. Chap 13 C. Chap 14 1. definitions and contrasts a. right b. liberty c. law 2. Three laws of nature D. Chap 15 E. Chap 17 F. Other concepts
  • 85. IV.C.1.a.--the right of natureThe RIGHT OF NATURE, which Writers commonly call JusNaturale, is the Liberty each man hath, to use his ownpower, as he will himselfe, for the preservation of his ownNature; that is to say, of his own Life; and consequently, ofdoing any thing, which in his own Judgement, and Reason,hee shall conceive to be the aptest means thereunto.
  • 86. IV.C.1.b.--the liberty of natureBy LIBERTY, is understood, according to the propersignification of the word, the absence of externallImpediments: which Impediments, may oft take away part ofa mans power to do what hee would; but cannot hinder himfrom using the power left him, according as his judgement,and reason shall dictate to him.
  • 87. IV.C.1.c.--the law of natureA LAW OF NATURE, (Lex Naturalis), is a Precept, or generallRule, found out by Reason, by which a man is forbidden to do,that, which is destructive of his life, or taketh away the means ofpreserving the same; and to omit, that, by which he thinketh itmay be best preserved. For though they that speak of thissubject, use to confound Jus, and Lex, Right and Law; yet theyought to be distinguished; because RIGHT, consisteth in libertyto do, or to forbeare; Whereas LAW, determineth, and bindeth toone of them: so that Law, and Right, differ as much, asObligation, and Liberty; which in one and the same matter areinconsistent.
  • 88. IV.C.1.c.--the laws of nature described--PreambleAnd because the condition of Man, (as hath been declaredin the precedent Chapter) is a condition of Warre of everyone against everyone; in which case every one is governedby his own Reason; and there is nothing he can make useof, that may not be a help unto him, in preserving his lifeagainst his enemyes; It followeth, that in such a condition,every man has a Right to every thing; even to one anothersbody. And therefore, as long as this naturall Right of everyman to every thing endureth, there can be no security toany man, (how strong or wise soever he be,) of living outthe time, which Nature ordinarily alloweth men to live.
  • 89. IV.C.1.c.--the fundamental law of natureAnd consequently it is a precept, or generall rule ofReason, "That every man, ought to endeavour Peace, asfarre as he has hope of obtaining it; and when he cannotobtain it, that he may seek, and use, all helps, andadvantages of Warre." The first branch, of which Rule,containeth the first, and Fundamentall Law of Nature; whichis, "T seek Peace, and follow it." The Second, the summe oof the Right of Nature; which is, "By all means we can, todefend our selves."
  • 90. IV.C.1.c.--the second law of nature explainedFrom this Fundamentall Law of Nature, by which men are commanded toendeavour Peace, is derived this second Law; "That a man be willing, whenothers are so too, as farre-forth, as for Peace, and defence of himselfe he shallthink it necessary, to lay down this right to all things; and be contented with somuch liberty against other men, as he would allow other men against himselfe."For as long as every man holdeth this Right, of doing any thing he liketh; solong are all men in the condition of Warre. But if other men will not lay downtheir Right, as well as he; then there is no Reason for any one, to devesthimselfe of his: For that were to expose himselfe to Prey, (which no man isbound to) rather than to dispose himselfe to Peace. This is that Law of theGospell; "Whatsoever you require that others should do to you, that doye tothem." And that Law of all men, "Quod tibi feiri non vis, alteri ne feceris."
  • 91. IV. Leviathan, 1651; chaps., 47, pp. 240 (Great Books ed.) A. Introduction B. Chap 13 C. Chap 14 D. Chap 15 1. definition of justice 2. contrast with earlier thinkers E. Chap 17 1. man’s end 2. “covenants without the sword…” 3. The social contract (covenant) a. goal? b. terms? enforcement? c. duration? d. parties? 4. commonwealth and sovereign defined F. Other concepts 1. the sovereign -- one man or many? 2. the “Kingdom of Darkness”
  • 92. IV.D.1.--the third law of nature, justiceFrom that law of Nature, by which we are obliged totransferre to another, such Rights, as being retained,hinder the peace of Mankind, there followeth a Third;which is this, That Men Performe Their Covenants Made:without which, Covenants are in vain, and but Empty words;and the Right of all men to all things remaining, wee are stillin the condition of Warre.
