Hitler Brought Down; "Nemesis", 20 July 1944-1945

2,324 views
2,133 views

Published on

The final year. The collapse of Nazi resistance on both Western and Eastern Fronts.

Published in: Education, News & Politics
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
2,324
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
59
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide





















































  • •set the “unconditional surrender” goal


























































  • • once again Goebbels echoes his Führer






















































  • • after failing to throw the










































  • • Marshall furious at Pearson “leak” -- “gives Germany 30 divisions”















  • For the offensive to be successful, four criteria were deemed critical by the planners:




  • ▪The attack had to be a complete surprise;




  • ▪The weather conditions had to be poor to neutralize Allied air superiority and the damage it could inflict on the German offensive and its supply lines;




  • ▪The progress had to be rapid. Model had declared that the Meuse River had to be reached by day 4, if the offensive was to have any chance of success; and




  • ▪Allied fuel supplies would have to be captured intact along the way because the Wehrmacht was short on fuel. The General Staff estimated they only had enough fuel to cover one-third to one-half of the ground to Antwerp in heavy combat conditions.
















  • More than 70 people were tried by the Tribunal, and the Court pronounced 43 death sentences, (none of which was carried out), and 22 life sentences. Eight other men were sentenced to shorter prison sentences.

    [25]

    The number of dead would be 362 prisoners of war and 111 civilians











































































  • • the final inhumanity, as the Red Army approached, 100,000s were marched westwards to “safer” KZs, 10,000s dying on the freezing roads.













































