Imperial Russia, 1881 1914

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This examines the political, economic, social and diplomatic developments in Imperial Russia on the eve of World War I

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Imperial Russia, 1881 1914

  1. 1. The Russian Revolution 1815-1924 Session IV Imperial Russia, 1881-1914 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  2. 2. • Economic Conditions • The Agrarian Problem • Industry & Labor • Foreign Trade • Domestic Political Developments • Full Reaction, 1881-1905 • Reformers & Revolutionaries • The Revolution of 1905 • The Constitutional Experiment • Foreign Policy • Expansion • The Train Wreck Sunday, October 11, 2009
  3. 3. Economic Conditions Sunday, October 11, 2009
  4. 4. Economic Conditions Deryevna lit., the village fig., the countryside, rural Russia Sunday, October 11, 2009
  5. 5. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  6. 6. Agriculture provided the economic and social basis of late-tsarist Russia. Approximately four-fifths of her population consisted of peasants who tilled the land and, in the northern provinces, also pursued industrial side occupations. A balloonist flying over Central Russia would have seen an endless landscape of cultivated fields, divided into narrow strips, interspersed with forests and meadows, scattered among which, every five to ten kilometers, lay villages of wooden huts. Cities were small and far between. Richard Pipes, A Concise History of the Russian Revolution, p. 4 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  7. 7. Imperative for Change Sunday, October 11, 2009
  8. 8. Imperative for Change We are at least two hundred years behind, we have really gained nothing yet, we have no definite attitude to the past, we do nothing but theorize or complain of depression or drink vodka. It is clear that to begin to live in the present we must first expiate our past, we must break with it; and we can expiate it only by suffering, by extraordinary unceasing labor. the “perpetual student” Trofimov in Anton Chekhov’s The Cherry Orchard, 1904 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  9. 9. 19th Century Russian Inte!igentsia Sunday, October 11, 2009
  10. 10. 19th Century Russian Inte!igentsia Slavophils Westernizers Vladimir Solovyov Aleksandr Herzen Vissarion Belinsky Aleksey Khomyakov Sunday, October 11, 2009
  11. 11. Advocates of Reform:Three Main Groups Sunday, October 11, 2009
  12. 12. Advocates of Reform:Three Main Groups 1. economic and social change granted from above Sunday, October 11, 2009
  13. 13. Advocates of Reform:Three Main Groups 1. economic and social change granted from above by imperial ukase or administrative action without alteration of the political or social system Sunday, October 11, 2009
  14. 14. Advocates of Reform:Three Main Groups 1. economic and social change granted from above by imperial ukase or administrative action without alteration of the political or social system examples--Alexander II, in his early years, bureaucrat reformers, Miliutin, Stolypin Sunday, October 11, 2009
  15. 15. Advocates of Reform:Three Main Groups 1. economic and social change granted from above by imperial ukase or administrative action without alteration of the political or social system examples--Alexander II, in his early years, bureaucrat reformers, Miliutin, Stolypin 2. emulate the liberal countries of western Europe Sunday, October 11, 2009
  16. 16. Advocates of Reform:Three Main Groups 1. economic and social change granted from above by imperial ukase or administrative action without alteration of the political or social system examples--Alexander II, in his early years, bureaucrat reformers, Miliutin, Stolypin 2. emulate the liberal countries of western Europe gradual reforms by the progressive extension of political rights Sunday, October 11, 2009
  17. 17. Advocates of Reform:Three Main Groups 1. economic and social change granted from above by imperial ukase or administrative action without alteration of the political or social system examples--Alexander II, in his early years, bureaucrat reformers, Miliutin, Stolypin 2. emulate the liberal countries of western Europe gradual reforms by the progressive extension of political rights Westernizers, university professors, civil servants, professionals, capitalists Sunday, October 11, 2009
  18. 18. Advocates of Reform:Three Main Groups 1. economic and social change granted from above by imperial ukase or administrative action without alteration of the political or social system examples--Alexander II, in his early years, bureaucrat reformers, Miliutin, Stolypin 2. emulate the liberal countries of western Europe gradual reforms by the progressive extension of political rights Westernizers, university professors, civil servants, professionals, capitalists 3. revolutionaries of various types Sunday, October 11, 2009
  19. 19. Advocates of Reform:Three Main Groups 1. economic and social change granted from above by imperial ukase or administrative action without alteration of the political or social system examples--Alexander II, in his early years, bureaucrat reformers, Miliutin, Stolypin 2. emulate the liberal countries of western Europe gradual reforms by the progressive extension of political rights Westernizers, university professors, civil servants, professionals, capitalists 3. revolutionaries of various types least homogeneous of the three groups Sunday, October 11, 2009
  20. 20. Advocates of Reform:Three Main Groups 1. economic and social change granted from above by imperial ukase or administrative action without alteration of the political or social system examples--Alexander II, in his early years, bureaucrat reformers, Miliutin, Stolypin 2. emulate the liberal countries of western Europe gradual reforms by the progressive extension of political rights Westernizers, university professors, civil servants, professionals, capitalists 3. revolutionaries of various types least homogeneous of the three groups Narodniki, People’s Will, Land and Freedom, Social Democrats, Bolsheviks. SRs Sunday, October 11, 2009
  21. 21. Advocates of Reform:Three Main Groups 1. economic and social change granted from above by imperial ukase or administrative action without alteration of the political or social system examples--Alexander II, in his early years, bureaucrat reformers, Miliutin, Stolypin 2. emulate the liberal countries of western Europe gradual reforms by the progressive extension of political rights Westernizers, university professors, civil servants, professionals, capitalists 3. revolutionaries of various types least homogeneous of the three groups Narodniki, People’s Will, Land and Freedom, Social Democrats, Bolsheviks. SRs only agreed on the need for violence Sunday, October 11, 2009
  22. 22. Opponents of Reform Sunday, October 11, 2009
  23. 23. Opponents of Reform most members of the governing classes Sunday, October 11, 2009
  24. 24. Opponents of Reform most members of the governing classes at the court, Sunday, October 11, 2009
  25. 25. Opponents of Reform most members of the governing classes at the court, in the higher civil service and the officers of the military, Sunday, October 11, 2009
  26. 26. Opponents of Reform most members of the governing classes at the court, in the higher civil service and the officers of the military, the church, the Slavophil intelligentsia Sunday, October 11, 2009
  27. 27. Opponents of Reform most members of the governing classes at the court, in the higher civil service and the officers of the military, the church, the Slavophil intelligentsia the landed gentry, who opposed change for ideological or material reasons Sunday, October 11, 2009
  28. 28. Opponents of Reform most members of the governing classes at the court, in the higher civil service and the officers of the military, the church, the Slavophil intelligentsia the landed gentry, who opposed change for ideological or material reasons the Muzhiki, the peasantry “the inert mass of the population” Sunday, October 11, 2009
  29. 29. The Agrarian Problem Sunday, October 11, 2009
  30. 30. The Agrarian Problem Deryevna in Tambov Gubernia, 1891-92 photo by Maxim Dimitreyev, father of Russian photo journalism Sunday, October 11, 2009
  31. 31. The Mir System S. Korovin, “На Миру (Na Miru) On the Mir” Sunday, October 11, 2009
  32. 32. The Mir System mir-Slavic term=village collective, world, & peace; cf., Mir Miru S. Korovin, “На Миру (Na Miru) On the Mir” Sunday, October 11, 2009