  • 93. IV.D.1.-- justice and injustice definedAnd in this law of Nature, consisteth the Fountain andOriginall of JUSTICE. For where no Covenant hathpreceded, there hath no Right been transferred, and everyman has right to every thing; and consequently, no actioncan be Unjust. But when a Covenant is made, then to breakit is Unjust: And the definition of INJUSTICE, is no otherthan The Not Performance Of Covenant. And whatsoeveris not Unjust, is Just.
  • 94. IV.E.1--man’s end (goal)CHAPTER XVII.-- OF THE CAUSES, GENERATION, AND DEFINITIONOF A COMMON-WEALTHThe finall Cause, End, or Designe of men, (who naturally loveLiberty, and Dominion over others,) in the introduction of thatrestraint upon themselves, (in which wee see them live in Common-wealths,) is the foresight of their own preservation, and of a morecontented life thereby; that is to say, of getting themselves out fromthat miserable condition of Warre, which is necessarily consequent(as hath been shewn) to the naturall Passions of men, when there isno visible Power to keep them in awe, and tye them by feare ofpunishment to the performance of their Covenants, andobservation of these Lawes of Nature set down in the fourteenthand fifteenth Chapters.
  • 95. IV.E.2--”covenants without the sword”CHAPTER XVII.-- OF THE CAUSES, GENERATION, AND DEFINITIONOF A COMMON-WEALTHFor the Lawes of Nature (as Justice, Equity, Modesty,Mercy, and (in summe) Doing T Others, As Wee Would Be oDone T if themselves, without the terrour of some Power, o,)to cause them to be observed, are contrary to our naturallPassions, that carry us to Partiality, Pride, Revenge, andthe like. And Covenants, without the Sword, are but Words,and of no strength to secure a man at all.
  • 96. IV.E.3--generation of the commonwealthThe only way to erect such a Common Power, as may be able to defendthem from the invasion of Forraigners, and the injuries of one another,and thereby to secure them in such sort, as that by their owneindustrie, and by the fruites of the Earth, they may nourish themselvesand live contentedly; is, to conferre all their power and strength uponone Man, or upon one Assembly of men, that may reduce all their Wills,by plurality of voices, unto one Will: which is as much as to say, toappoint one man, or Assembly of men, to beare their Person; and everyone to owne, and acknowledge himselfe to be Author of whatsoever hethat so beareth their Person, shall Act, or cause to be Acted, in thosethings which concerne the Common Peace and Safetie; and therein tosubmit their Wills, every one to his Will, and their Judgements, to hisJudgment. (cont.)
  • 97. IV.E.3--generation of the commonwealth submit their Wills, every one to his Will, and their Judgements, to his Judgment. This is more than Consent, or Concord; it is a reall Unitie of them all, in one and the same Person, made by Covenant of every man with every man, in such manner, as if every man should say to every man, "I Authorise and give up my Right of Governing my selfe, to this Man, or to this Assembly of men, on this condition, that thou give up thy Right to him, and Authorise all his Actions in like manner." This done, the Multitude so united in one Person, is called a COMMON-WEALTH, in latine CIVITAS. This is the Generation of that great LEVIATHAN, or rather (to speake more reverently) of that Mortall God, to which wee owe under the Immortall God, our peace and defence. For by this Authoritie, given him by every particular man in the Common-Wealth, he hath the use of so much Power and Strength conferred on him, that by terror thereof, he is inabled to forme the wills of them all, to Peace at home, and mutuall ayd against their enemies abroad.