  • Hitler Brought Down; "Nemesis", 20 July 1944-1945

    1. 1. The 12-Year Reich Session 6 Hitler Brought Down, Nemesis 20 July 1944-9 May 1945
    2. 2. The 12-Year Reich Session 6 Hitler Brought Down, Nemesis 20 July 1944-9 May 1945
    3. 3. 20.Juli.1944 an aide shows the Führer’s trousers after his “miraculous escape”
    4. 4. “My task has been...under no circumstances to lose my nerve” Hitler, to his generals, 31 August 1944 Undoubting belief & fanatical “victorywill”
    5. 5. Martin Bormann, party chief the party grew more important in the final months than at any time since 1933
    6. 6. the hellish insanity continues Auschwitz glee club, fall 1944
    7. 7. Heimkehr des Krieges the war comes home, Dresden, 13-15 Feb 1945
    8. 8. Revenge for the cruelty and evil perpetrated on the USSR--more than twenty million dead
    9. 9. Hitler’s last days the 2004 film where modern Germany faces its past
    10. 10. 20.Juli.1944
    11. 11. 20.Juli.1944 Hitler shows the Duce his close call
    12. 12. Origins of the Army resistance as early as 1933 Gen’l Hammerstein-Equord looked in vain for fellow officers who would move against Hitler the first serious group who planned his removal by death if necessary, gathered around Gen’l Ludwig Beck during the Czech crisis, summer of 1938 the Munich “victory” took the wind out of their sails; as did the string of diplomatic, then military successes over the next four years Stalingrad changed all that several centers began building a dangerous series of plots to kill Hitler and stage a coup seizing the reins of the Nazi state Army Group Center on the Ostfront--Chief of Staff, Col Henning v. Trescow the Abwehr, military intelligence--Adm Wilhelm Canaris & Col Hans Oster Generals Guderian & Hoepner, plus some of their staff officers
    13. 13. Four big obstacles
    14. 14. Four big obstacles Der Führer Eid (the Führer oath) assassination, honor and sin the Casablanca Conference the power of Hitler’s personality
    15. 15. Der Führer Eid quot;Ich schwöre bei Gott diesen heiligen Eid, dass ich dem Führer des deutchem Reiches und Völkes, Adolf Hitler, dem Obersten Befehlshaber der Deutschen Wehrmacht, übertrage unbedingten Gehorsam, und als tapferer Soldat bereit sein will, jederzeit für diesen Eid mein Leben einzusatzen.quot; The Führer Oath “I swear by God this sacred oath, I will render unconditional obedience to the Führer of the German Reich and people, Adolf Hitler, supreme commander of the Wehrmacht, and, as a brave soldier, I will be ready at any time to stake my life for this oath.” August 2, 1934 and thereafter
    16. 16. Bonhoeffer assassination, honor, and sin Stauffenberg
    17. 17. Casablanca Conference 14-24 January 1943 announced “unconditional surrender” stand
    18. 18. “...it took a very strong personality indeed to stand up to the dictator. Those who knew him still speak of the overwhelming power of Hitler’s presence-- something no photograph or film can convey. One should never forget that he was very far from the ridiculous figure that he has become to us through overexposure and pastiche. He was the most formidable enemy humanity has ever known. The German Resistance could not have been up against anything worse.” Anton Gill, An Honourable Defeat, p.127
    19. 19. civilian ROTE KAPELLE (Red Orchestra) USSR military resistance KPD resistance groups groups Leber, Mierendorff & SPD intellectuals Center Group Kreisauer Tresckow, Moltke, Yorck &c Stauffenberg &c Goerdeler, Beck, & conservative Abwehr England civilian opposition Oster, Canaris USA Sweden Foreign Switzerland Office Trott zu Solz &c various Vatican, NSDAP generals Switzerland Gestapo confessing Nebe church Helldorf Schulenburg Bonhoeffer Gisevius Niemöller &c
    20. 20. Heroes of the Resistance
    21. 21. Heroes of the Resistance
    22. 22. Heroes of the Resistance
    23. 23. Heroes of the Resistance
    24. 24. Heroes of the Resistance
    25. 25. Two interrelated problems
    26. 26. Two interrelated problems getting rid of Hitler seizing control of the state
    27. 27. Solution:die Walküre Pläne (Operation Valkyrie) autumn, 1943--Stauffenberg & Tresckow decide on an existing plan for mobilizing the reserve army within Germany in the event of serious internal unrest now, not anti-Nazi subversives, but putschists within the Nazi Party itself would be the supposed target “an unscrupulous clique of non-combat Party leaders has tried to exploit the situation...to seize power for selfish purposes” ‘Valkyrie’ had been intended to protect the regime; it was now transformed into a strategy for removing it