  33. 33. The Mir System mir-Slavic term=village collective, world, & peace; cf., Mir Miru 1861-the emancipation edict took the mir out from under the local noble and made it a self- governing body, collectively responsible for paying the redemption dues S. Korovin, “На Миру (Na Miru) On the Mir” Sunday, October 11, 2009
  34. 34. The Mir System mir-Slavic term=village collective, world, & peace; cf., Mir Miru 1861-the emancipation edict took the mir out from under the local noble and made it a self- governing body, collectively responsible for paying the redemption dues peasants couldn’t leave without the permission of the mir S. Korovin, “На Миру (Na Miru) On the Mir” Sunday, October 11, 2009
  35. 35. The Mir System mir-Slavic term=village collective, world, & peace; cf., Mir Miru 1861-the emancipation edict took the mir out from under the local noble and made it a self- governing body, collectively responsible for paying the redemption dues peasants couldn’t leave without the permission of the mir land was alloted by the mir to each household S. Korovin, “На Миру (Na Miru) On the Mir” Sunday, October 11, 2009
  36. 36. The Mir System mir-Slavic term=village collective, world, & peace; cf., Mir Miru 1861-the emancipation edict took the mir out from under the local noble and made it a self- governing body, collectively responsible for paying the redemption dues peasants couldn’t leave without the permission of the mir land was alloted by the mir to each household the medieval “three field system” and similar backward practices kept yields low S. Korovin, “На Миру (Na Miru) On the Mir” Sunday, October 11, 2009
  37. 37. Primitive Transportation Hindered Productivity Ilya Repin. Barge Haulers on the Volga. 1870-1873. Oil on canvas. The Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia Sunday, October 11, 2009
  38. 38. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  39. 39. … the great mass of the peasantry continued to live in the communes [miri] in conditions of deepening poverty. It is not surprising that the memory of the exciting promise of the days of emancipation should gradually have been transformed into a legend that the tsar’s wishes … had been betrayed by evil forces, and that some day justice would be done…. Craig, p.383 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  40. 40. Industry & Labor Sunday, October 11, 2009
  41. 41. Industry & Labor THE PUTILOV COMPANY IN LATE IMPERIAL RUSSIA, 1868-1917 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  42. 42. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  43. 43. 19th Century Russian Industry Sunday, October 11, 2009
  44. 44. 19th Century Russian Industry in contrast to agriculture, there was decided growth and modernization here Sunday, October 11, 2009
  45. 45. 19th Century Russian Industry in contrast to agriculture, there was decided growth and modernization here the Putilov Locomotive Works of St. Petersburg was “the Russian Krupp” Sunday, October 11, 2009
  46. 46. 19th Century Russian Industry in contrast to agriculture, there was decided growth and modernization here the Putilov Locomotive Works of St. Petersburg was “the Russian Krupp” the rapid railway building of the 1870s slowed in the next decade Sunday, October 11, 2009
  47. 47. 19th Century Russian Industry in contrast to agriculture, there was decided growth and modernization here the Putilov Locomotive Works of St. Petersburg was “the Russian Krupp” the rapid railway building of the 1870s slowed in the next decade but between 1892 and 1902 total rail mileage grew by 46% Sunday, October 11, 2009
  48. 48. 19th Century Russian Industry in contrast to agriculture, there was decided growth and modernization here the Putilov Locomotive Works of St. Petersburg was “the Russian Krupp” the rapid railway building of the 1870s slowed in the next decade but between 1892 and 1902 total rail mileage grew by 46% 1890-1900-Putilov’s work force quadrupled to 12,400 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  49. 49. 19th Century Russian Industry in contrast to agriculture, there was decided growth and modernization here the Putilov Locomotive Works of St. Petersburg was “the Russian Krupp” the rapid railway building of the 1870s slowed in the next decade but between 1892 and 1902 total rail mileage grew by 46% 1890-1900-Putilov’s work force quadrupled to 12,400 rail demand spurred the new coal and iron industry in the Donetz basin Sunday, October 11, 2009
  50. 50. 19th Century Russian Industry in contrast to agriculture, there was decided growth and modernization here the Putilov Locomotive Works of St. Petersburg was “the Russian Krupp” the rapid railway building of the 1870s slowed in the next decade but between 1892 and 1902 total rail mileage grew by 46% 1890-1900-Putilov’s work force quadrupled to 12,400 rail demand spurred the new coal and iron industry in the Donetz basin Baku and the Caucasus oil fields were another new development at the turn of the century Sunday, October 11, 2009
  51. 51. 19th Century Russian Industry in contrast to agriculture, there was decided growth and modernization here the Putilov Locomotive Works of St. Petersburg was “the Russian Krupp” the rapid railway building of the 1870s slowed in the next decade but between 1892 and 1902 total rail mileage grew by 46% 1890-1900-Putilov’s work force quadrupled to 12,400 rail demand spurred the new coal and iron industry in the Donetz basin Baku and the Caucasus oil fields were another new development at the turn of the century Rostow’s Take-off Stage was 1885-1900, so Russia had begun the Drive to Maturity (Stage 4) well before the 1917 Revolution Sunday, October 11, 2009
  52. 52. Peter the Great’s Navy Shipyard, Skt-Peterburg The Admiralty Dockyard. Lithograph by C.P.Beggrow . 1820s. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  53. 53. Russia’s “Military-Industrial Complex”--80 years later The first steamboat in Russia, Elizabeth, was built at the plant of K. N. Bird in 1815, and in 1834, the submarine of A. A. Schilder was built at Alexandrovsky Plant. It was the first solid-metal vessel constructed in Russia. To defend the sea approaches to the capital in 1854-55 a total of 89 propeller gunboats and corvettes were built; some battleships were equipped with propeller engines on the initiative of General-Admiral Grand Prince Konstantin Nikolaevich with participation of N. I. Putilov in St. Petersburg. From the middle of the 19th century and up to 1904, the New Admiralty alone built 36 military ships, and Borodino battleship is considered to be the best of those. Nevsky Plant established in 1857 specialized in construction of torpedo boats as did Metal Plant founded at the same time. In 1912, the joint-stock company of Putilov Plants created Putilov Ship Building Plant and purchased Nevsky Plant. In 1914-17 some 10,000 workers were employed at these enterprises, building destroyers. By the end of 1914, the Baltic Plant and the Admiralty Plant completed 4 dreadnought battleships (Sevastopol, Poltava, Petropavlovsk and Gangut), and the serial construction of turbine destroyers of Novik type started at Putilov Plant. All in all in 1908-17, Petrograd shipbuilders built 37 turbine ships for the Baltic Fleet. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  54. 54. Russia’s “Military-Industrial Complex”--80 years later The first steamboat in Russia, Elizabeth, was built at the plant of K. N. Bird in 1815, and in 1834, the submarine of A. A. Schilder was built at Alexandrovsky Plant. It was the first solid-metal vessel constructed in Russia. To defend the sea approaches to the capital in 1854-55 a total of 89 propeller gunboats and corvettes were built; some battleships were equipped with propeller engines on the initiative of General-Admiral Grand Prince Konstantin Nikolaevich with participation of N. I. Putilov in St. Petersburg. From the middle of the 19th century and up to 1904, the New Admiralty alone built 36 military ships, and Borodino battleship is considered to be the best of those. Nevsky Plant established in 1857 specialized in construction of torpedo boats as did Metal Plant founded at the same time. In 1912, the joint-stock company of Putilov Plants created Putilov Ship Building Plant and purchased Nevsky Plant. In 1914-17 some 10,000 workers were employed at these enterprises, building destroyers. By the end of 1914, the Baltic Plant and the Admiralty Plant completed 4 dreadnought battleships (Sevastopol, Poltava, Petropavlovsk and Gangut), and the serial construction of turbine destroyers of Novik type started at Putilov Plant. All in all in 1908-17, Petrograd shipbuilders built 37 turbine ships for the Baltic Fleet. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  55. 55. State Sponsorship of Industry father, Dutch Lutheran; mother, Russian nobility college in Odessa, mathematics degree 1870s & ‘80s-railroad administration 1889-1892-Director of Railway Affairs-- began the Trans-Siberian Railway 1892-1903-Finance Minister encouraged foreign investment, 1897-put Russia on the gold standard 1903-1905-Chairman, Council of Ministers Sergei Yulevich Witte 1849-1915 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  56. 56. VOLZHSKO-KAMSKY BANK, a joint-stock commercial bank founded by a group of manufacturers and merchants. The share capital amounted to 6 million roubles and increased up to 18 million roubles by 1914. The bank developed a network of 60 branches that in 1914 covered commercial centers of the Volga Region and the Urals, as well as Kiev, Kharkov, and Ekaterinburg. The leader among Russian commercial banks in 1890s, the bank dealt with financing domestic production, as well as issuing and distributing bonds of Russian rail carriers from the late 1890s on. The bank also took part in establishing Produgol Syndicate [to develop oil resources-JBP] in 1906. The volume of transactions was high enough for the bank to rank 6th among all Russian banks by 1914. The building of Volzhsko-Kamsky Bank was built by architect L. N. Benois at 38 Nevsky Prospect in the first third of the 19th century and partly re-built in 1898. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  57. 57. (KRASNY) TREUGOLNIK (138 Obvodny Canal Embankment), an open joint-stock company, an enterprise making footwear from polymer materials. It was founded in 1860 by Hamburg merchant F. Krauskopf and his companions as the Russian-American Rubber Manufacture Association (since 1908 it was called Treugolnik). The main products of the plant were rubber overshoes (in the period from 1900 to 1912 its production increased from 10 million to 20 million pairs; up to 25% of the products were exported). The plant also produced machine belts, pipes for pipelines, discharge valves and faucets, isolation, medical instruments, etc. Up to the late 19th century the plant was country monopolist in this sector of the market, in the 20th century it was the largest enterprise of rubber goods production in Russia and Europe. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  58. 58. (KRASNY) TREUGOLNIK (138 Obvodny Canal Embankment), an open joint-stock company, an enterprise making footwear from polymer materials. It was founded in 1860 by Hamburg merchant F. Krauskopf and his companions as the Russian-American Rubber Manufacture Association (since 1908 it was called Treugolnik). The main products of the plant were rubber overshoes (in the period from 1900 to 1912 its production increased from 10 million to 20 million pairs; up to 25% of the products were exported). The plant also produced machine belts, pipes for pipelines, discharge valves and faucets, isolation, medical instruments, etc. Up to the late 19th century the plant was country monopolist in this sector of the market, in the 20th century it was the largest enterprise of rubber goods production in Russia and Europe. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  59. 59. 19th Century St. Petersburg Plants Sunday, October 11, 2009
  60. 60. 19th Century St. Petersburg Plants Sunday, October 11, 2009
  61. 61. 19th Century St. Petersburg Plants Sunday, October 11, 2009
  62. 62. 19th Century St. Petersburg Plants Sunday, October 11, 2009
  63. 63. 19th Century St. Petersburg Plants Sunday, October 11, 2009
  64. 64. 19th Century St. Petersburg Plants Sunday, October 11, 2009
  65. 65. 19th Century St. Petersburg Plants Sunday, October 11, 2009
  66. 66. 19th Century St. Petersburg Plants After the 1917 revolution the Putilov works were renamed “Red Putilov.” In 1934, Stalin secretly had Sergei Kirov assassinated and named them for him Sunday, October 11, 2009
  67. 67. Development of a Proletariat Sunday, October 11, 2009
  68. 68. Development of a Proletariat With the growth of industry in the 1890s...changes became noticeable: the number to take permanent empoyment in the fatories increased; thousands loosened their last ties with their villages; and many began to break away from old beliefs and to reject the restrictions imposed on their behavior by the Church and the patriarchal family. In addition, the fierce struggles in the factories had led at least a small core of the workers to see the relation between their economic problems and larger political problems; the fact that the state protected their employers--often foreign capitalists--impressed upon them the need for changing the political situation in order to improve the economic. Sidney Harcave, Russia; A History, p. 381 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  69. 69. The Human Costs The Lena Goldfields Massacre Sunday, October 11, 2009
  70. 70. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  71. 71. MEMORIAL AT THE PLACE OF THE WORKER MASSACRE 4/17 APRIL 1912 YEAR Sunday, October 11, 2009
  72. 72. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  73. 73. SLUICE AT THE SITE OF THE ANNUNCIATION GOLD MINE From material in the book “Harbinger of Revolutionary Events” Sunday, October 11, 2009
  74. 74. The Lena Miners Organize President of the Central Strike Committee Pavel Nikolaevich Batashev From a Russian internet site Sunday, October 11, 2009
  75. 75. The Lena Miners Organize President of the Central Strike Committee Pavel Nikolaevich Batashev Merciless exploitation of the workforce provided enormous profits for the British and Russian shareholders, such as A.I.Vyshnegradsky, Alexei Putilov (both on the board of directors), Count Sergei Witte, Empress Maria Fyodorovna, and others. From a Russian internet site Sunday, October 11, 2009
  76. 76. The Lena Miners Organize President of the Central Strike Committee Pavel Nikolaevich Batashev Merciless exploitation of the workforce provided enormous profits for the British and Russian shareholders, such as A.I.Vyshnegradsky, Alexei Putilov (both on the board of directors), Count Sergei Witte, Empress Maria Fyodorovna, and others. The working conditions at the goldfields were extremely harsh. The miners had to work 15 to 16 hours a day. For every thousand workers, there were more than 700 traumatic accidents. One part of the low salary often had to be used to pay fines. The other part of it was given in the form of coupons to be used in stores at the mine itself. From a Russian internet site Sunday, October 11, 2009
  77. 77. The Lena Miners Organize President of the Central Strike Committee Pavel Nikolaevich Batashev Merciless exploitation of the workforce provided enormous profits for the British and Russian shareholders, such as A.I.Vyshnegradsky, Alexei Putilov (both on the board of directors), Count Sergei Witte, Empress Maria Fyodorovna, and others. The working conditions at the goldfields were extremely harsh. The miners had to work 15 to 16 hours a day. For every thousand workers, there were more than 700 traumatic accidents. One part of the low salary often had to be used to pay fines. The other part of it was given in the form of coupons to be used in stores at the mine itself. February 29 (March 13) 1912-All this led a spontaneous strike at the Andreyevsky goldfield. An immediate cause for the strike was distribution of rotten meat at one of the stores. From a Russian internet site Sunday, October 11, 2009
  78. 78. The Lena Miners Organize President of the Central Strike Committee Pavel Nikolaevich Batashev Merciless exploitation of the workforce provided enormous profits for the British and Russian shareholders, such as A.I.Vyshnegradsky, Alexei Putilov (both on the board of directors), Count Sergei Witte, Empress Maria Fyodorovna, and others. The working conditions at the goldfields were extremely harsh. The miners had to work 15 to 16 hours a day. For every thousand workers, there were more than 700 traumatic accidents. One part of the low salary often had to be used to pay fines. The other part of it was given in the form of coupons to be used in stores at the mine itself. February 29 (March 13) 1912-All this led a spontaneous strike at the Andreyevsky goldfield. An immediate cause for the strike was distribution of rotten meat at one of the stores. 4 March-the workers established their demands: an 8-hour workday, 30% raise in wages, the elimination of fines, and the improvement of food delivery, among others. However, none of these demands were satisfied by the administration From a Russian internet site Sunday, October 11, 2009