  • 98. IV.E.3. the social contract(covenant)a. goal? security of life and propertyb. terms? each surrenders his rights to the Sovereignc. duration? permanent, once entered upon no going backd. parties? every man with every man. NOTE WELL the Sovereign is not a party, he is “above” the contract
  • 99. IV.E.4--commonwealth and sovereign definedCHAPTER XVII.-- OF THE CAUSES, GENERATION, AND DEFINITIONOF A COMMON-WEALTHAnd in him [the Sovereign]consisteth the Essence of the Common-wealth;which (to define it,) is "One Person, of whose Acts a great Multitude, by mutuallCovenants one with another, have made themselves every one the Author, tothe end he may use the strength and means of them all, as he shall thinkexpedient, for their Peace and Common Defence.And he that carryeth this Person, as called SOVERAIGNE, and said to haveSoveraigne Power; and every one besides, his SUBJECT.
  • 100. IV.F. other concepts 1.the sovereign -- one or many? The question of the best form of state is not one of logic, according toHobbes, but of convenience, that is, of the aptitude of the state toproduce the security and peace of the people for which a government isinstituted. However, on purely practical grounds Hobbes considersmonarchy the best form of state because it suffers less fromcompetition for office and power than do aristocracies anddemocracies; also, it is easier for one than for many to act resolutelyand consistently. Sovereign power is “incommunicable and inseparable,” and Hobbesattacks any institution, town or private corporation, that may weakenthe omnipotence of the state. (cont.)
  • 101. the sovereign -- one or many? (concluded) Sovereign power is “incommunicable and inseparable,” and Hobbesattacks any institution, town or private corporation, that may weakenthe omnipotence of the state. He is vehemently opposed to division ofpowers or mixed government, and he goes so far as to say that therewould have been no civil war in England if it had not been for thewidespread opinion that the sovereignty was divided between King,Lords, and Commons. There is particular danger in the liberty of thesubject to challenge the wisdom or legality of the sovereign’s actions,the “poisonous doctrine” that “every private man is judge of good andevil actions,” and that “whatsoever a man does against his conscience issin.” Against such “seditious doctrines” Hobbes demands theunqualified obedience of the subject. Ebenstein, pp. 360-361
  • 102. IV.F.2 --the Kingdom of DarknessFor from the time that the Bishop of Rome had gotten to beacknowledged for bishop universal, by pretense of succession to St.Peter, their whole hierarchy, or kingdom of darkness, may be comparednot unfitly to the kingdom of fairies ; that is, to old wives’ fables in Englandconcerning ghosts and spirits, and the feats they play in the night. And ifa man consider the original of this ecclesiastical dominion, he will easilyperceive that the Papacy is no other than the ghost of the deceasedRoman empire sitting crowned upon the grave thereof.
  • 103. Criticism
  • 104. Criticism
  • 105. V. Criticism 1. “father of totalitarianism?” Ebenstein’s seven points 2. contributions 3. weaknesses
  • 106. V.1. Hobbes is NOT the father of totalitarianism1. government is established by a contract2. government establishes order for the benefit of the citizens3. Hobbesian state is authoritarian NOT totalitarian4.sovereign may be one or many. Totalitarians are one-man5. there is no glorification of war (class war or imperialist)6. Hobbes requires only outer conformity7. Hobbesian stress on the inalienability of human life
  • 107. contributionsHobbes began the “great conversation” about political philosophy inEnglish. His concepts of the state of nature, the laws of nature, and thesocial contract would lead in a direct line to the 18th century founders ofthe American Republic.
  • 108. weaknessesHis materialism was the product of his fascination with the ScientificRevolution and his hostility towards the religious warfare of his age. Hisemphasis on order at the expense of liberty stemmed from hisabhorrence of the violence of the Thirty Years’ War and the English CivilWar. Both these qualities undercut the insightful analysis of his work.
  • 109. As Hobbes lay dying in 1679 England was once again convulsed inpolitical struggles between Crown and Parliament. The revolution whichfollowed in 1688 was called Glorious because compared to the Civil War itwas almost bloodless. This conflict would produce another great workof political philosophy, one even more influential on America’s foundingfathers.But, that’s another story...