    28. 28. Hitler greets Fromm, 15. Juli Stauffenberg, Fromm’s adjutant, looks at his target
    29. 29. Tom Cruise as Stauffenberg in the film “Valkyrie” scheduled for release February, 2009
    30. 30. 20.Juli.44
    31. 31. Hitler, shaken with the Führer mask off, moments after his “miraculous” escape
    32. 32. meeting Duce hours later for a scheduled visit to Wolfsschance
    33. 33. surveying the scene of the “crime” at first no one realized who might be behind the attempt or that a coup might be in progress
    34. 34. meanwhile, back at the Bendlerblock in Berlin, the conspirators await confirmation of Hitler’s death--”Schöne Schweinerei, das!”
    35. 35. Plötzensee execution chamber a present day memorial center to those murdered here
    36. 36. The Party Takes Over
    37. 37. “The generals are not opposed to the Führer because we are experiencing crises at the front. Rather, we are experiencing crises at the front because the generals are opposed to the Führer.” Goebbels, diary, 3 Aug 1944
    38. 38. Hitler’s physical condition Bruno Ganz as the final Hitler in Untergang (Downfall)
    39. 39. Hitler’s physical condition his ruptured eardrums were the worst injury frequent dizziness and malaise his balance when walking was impared his blood pressure was too high the left side tremor disappeared briefly but returned by September his paranoia became pronounced at military briefings all were searched for weapons and explosives his food and medicines were tested for poison Bruno Ganz as the final Hitler in Untergang (Downfall)
    40. 40. Bormann’s Posen Conference, 3-4 August all the Reichsleiter and Gauleiter summoned to attend to boost morale, Speer told of far greater armaments production than they had thought Himmler, now head of the Reserve Army, told of plans to prevent a recurrance Goebbels--the state and army had only caused problems for the Führer “that is going to end now. The Party will take over” next day they all travelled to Wolfsschanze for a “laying on of hands” by the infirm Führer --“I need you now”
    41. 41. Goebbels made Reichsbevollmächtiger fur den totalen Kriegseinsatz
    42. 42. Goebbels made Reichsbevollmächtiger fur den totalen Kriegseinsatz his decisive role in putting down the coup led to Hitler’s finally giving him this job now all the desk jobs would be combed out to provide more combat “bodies” a drastic radicalization of the home front about a million men were added between August and December all between the ages of 16 and 60 “It takes a bomb under his arsch to make Hitler see reason.”-- Goebbels’ diary
    43. 43. for liberty and life Volkssturm (the Volks struggle)
    44. 44. From the Battlefront for the Battlefront Volkssturm Suggestions and Reports on Technical Management instruction sheet Shooting at night with the machine gun
    45. 45. Kolberg
    46. 46. Kolberg at the same time as he was combing out civilian manpower for the fronts, Goebbels pulled 187,000 soldiers from active duty to be extras in a propaganda film directed by Veit Harlan in the fall of 1944. Goebbel’s favorite. The last film made in the Third Reich. commemorating a successful resistance in 1807 against Napoleon the mayor --“Better to be buried under the rubble than to capitulate!” as with all Nazi propaganda--not too subtle!
    47. 47. Niederlage im Westen Defeat in the West
    48. 48. Niederlage im Westen Defeat in the West
    49. 49. Down this road the soldiers came...
    50. 50. Down this road the soldiers came...
    51. 51. Down this road the soldiers came...
    52. 52. Down this road the soldiers came...
    53. 53. Down this road the soldiers came...
    54. 54. Down this road the soldiers came...
    55. 55. the huge supply buildup had to come across the D-Day beaches until a port could be seized
    56. 56. the Germans fought to contain the beachhead, just as they had at Anzio a half year earlier SS Standartenführer Fritz Klingenberg (1912 - 1945) Ritterkreuztrager Commander, 17.SS-Panzergrenadier Division Götz von Berlichingen
    57. 57. M-5 Stuart tank with plow in the fight to break out from the Normandy beachhead this device was crucial
    58. 58. surrender at St Lo, 18 July behind them a Sherman with the “plow” for punching through the hedgerows of Normandy
    59. 59. Operation Cobra
    60. 60. Operation Cobra
    61. 61. Hitler’s four point strategy
    62. 62. Hitler’s four point strategy buy time for the development of the new weapons inflict a major blow on the Western Allies hope for a split in the “unnatural” alliance turn on the Russians from a new position of strength