  79. 79. The Lena Miners Organize President of the Central Strike Committee Pavel Nikolaevich Batashev Merciless exploitation of the workforce provided enormous profits for the British and Russian shareholders, such as A.I.Vyshnegradsky, Alexei Putilov (both on the board of directors), Count Sergei Witte, Empress Maria Fyodorovna, and others. The working conditions at the goldfields were extremely harsh. The miners had to work 15 to 16 hours a day. For every thousand workers, there were more than 700 traumatic accidents. One part of the low salary often had to be used to pay fines. The other part of it was given in the form of coupons to be used in stores at the mine itself. February 29 (March 13) 1912-All this led a spontaneous strike at the Andreyevsky goldfield. An immediate cause for the strike was distribution of rotten meat at one of the stores. 4 March-the workers established their demands: an 8-hour workday, 30% raise in wages, the elimination of fines, and the improvement of food delivery, among others. However, none of these demands were satisfied by the administration mid-March- the strike had extended to all the goldfields, and included over 6000 workers From a Russian internet site Sunday, October 11, 2009
  80. 80. the climax Sunday, October 11, 2009
  81. 81. the climax 4 April 1912 a thin line of Russian soldiers, confronted by a large crowd of gold miners on strike for several weeks, reacted with fear and anger. At their officers' orders, they opened fire, shooting five hundred unarmed protestors [150-270 killed, 100-250 wounded]. The event reverberated across Russia. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  82. 82. the climax 4 April 1912 a thin line of Russian soldiers, confronted by a large crowd of gold miners on strike for several weeks, reacted with fear and anger. At their officers' orders, they opened fire, shooting five hundred unarmed protestors [150-270 killed, 100-250 wounded]. The event reverberated across Russia. It has been suggested that Vladimir Ulyanov adopted his more popular alias after the river Lena — Lenin — after this event, although he had in fact started using it years earlier[1901]. He had served time in Shushenskoe (in Siberia, but not on the Lena River), 1897-1900 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  83. 83. the climax 4 April 1912 a thin line of Russian soldiers, confronted by a large crowd of gold miners on strike for several weeks, reacted with fear and anger. At their officers' orders, they opened fire, shooting five hundred unarmed protestors [150-270 killed, 100-250 wounded]. The event reverberated across Russia. It has been suggested that Vladimir Ulyanov adopted his more popular alias after the river Lena — Lenin — after this event, although he had in fact started using it years earlier[1901]. He had served time in Shushenskoe (in Siberia, but not on the Lena River), 1897-1900 22 April 1912 Pravda sold 60,000 copies of its first issue describing the massacre Sunday, October 11, 2009
  84. 84. Lena. 1912 year. Picture by the artist U.N. Tulin Sunday, October 11, 2009
  85. 85. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  86. 86. ETERNAL MEMORIAL FOR THE LENA WORKERS SLAIN IN THE BEASTLY MASSACRE 4/17 APRIL 1912 WITNESSING THE STRUGGLE OF THE WORKING CLASS 1912 - 1967 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  87. 87. Foreign Trade Sunday, October 11, 2009
  88. 88. Foreign Trade The grain ship 'L'Avenir' (1908) moored in the Millwall Docks, with McDougall's Wheatsheaf Mill in the background. A French ship carrying Russian grain to Britain Sunday, October 11, 2009
  89. 89. Russia’s Share of World Trade=4% not markedly higher than in the first half of the century most striking development--steady growth of grain exports 1860-1,120,000 tons to 1897-6,945,000 tons 1836-1840-grain = 15% of total value of Russian exports after 1871-grain = about 50% effects outside the purely economic sphere 1902-under pressure from the junkers, Germany passed a tariff that severely hurt Russian grain exports this pushed Russia even farther into the anti-German French alliance Sunday, October 11, 2009
  90. 90. Domestic Political Developments Sunday, October 11, 2009
  91. 91. Domestic Political Developments Ilya Repin. The Revolutionary Meeting. 1883. Oil on canvas. The Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  92. 92. Full Reaction, 1881-1905 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  93. 93. Full Reaction, 1881-1905 Первомартовцы (Pyervomartovtsi The First of Marchers) (Those who did something [assassinate Alexander II] on the first of March) by Nicolai Kibalchick Sunday, October 11, 2009
  94. 94. The Tsar Liberator Sunday, October 11, 2009
  95. 95. March 1, 1881--Both the thirty-five year old tsarevich, about to become tsar Alexander III and his twelve year old son, Nicolasha, one day to become the last tsar were present at the death bed of tsar Alexander II. As he lay there, both legs shattered by the assassin’s bomb, dying in great pain, beyond the physicians’ ability to save; is it too much to assume that the hope for further liberal reforms was dying as well? Sunday, October 11, 2009
  96. 96. Konstantin Petrovich Pobedonostsev (1827-1907) son of a literature professor, becomes a law professor 1866-tutor to the future Alexander III 1880- Procurator of the Holy Synod (controls state church) 1881-becomes the “eminence grise,” bane of liberals 1894-less influence under Nicholas whom he also tutored, still Russification maintained Sunday, October 11, 2009
  97. 97. Pobiedonostsev’s Reaction opposed the liberal Interior Minister, Count Loris-Melikov said political reforms cause “drift toward constitutionalism” “Russification” of Poles and Finns, pogroms against the Jews replaced Zemstvo schools with parochial schools under his control reversed liberal judicial reforms of Valentin Serov. Portrait of K. Pobedonostsev. 1902. Alexander II Charcoal, color pencils on paper. The Russian Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia Sunday, October 11, 2009
  98. 98. Russia’s Jews 1791-the Pale of Settlement was begun by Catherine the Great At its heyday, the Pale, which included the new Polish and Lithuanian territories, had a Jewish population of over 5 million, which represented the largest concentration (40 percent) of world Jewry at that time. Jews who wouldn’t convert were expelled from cities to the Pale, unless they had special skills or economic qualifications pogroms (pa•GROMs) were especially fierce 1881-1883 and 1903-1906 1881-1914-some 2 million emigrated, mostly to the United States Sunday, October 11, 2009
  99. 99. Tsar Alexander III “unsophisticated, conscientious ruler with a firm will and unrelievedly conservative views” 1881-Education Minister Count Dimitry Tolstoy added Interior (MVD, i.e., police) to his portfolio the secret, counter-terrorist police, the Okhrana, is created famous for the technique of agents provocateurs and forging The Protocols of the Elders of Zion 1882-”temporary”laws further muzzled the universities and the press. “May Laws” tightened restrictions on the Jews 1845-1881-1894 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  100. 100. The Okhrana Leadership at Fontanka 16 Photograph, 1905 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  101. 101. a fateful execution? Aleksandr Ulyanov 1866-1887 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  102. 102. a fateful execution? • gold medalist at Simbirsk & Skt-Peterburg Universities (natural sciences, zoology) Aleksandr Ulyanov 1866-1887 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  103. 103. a fateful execution? • gold medalist at Simbirsk & Skt-Peterburg Universities (natural sciences, zoology) • 1886-became a member of the terrorist wing of the Narodnaya Volya Aleksandr Ulyanov 1866-1887 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  104. 104. a fateful execution? • gold medalist at Simbirsk & Skt-Peterburg Universities (natural sciences, zoology) • 1886-became a member of the terrorist wing of the Narodnaya Volya • March 1, 1887-arrested as part of an assassination plot against Alexander III (hence called piervomartovtsi, like the earlier successful assassins of his father) Aleksandr Ulyanov 1866-1887 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  105. 105. a fateful execution? • gold medalist at Simbirsk & Skt-Peterburg Universities (natural sciences, zoology) • 1886-became a member of the terrorist wing of the Narodnaya Volya • March 1, 1887-arrested as part of an assassination plot against Alexander III (hence called piervomartovtsi, like the earlier successful assassins of his father) • 8 March-tried and hanged at Schisselburg Aleksandr Ulyanov 1866-1887 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  106. 