    63. 63. allied failure at Falaise after the breakout from the Normandy beachhead, the allies missed a major opportunity although 100,000 troops escaped through the “gap” 40-50,000 were made prisoner another 10,000 were killed
    64. 64. ambushed German convoy on the Todesgang (death highway) allied air power and growing strength on the ground forced Hitler to give way in France
    65. 65. Southern France 15-28 Aug Operation Dragoon forces Hitler to reluctantly withdraw to the upper Marne to hold France
    66. 66. 15 August--LCI discharges an infantry company near St Tropez Landing Craft Infantry (LCIs) were the smallest seagoing amphibious craft in the US Navy
    67. 67. “Brennt Paris?” “Is Paris 24 August--General Choltitz defied Hitler’s order and made no destruction and little resistance
    68. 68. Operation Market Garden “A bridge too far”--17-25 Sept
    69. 69. Operation Market Garden “A bridge too far”--17-25 Sept
    70. 70. the plan
    71. 71. the plan Eisenhower’s commanders favored pursuing the seemingly shattered German army Montgomery first suggested an airborne drop to seize the Rhine bridge at Arnheim as it developed, the airborne drops were to be supported by an armored thrust through Belgium and Holland MARKET eight key crossings were to be seized with three drops, from south to north: Eindhoven (several canals) 101st Nimwegen (two canals & the Waal) 82nd Arnheim (the Rhine) Br & Polish GARDEN an armored column of the British Guards Regiment & 2 infantry divisions
    72. 72. the result both strategic plan and tactical execution are badly flawed from 17 to 25 September the elite allied units strive to hold their objectives against fierce German counterattacks after the offensive was called off these light units were left holding defensive positions for which they were not equipped troops were brought in from the Ardennes to hold the new gains
    73. 73. Operation Market Garden 17-25 September 1944
    74. 74. 21 September--post-war plan revealed “The jew Morgenthau wants to turn Germany into a potato patch”--Goebbels
    75. 75. Wacht am Rhein (Battle of the Bulge) 16-26 December 1944
    76. 76. Wacht am Rhein (Battle of the Bulge) 16-26 December 1944
    77. 77. the plan seize Antwerp and split the allies with another Sichelschnitt
    78. 78. a last desperate attempt to regain the initiative
    79. 79. a last desperate attempt to regain the initiative Hitler draws armor from the Ostfront he hoards precious fuel for air and panzers with near perfect radio silence, three armies, 200,000 men, are assembled opposite 80,000 Americans in the “quiet sector” of the Ardennes all, even Hitler, realized that this was “it,” the last chance to reverse the course of the war
    80. 80. For the offensive to be successful, four criteria were deemed critical by the planners:
    81. 81. For the offensive to be successful, four criteria were deemed critical by the planners: The attack had to be a complete surprise; The weather conditions had to be poor to neutralize Allied air superiority and the damage it could inflict on the German offensive and its supply lines; The progress had to be rapid. Model had declared that the Meuse River had to be reached by day 4, if the offensive was to have any chance of success; and Allied fuel supplies would have to be captured intact along the way because the Wehrmacht was short on fuel. The General Staff estimated they only had enough fuel to cover one-third to one-half of the ground to Antwerp in heavy combat conditions.
    82. 82. the results
    83. 83. the results
    84. 84. the results
    85. 85. Unternehmen Greif (Operation Griffin) a “false flag” operation led by Hitler’s favorite special operator, Otto Skorzeny over 600 English and French speaking German soldiers were recruited to train to pass as allied troops equipped with allied uniforms and captured jeeps, even two Sherman tanks, they sew much confusion and fear behind allied lines even Omar Bradley was detained briefly by troops when he said Springfield was the capital of Illinois. The MP thought it was Chicago!
    86. 86. the Malmedy massacre, 17.xii.44 Some 80 POWs were assembled in a field and machine gunned. Those feigning death were shot in the head.
    87. 87. Dachau trial, 1946 #11 Sepp Dietrich, 6th AG Cdr, #42 Joachim Peiper, Kampfgruppe Peiper Cdr