106. a fateful execution? • gold medalist at Simbirsk & Skt-Peterburg Universities (natural sciences, zoology) • 1886-became a member of the terrorist wing of the Narodnaya Volya • March 1, 1887-arrested as part of an assassination plot against Alexander III (hence called piervomartovtsi, like the earlier successful assassins of his father) • 8 March-tried and hanged at Schisselburg • legend has it that his younger brother, V.I. Ulyanov, was radicalized by this event Aleksandr Ulyanov 1866-1887 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  107. 107. a fateful execution? • gold medalist at Simbirsk & Skt-Peterburg Universities (natural sciences, zoology) • 1886-became a member of the terrorist wing of the Narodnaya Volya • March 1, 1887-arrested as part of an assassination plot against Alexander III (hence called piervomartovtsi, like the earlier successful assassins of his father) • 8 March-tried and hanged at Schisselburg • legend has it that his younger brother, V.I. Ulyanov, was radicalized by this event • this is doubtful, he had a cold response,”There is another way;” Lenin never favored Aleksandr Ulyanov “propaganda of the deed” 1866-1887 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  108. 108. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  109. 109. Soviet monument at Schisselburg commemorating the political prisoners executed there Sunday, October 11, 2009
  110. 110. Reformers and Revolutionaries Sunday, October 11, 2009
  111. 111. Reformers and Revolutionaries Арест пропагандиста Arrest of a propagandist by Ilya Repin Sunday, October 11, 2009
  112. 112. Coronation of the last tsar; 26/14 May 1896 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  113. 113. Valentin Serov. Anointing of the Emperor Nicholas II in The Uspensky Cathedral. 1896. Oil on canvas. The Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow, Russia. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  114. 114. An Ill Omen? the Khodynka Stampede 18 [O.S.] May 1896 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  115. 115. An Ill Omen? the Khodynka Stampede Of the approximate half million in attendance, it is estimated that 1,429 individuals died and another 9,000 to 20,000 were injured. Very much like our Who Concert tragedy, the crowds trampled one another; here, to get to the free beer and trinkets celebrating the coronation 18 [O.S.] May 1896 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  116. 116. Nicholas II 1868-1894-1917-1918 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  117. 117. Nicholas II 1868-1894-1917-1918 “a political philosophy...not markedly different from that of his father…” Sunday, October 11, 2009
  118. 118. Nicholas II 1868-1894-1917-1918 “a political philosophy...not markedly different from that of his father…” but”not accompanied by [Alexander III’s]steadfastness and resolution…” Sunday, October 11, 2009
  119. 119. Nicholas II 1868-1894-1917-1918 “a political philosophy...not markedly different from that of his father…” but”not accompanied by [Alexander III’s]steadfastness and resolution…” always a tool in the hands of stronger individuals: Sunday, October 11, 2009
  120. 120. Nicholas II 1868-1894-1917-1918 “a political philosophy...not markedly different from that of his father…” but”not accompanied by [Alexander III’s]steadfastness and resolution…” always a tool in the hands of stronger individuals: for the first ten years, Pobiedenostsev and his military advisors Sunday, October 11, 2009
  121. 121. Nicholas II 1868-1894-1917-1918 “a political philosophy...not markedly different from that of his father…” but”not accompanied by [Alexander III’s]steadfastness and resolution…” always a tool in the hands of stronger individuals: for the first ten years, Pobiedenostsev and his military advisors later, his wife and her favorites, especially Rasputin Sunday, October 11, 2009
  122. 122. Nicholas II 1868-1894-1917-1918 “a political philosophy...not markedly different from that of his father…” but”not accompanied by [Alexander III’s]steadfastness and resolution…” always a tool in the hands of stronger individuals: for the first ten years, Pobiedenostsev and his military advisors later, his wife and her favorites, especially Rasputin his best ministers, Witte & Stolypin, were done in by court intrigues Sunday, October 11, 2009
  123. 123. Still, Hopes for Reform liberal reformers (type 2) had been relatively quiet since the death of Alexander II now the zemstvo officials pressed for expanded powers in local government and a central institution that might develop into a national parliament Nicholas turned a deaf ear when they didn’t take the hint, police broke up their meetings Sunday, October 11, 2009
  124. 124. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  125. 125. Nicholas Ilya Repin, Russian State Council commemorating its 100th anniversary, May 5, 1901. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  126. 126. The Radical Alternative; The Russian Social Democratic Labor Party founder of the SD movement in Russia and the first Russian Marxist 1876-organized the Kazan Cathedral demonstration, St Petersburg 1880-after two arrests in as many years, emigrated to Switzerland 1883-founded the RSDLP “He introduced a generation of Russians to Marx”--Lenin Georgi Plekhanov 1856-1918 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  127. 127. “...resembled a Protestant pastor…” Sunday, October 11, 2009
  128. 128. “...resembled a Protestant pastor…” [Plekhanov] had mastered the analytical instruments of Marxism and had learned to exploit its stinging wit at the same time that he had carried to chilling lengths the Marxist intellectual superciliousness. Gorky says that Plehkanov resembled a Protestant pastor, buttoned up tight in his frock-coat and ‘confident that his ideas were incontrovertible, every word and every pause of great value.’ When workers would come to see him from Russia, he would receive them with folded arms and lecture them so magisterially that they found that they were unable to talk to him about the things that were on their minds. Edmund Wilson, To the Finland Station, p. 393 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  129. 129. Plekhanov’s Greatest Disciple born in Simbirsk on the Volga to a 4th rank (chin)civil service nobleman 1887- father, a Westernizer school official, died older brother, Alexander, hanged for conspiring to assassinate the tsar entered Kazan University expe!ed for dangerous political views 1892-law degree %om St Petersburg University honors in Latin, Greek, English, French Vladimir Illych Ulyanov and German 1870-1924 (photo, 1887) Sunday, October 11, 2009
  130. 130. "Lenin's Room in Simbirsk 1878 to 1887" by Wladimir Krikhatzkij (1877-1942) Sunday, October 11, 2009
  131. 131. Ulyanov to Lenin joined one of 20 Marxist reading circles in St Petersburg 1895-arrested and confined 14 months before trial 1897-1900-Siberian exile,[not katorga]“graduate studies” in revolution with wife, Krupskaya 1900-1917-lived as an émigré throughout Europe, primarily in Geneva and Zurich Police mug shot 1895 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  132. 132. 2007 pic of one of Lenin’s rented houses Spiegelgasse 16, Zürich Sunday, October 11, 2009
  133. 133. Pictures from 1920 of same apartment Sunday, October 11, 2009
  134. 134. “Iskra” (The Spark) First issue, 1 December 1900, Stuttgart Initial staff: Vladimir Lenin, Georgi Plekhanov, Vera Zasulich, Pavel Axelrod (Pinchas Borutsch), Julius Martov (Ilija Cederbaum), Aleksandr Potresov Later: Leon Trotsky (Lev Davidovich Bronstein) Sunday, October 11, 2009
  135. 135. “What is to be Done?” (Что Делатъ?) 1. saw the party as consisting mainly of “intellectuals,” on the basis of a theory according to which workers cannot themselves develop to socialist consciousness; rather, the socialist idea is always and inevitably imported into the movement by bourgeois intellectuals 2. posited that the party is simply a band of “professional revolutionaries” as distinct from a broad working-class party 3. repudiated any element of spontaneity or spontaneous movement, in favor of engineered revolution only 4. required that the party be organized not democratically but as a bureaucratic or semi-military hierarchy Sunday, October 11, 2009
  136. 136. RSDLP (РСДРП) Congresses 1898-First Party Congress, Minsk. Since the party was illegal, all nine delegates were arrested. Hereafter the party met abroad 1903-Second Party Congress, Brussels/London. 17 November-the famous irreconcilable split Bolsheviks (Majoritists)-due to a temporary majority vote, Lenin seized the propaganda advantage of this name (also means “greater, stronger” in Russian) Mensheviks (Minoritists)-Martov and the actual majority of the RSDLP were stuck with this less appealing label Sunday, October 11, 2009
  137. 137. The “Es•ers” (С•Р-SRs)- Socialist Revolutionaries Lenin’s Bolsheviks’ day will come, but for now they are less significant than their rivals on the left, the SRs differed from the RSDLP, both Bolshevik and Menshevik not Marxist, believed in the peasantry, not the proletariat emphasized “propaganda of the deed” terrorism, assassination 1904- SR Boris Savinkov kills Interior Minister von Plehve 1905-active in the revolution, represented in both St Petersburg and Moscow Soviets Sunday, October 11, 2009
  138. 138. The Revolution of 1905 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  139. 139. The Revolution of 1905 Кровавое Воскресенье (krovavoye voskresen’ye) Bloody Sunday by Ivan Vladimirov Sunday, October 11, 2009
  140. 140. Economic and Diplomatic Causes 1899-1903-the last stage of the Long Depression produced a lagging slump of Russian industry 1902-the German tariff hit Russian grain exports 1904-Russia’s reckless Far Eastern policy triggered war with Japan the military call up disrupted agricultural production and distribution-->serious food shortages industrial production was also disrupted, strikes increased a series of military setbacks contributed to popular frustration with the government Sunday, October 11, 2009
  141. 141. Bloody Sunday -- 22/9 January 1905 December, 1904-strike at the Putilov plant led to others, some 80,000 out Father Georgi Gapon, who had collaborated with the Okhrana, led a peaceful procession to the Winter Palace with a petition for the tsar in a series of confrontations protesters were shot or trampled tsarist estimate: 96 dead, 333 injured anti-government: > 4,000 dead moderate estimates ave. 1,000 KIA & WIA Still from 1925 Soviet film disorder and looting spread across “devyatoe yanvarya-9th of January” the city. Nicholas never recovered Sunday, October 11, 2009
  142. 142. January-June; disorders spread following Bloody Sunday a general strike begins in St Petersburg and spreads rapidly to Moscow, Saratov, Ekaterinoslav, and the principal cities of Poland and the Baltics 17 February-the tsar’s uncle, Grand Duke Sergei is assassinated by Savinkov’s SR Combat Organization Sunday, October 11, 2009
  143. 143. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  144. 144. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  145. 145. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  146. 146. I threw the bomb from less than four steps. I was taken by the explosions, I saw the carriage flew to pieces...My overcoat was strewn with splinters of wood all around, it was torn and burnt, there was blood on my face... Ivan Kalayev mug shot just after the assassination Sunday, October 11, 2009
  147. 147. January-June; disorders spread a general strike begins in St Petersburg and spreads rapidly to Moscow, Saratov, Ekaterinoslav, and the principal cities of Poland and the Baltics 17 February-the tsar’s uncle, Grand Duke Sergei is assassinated by Savinkov’s SR Combat Organization February-peasant uprisings in Kursk Gubernia and they spread rapidly to other provinces June-a Peasant Union is formed 27/14 June-the Battleship Potyomkin mutinies Sunday, October 11, 2009
  148. 148. Soviet poster portraying the 1905 revolution. The caption reads "Glory to the People's Heroes of the Potëmkin!" Sunday, October 11, 2009
  149. 149. “...our demand: freedom for the whole nation.” Soviet poster portraying the 1905 revolution. The caption reads "Glory to the People's Heroes of the Potëmkin!" Sunday, October 11, 2009
  150. 150. clips from Eisenstein’s Battleship Potyomkin, 1925 the Odessa steps sequence Sunday, October 11, 2009
  151. 151. clips from Eisenstein’s Battleship Potyomkin, 1925 the Odessa steps sequence Sunday, October 11, 2009
  152. 152. Nicholas temporizes, the crisis mounts after the mutiny, the tsar appears willing to make political concessions August-he announces that the franchise would be a narrow one, “excluding most workers and intellectuals” this leads to further demonstrations, strikes in universities and the railroads, and a second general strike in the capital October-the first Soviet [council] of Workers Delegates is formed in St Petersburg. Leon Trotsky becomes its leader the tsar considered using military force but is convinced by Witte to grant the so-called October Manifesto instead Sunday, October 11, 2009
  153. 153. The Revolution’s Last Gasp with what appeared to be the granting of constitutional monarchy from above, the unity of the revolutionary movement dissolved public opinion began to swing against the few remaining radical “dead enders” the “black hundreds” (chyornie soti-черние соти), gangs of hooligans organized by reactionary elites, were supported by the public when they attacked critics of the government December, 1905-the police dared break up the St Petersburg Soviet--the revolution was over Sunday, October 11, 2009
  154. 154. The Constitutional Experiment Sunday, October 11, 2009
  155. 155. The Constitutional Experiment Манифестация 17 октября 1905 года The Manifesto of 17 October 1905 by Ilya Repin Sunday, October 11, 2009
  156. 156. The Experiment’s Three Stages 1) 6 August 1905-the initial proclamation which proved insufficient to quell the revolution 2) 17 October 1905-the “October Manifesto” which took the wind out of the revolution’s sails 3) 23 April 1906-the “Fundamental Laws” decreed in the midst of the elections for the first Duma, Russia’s elected lower house. This was Imperial Russia’s first and last constitution. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  157. 157. Russian Constitution of 1906 Chapter I--declared and defined the autocracy of the Russian Empire, including the Emperor's supremacy over the Law, the Church, and the Duma Article 4 states: "The supreme autocratic power is vested in the Emperor of all the Russias. It is God's command that his authority should be obeyed not only through fear but for conscience's sake." Article 9 provides that: "The Sovereign Emperor approves the laws, and without his approval no law can come into existence." Chapter II--defined the rights and the obligations of the citizens of the Russian Empire. It defined the scope and supremacy of the law over Russian subjects. It confirmed the basic human rights granted by the October Manifesto, but made them subordinate to the law. Chapter III--is the regulation about laws. Chapter IV--defined the composition and the scope of the activities of the State Council and the State Duma. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  158. 158. State Council--The Upper House Marie Palace St Petersburg Meeting Place of the State Council Sunday, October 11, 2009
  159. 159. State Council--The Upper House Marie Palace St Petersburg Meeting Place of the State Council Unlike the House of Lords or the Herren Haus, the positions were not hereditary. Half were appointed by the tsar, half were elected by various groups; the zemstvos, the assemblies of nobility, the orthodox church, stock exchange committees & business organizations, the Russian Academy of Sciences, and the Finnish Parliament Sunday, October 11, 2009
  160. 160. State Duma--The Lower House Tauride Palace St Petersburg Meeting place of the Duma Sunday, October 11, 2009
  161. 161. State Duma--The Lower House Tauride Palace St Petersburg Meeting place of the Duma • the franchise, although broad, was divided into three tiers, like Prussia’s, according to wealth Sunday, October 11, 2009
  162. 162. State Duma--The Lower House Tauride Palace St Petersburg Meeting place of the Duma • the franchise, although broad, was divided into three tiers, like Prussia’s, according to wealth • ministers were not responsible to the Duma, appointed by and responsible to the tsar Sunday, October 11, 2009
  163. 163. State Duma--The Lower House Tauride Palace St Petersburg Meeting place of the Duma • the franchise, although broad, was divided into three tiers, like Prussia’s, according to wealth • ministers were not responsible to the Duma, appointed by and responsible to the tsar • the tsar could dismiss the Duma at will and govern by emergency decree Sunday, October 11, 2009
  164. 164. State Duma--The Lower House Tauride Palace St Petersburg Meeting place of the Duma • the franchise, although broad, was divided into three tiers, like Prussia’s, according to wealth • ministers were not responsible to the Duma, appointed by and responsible to the tsar • the tsar could dismiss the Duma at will and govern by emergency decree • laws passed by the Duma required both the approval of the State Council and the tsar Sunday, October 11, 2009
  165. 165. The Political Forces in 1906 Reformers hopelessly divided between the Kadets (Constitutional Democrats) who wanted more progress and the Octobrists who were satisfied with “half a loaf Revolutionaries the SRs were convulsed over the Azef affair, the RSDLP divided or in exile Reactionaries the nobility, the landlords, the church, the bureaucrats, the officers, and the Pan-Slav patriots organized a “Union of the Russian People” to encourage the tsar to roll back the concessions of 1905 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  166. 166. SR bloodbath--The Azef Affair 1890s-from a poor Jewish family, became a revolutionary 1892-fearing arrest, embezzled 800 rubles, fled to Germany, studied electrical engineering recruited by Okhrana, returned and joined SRs betrayed the head of the Combat Organization. After his capture, he replaced him! masterminded von Plehve’s (1904) and Grand Duke Sergei’s (1905) assassination; had Gapon murdered in spite of tips from sympathetic police, the SRs refused to believe he was a double agent 1909-on the verge of discovery, escaped once again 1869-1918 to Germany Sunday, October 11, 2009
  167. 167. Increasing Impotence of the Duma First Duma, April-June, 1906 dissolved within 10 weeks. The tsar was “cruelly disappointed” that they had “strayed into spheres beyond their competence” Second Duma, February-June, 1907 actually arrested 16 members for revolutionary activity franchise drastically (and illegally) reduced Third Duma, full term, 1907-1912 Fourth Duma, 1912-1917 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  168. 168. “Our Friend” Grigori Rasputin born in Siberia, early evidence of mystical powers, pilgrim to Greece and Jerusalem 1903-arrived St Petersburg, developed reputation as staryets (holy healer and prophet) 1905-Alexandra sought him for Tsarevich Alexei’s haemophilia his continuing ability to bring relief to the family gave him inordinate influence over them made him fierce enemies at court and countrywide he began to pull a “Blagoevich” (sell offices) 1869-1916 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  169. 169. Vladimir Sukhomlinov--War Minister long held up as an example of poor leadership and blamed for Russia’s initial weak showing in 1914 currently enjoying a rehabilitation 1908-head of the General Staff 1909-1915-Minister of War increased the army size and added some modern elements, i.e., military aircraft involved in intrigues 1848-1926 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  170. 170. Unarguably Nicholas’ Ablest Minister 1905-as governor of Saratov, put down the peasant uprisings 1906-first Interior, then Prime Minister, hunted down revolutionaries, “Stolypin’s neckties” agricultural reforms: from mir to individual family farms with government credit and modern techniques encouraged Siberian homesteading 1911-inevitably he became the SR’s #1 priority and a police spy/assassin shot him in the Kiev Opera House Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin 1862-1911 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  171. 171. Olga Tatiana Maria Anastasia Sunday, October 11, 2009
  172. 172. 1910 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  173. 173. The Imperial Family, 1911 Lt to Rt: Grand Duchess Olga, Maria, Nicholas, Alexandra, Anastasia, Tsarevich Alexei, Tatiana Sunday, October 11, 2009
  174. 174. Foreign Policy Sunday, October 11, 2009
  175. 175. Foreign Policy Sunday, October 11, 2009
  176. 176. Expansion Sunday, October 11, 2009
  177. 177. Expansion Svobodna Bulgariya Liberated Bulgaria Sunday, October 11, 2009
  178. 178. A Three-Pronged Policy 1.Russification towards non-Russian minorities within the Empire: Poles,Finns, Georgians,Armenians, the muslim peoples of Central Asia. Only the Jews were “spared” since they were scapegoated as pariahs 2.Panslavism towards the fellow slavs outside the Empire: the Balkan peoples, Rumanians, Bulgarians, and especially Serbs. Protecting the Orthodox Christian subjects of the Ottoman Empire 3.Traditional search for the warm water port This translated into pressuring Turkey over the Straits and China over the Liaotung Peninsula and Port Arthur Sunday, October 11, 2009
  179. 179. The Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  180. 180. The Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78 Bulgaria Sunday, October 11, 2009
  181. 181. The Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78 Bulgaria “the sick man” Sunday, October 11, 2009
  182. 182. The Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78 Bulgaria Bosnia & Herzegovina “the sick man” Sunday, October 11, 2009
  183. 183. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  184. 184. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  185. 185. Bulgaria Sunday, October 11, 2009
  186. 186. Bosnia & Herzegovina Bulgaria Sunday, October 11, 2009
  187. 187. Origins of the Russo-Turk War the Tsar Liberator Alexander had to make the humiliating Peace of Paris, 1856, just after coming to the throne Russia didn’t want to give up the role of protecting brother slavs the way they had been forced to give up “protector of Christians in the Holy Land” August, 1875, BOS•ni•a & Her•ze•GO•vi•na began an insurrection against Turkish rule To everyone’s surprise, Osman Pasha put down the revolt handily but with “Balkan atrocities” Sunday, October 11, 2009
  188. 188. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  189. 189. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  190. 190. The Congress of Berlin, 1878 by Anton von Werner In the left foreground, Count Karolyi (Austria-Hungary), Prince Gorchakov, seated (Russia), and the Earl of Beaconsfield (Disraeli). In the center foreground, Count Andrassy (A-H), Bismarck, and Count Shuvalov (Russia). In the right rear, with the bald head, Lord Salisbury, (Great Britain) Sunday, October 11, 2009
  191. 191. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  192. 192. Adjustments under the Berlin Treaty Sunday, October 11, 2009
  193. 193. Adjustments under the Berlin Treaty 1 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  194. 194. Adjustments under the Berlin Treaty 1 2 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  195. 195. Adjustments under the Berlin Treaty 1 3 2 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  196. 196. Bismarck offers to be “an honest broker” Russia accepts: exhausted by the unexpected rigors of the Turkish war worried by the thought of war with Britain and Austria-Hungary most distinguished diplomatic gathering between 1815 & 1919 Balkan peoples had unrealistic expectations--> disappointment Serbs expected Bosnia & Herzegovina, instead A-H gets them Romania has to surrender Bessarabia to Russia Bulgaria greatly reduced in size Greece furious that Britain gains Cyprus & Turkey keeps Crete & Epirus seeds sown for future Balkan revisionism & wars Sunday, October 11, 2009
  197. 197. Russia and Turkey the most aggrieved Turkey lost half its European territory and population Russia’s Pan-Slavs had little to show for their country’s heavy expenditures in men and money Bulgaria, the proposed springboard for future expansion, “a mere shadow of its former self” Britain, without the loss of a man, gained Cyprus and strengthened its position over the Straits Question Austria gained Bosnia and France was given a free hand in Tunis Russia, mortified, blamed Bismarck Sunday, October 11, 2009
  198. 198. Turning East--Push to the Pacific • 1889-Count Witte appointed Director of Railway Affairs. His #1 task-- the construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway (Transsib) • 1881-1913-1.455 billion rubles, an expenditure record, surpassed only by the military budget of World War I, the last Imperial Budget item • the push to connect Vladivostok and the Maritime Province led logically to Russian interest to participate in the dismemberment of China, already begun by the imperialist powers, especially Britain, Germany and Japan • Russia clashed with the latter over Korea, Manchuria, and the Liaotung Peninsula and its warm water port, Port Arthur • 1904-the Russo-Japanese War showed Russia’s military weakness and contributed to the Revolution of 1905 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  199. 199. The Train Wreck, 1914 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  200. 200. The Train Wreck, 1914 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  201. 201. 1914-1918 “The Butcher’s Bill” Sunday, October 11, 2009
  202. 202. 1914-1918 “The Butcher’s Bill” Sunday, October 11, 2009
  203. 203. The Alliance Systems part public--part secret Sunday, October 11, 2009
  204. 204. The Alliance Systems part public--part secret • 1873-1887 Three Emperors’ League--Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia Sunday, October 11, 2009
  205. 205. The Alliance Systems part public--part secret • 1873-1887 Three Emperors’ League--Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia • 1882-1914Triple Alliance--Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy Sunday, October 11, 2009
  206. 206. The Alliance Systems part public--part secret • 1873-1887 Three Emperors’ League--Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia • 1882-1914Triple Alliance--Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy • 1884-1890 Reinsurance Treaty--Germany, Russia Sunday, October 11, 2009
  207. 207. The Alliance Systems part public--part secret • 1873-1887 Three Emperors’ League--Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia • 1882-1914Triple Alliance--Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy • 1884-1890 Reinsurance Treaty--Germany, Russia • 1894-1914 Franco-Russian Alliance Sunday, October 11, 2009
  208. 208. The Alliance Systems part public--part secret • 1873-1887 Three Emperors’ League--Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia • 1882-1914Triple Alliance--Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy • 1884-1890 Reinsurance Treaty--Germany, Russia • 1894-1914 Franco-Russian Alliance • 1904-1914 Entente Cordiale France and Britain Sunday, October 11, 2009
  209. 209. The Alliance Systems part public--part secret • 1873-1887 Three Emperors’ League--Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia • 1882-1914Triple Alliance--Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy • 1884-1890 Reinsurance Treaty--Germany, Russia • 1894-1914 Franco-Russian Alliance • 1904-1914 Entente Cordiale France and Britain • 1907-1914 Anglo-Russian Entente creates the Triple Entente Sunday, October 11, 2009
  210. 210. Feinde ringsum-ringed by enemies Sunday, October 11, 2009
  211. 211. Bismarck’s fear of encirclement Sunday, October 11, 2009
  212. 212. Bismarck’s fear of encirclement • after the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71) he knew France wanted revenge Sunday, October 11, 2009
  213. 213. Bismarck’s fear of encirclement • after the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71) he knew France wanted revenge • so the focus of his diplomacy was keeping Russia bound to neutrality Sunday, October 11, 2009
  214. 214. Bismarck’s fear of encirclement • after the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71) he knew France wanted revenge • so the focus of his diplomacy was keeping Russia bound to neutrality • Dreikaiserbund-1873-75, 1881-84, 1884-87 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  215. 215. Bismarck’s fear of encirclement • after the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71) he knew France wanted revenge • so the focus of his diplomacy was keeping Russia bound to neutrality • Dreikaiserbund-1873-75, 1881-84, 1884-87 • Reinsurance Treaty-1887-90-secret but suspected Sunday, October 11, 2009
  216. 216. Bismarck’s fear of encirclement • after the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71) he knew France wanted revenge • so the focus of his diplomacy was keeping Russia bound to neutrality • Dreikaiserbund-1873-75, 1881-84, 1884-87 • Reinsurance Treaty-1887-90-secret but suspected 1. Germany and Russia both agreed to observe neutrality should the other be involved in a war with a third country. Neutrality would not apply should Germany attack France or Russia attack Austria Sunday, October 11, 2009
  217. 217. Bismarck’s fear of encirclement • after the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71) he knew France wanted revenge • so the focus of his diplomacy was keeping Russia bound to neutrality • Dreikaiserbund-1873-75, 1881-84, 1884-87 • Reinsurance Treaty-1887-90-secret but suspected 1. Germany and Russia both agreed to observe neutrality should the other be involved in a war with a third country. Neutrality would not apply should Germany attack France or Russia attack Austria 2. In the most secret completion protocol Germany declared herself neutral in the event of a Russian intervention in the Bosporus and the Dardane!es. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  218. 218. A fatal mistake Sunday, October 11, 2009
  219. 219. A fatal mistake • 1890-the callow young kaiser put Bismarck aside Sunday, October 11, 2009
  220. 220. A fatal mistake • 1890-the callow young kaiser put Bismarck aside • the Foreign office refused Russia’s repeated requests to renew the Reinsurance Treaty Sunday, October 11, 2009
  221. 221. A fatal mistake • 1890-the callow young kaiser put Bismarck aside • the Foreign office refused Russia’s repeated requests to renew the Reinsurance Treaty • this opened the door to the impossible--an alliance between republican France and autocratic Russia Sunday, October 11, 2009
  222. 222. A fatal mistake • 1890-the callow young kaiser put Bismarck aside • the Foreign office refused Russia’s repeated requests to renew the Reinsurance Treaty • this opened the door to the impossible--an alliance between republican France and autocratic Russia • the first move of the diplomatic revolution, 1890-1907 was made possible Sunday, October 11, 2009
  223. 223. A fatal mistake • 1890-the callow young kaiser put Bismarck aside • the Foreign office refused Russia’s repeated requests to renew the Reinsurance Treaty • this opened the door to the impossible--an alliance between republican France and autocratic Russia • the first move of the diplomatic revolution, 1890-1907 was made possible • again, the initiative was taken by France, not Russia Sunday, October 11, 2009
  224. 224. View across the Pont Alexandre III down the Avenue Nicholas II towards the Invalides during the 1900 Universal Exposition Sunday, October 11, 2009
  225. 225. Sunday, October 11, 2009
  226. 226. Tsar Alexander III noted in 1892 that it was imperative for Russia to come to terms with France “and, in the event of a war between France and Germany, at once attack the Germans so as not to give them the time first to beat France and then to turn against us.” Pipes, p.57 Sunday, October 11, 2009
  227. 227. The “Irreconcilables” Reconcile -- 1891-1894 1891-both dread isolation, exchange notes to consult if peace is threatened 1892-at French insistence, proposal of military talks to give positive shape to such “peacekeeping” measures delayed for a year by the Panama Crisis which strengthened anti- French forces in Russia 1893-exchange of naval visits to Toulon and Kronstadt 4 January 1894-negotiations completed, Franco-Russian Alliance Sunday, October 11, 2009
  228. 228. A Permanent Realignment? Sunday, October 11, 2009
  229. 229. A Permanent Realignment? there were parties in both Russia and Germany who hoped not Sunday, October 11, 2009
  230. 230. A Permanent Realignment? there were parties in both Russia and Germany who hoped not later events hardened the Russo-German division: the anti-Russian grain tariffs which the Agrarian League and the Ha-Ka-Tisten demanded and got in 1902 German aggressive foreign policy in the Middle East 1909-v. Bülow’s ultimatum to Izvolsky during the Bosnian Crisis Sunday, October 11, 2009
  231. 231. A Permanent Realignment? there were parties in both Russia and Germany who hoped not later events hardened the Russo-German division: the anti-Russian grain tariffs which the Agrarian League and the Ha-Ka-Tisten demanded and got in 1902 German aggressive foreign policy in the Middle East 1909-v. Bülow’s ultimatum to Izvolsky during the Bosnian Crisis 1892-however, there was one part of the German government who took this “worst case” seriously--the Great General Staff Count Alfred v. Schlieffen makes France the first object of Germany’s war plans Sunday, October 11, 2009
  232. 232. 1907-The Circle around the Central Powers is Completed Germany Austria-Hungary Sunday, October 11, 2009
  233. 233. 1907-The Circle around the Central Powers is Completed 1894 1904 Germany Austria-Hungary 1907 Sunday, October 11, 2009

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