    88. 88. outcome of the Ardennes offensive Casualty estimates from the battle vary widely. The official U.S. account lists 80,987 American casualties, while other estimates range from 70,000 to 104,000. British losses totaled 1,400. The German High Commandʼs official figure for the campaign was 84,834 casualties, and other estimates range between 60,000 and 100,000. the 19,000 American deaths were the highest for any battle in WW II the Luftwaffe is “broken” in an all out attack on 1 January 1945, leading to severe aircraft and pilot losses by February the lines are essentially back to where they had been in December and the Allies go on the offensive when the bridge at Remagen unexpectedly falls into US hands on 7 March, the last barrier to victory in the west is penetrated
    89. 89. Niederlage im Osten Defeat in the East
    90. 90. Niederlage im Osten Defeat in the East
    91. 91. Soviet superiority in materiel and personnel
    92. 92. Soviet superiority in materiel and personnel beginning in 1941, Stalin orders defense manufacturing moved east of the Urals. After we enter the war, we supply vast amounts of equipment and supplies to the USSR. he demands ruthless human sacrifices, both on the battlefield and in the factories, of his more numerous population ( 197 vs 60 million) at great cost, this capacity starts turning out superior war equipment we’ve already seen the T-34 tanks now we’ll let the Shturmovik IL-2 aircraft stand for many other such weapons systems
    93. 93. development of the Shturmovik throughout the mid-1930s, Soviet aircraft designers worked to develop an anti-tank attack aircraft like the Ju-87 Stuka first prototypes were flown in 1939 wartime production was slow until Stalin started cracking heads the first massive use came during Uranus, the Stalingrad encirclement by late 1944, they dominated the skies and were the scourge of the German panzers
    94. 94. YOU HAVE LET DOWN OUR COUNTRY AND OUR RED ARMY. YOU HAVE NOT MANUFACTURED IL-2S UNTIL NOW. THE IL-2 AIRCRAFT ARE NECESSARY FOR OUR RED ARMY NOW, LIKE AIR, LIKE BREAD. SHENKMAN FACTORY PRODUCES ONE IL-2 A DAY AND TRETIAKOV BUILDS ONE OR TWO MIG-3S DAILY. IT IS A MOCKERY OF OUR COUNTRY AND THE RED ARMY. I ASK YOU NOT TO TRY THE GOVERNMENT'S PATIENCE, AND DEMAND THAT YOU MANUFACTURE MORE ILS. I WARN YOU FOR THE LAST TIME. STALIN.
    95. 95. штурмовик Shturmovik the new Soviet tank-busters
    96. 96. штурмовик Shturmovik the new Soviet tank-busters
    97. 97. When I was working on my book Red Phoenix, I did interview a number of German pilots who told me of the overwhelming numbers of Soviet a/c [aircraft] (supplemented with USA Lend Lease). At the [Smithsonian] Museum, I just turned in the restoration package for our Il-2 Shturmovik, one of a handful of survivors of a production effort of over 30,000 warplanes of this type. Von Hardesty, Director, Aerospace Museum Smithsonian Institution, e-Mail to JBP, 17 April 2008
    98. 98. Powstanie Warszawskie (Warsaw Uprising), 1 Aug-2 Oct 1944
    99. 99. Powstanie Warszawskie (Warsaw Uprising), 1 Aug-2 Oct 1944 PW Polska Walczaca (Poland fights) Kotwica
    100. 100. Soviet Gains, January-August 1944 As both Rumania and Bulgaria cease to be allies, Hitler forces Horthy in Hungary to become even more of a German puppet. The Soviet’s summer offensive brings them to central Poland.
    101. 101. Operation Bagration brings Soviet forces to the outskirts of Warsaw by August, 1944 the Polish Home Army begins an uprising to assist in driving out Nazi forces
    102. 102. positions held by the Polish Home Army 4 August 1944
    103. 103. Instead of coming to their aid as the Poles expect, the Red Army waits for 62 days while the Germans butcher the less well armed Poles. Now the way is clear for the Soviet puppets, the Lublin Committee, to be the post-war communist government of Poland.
    104. 104. unequal combat
    105. 105. unequal combat initially the Poles had 45,000 soldiers (only 23,000 armed and combat ready) the German Warsaw garrison, 11,000 ultimately, the Germans deployed 90,000 combat hardened forces to crush the Poles here, the Dirlewanger brigade employs the Thor siege mortar which they had used to capture Sevastopol
    106. 106. Thor’s target
    107. 107. soldiers of the Armia Krajowa
    108. 108. soldiers of the Armia Krajowa
    109. 109. soldiers of the Armia Krajowa
    110. 110. soldiers of the Armia Krajowa
    111. 111. monument to the uprising notice the bullet scars on this building the kotwica continues to be a nationalist symbol
    112. 112. Auschwitz--final days
    113. 113. Auschwitz--final days
    114. 114. “If the album consisted only of photographs of people who hadn’t been seen at Auschwitz, and of areas of Auschwitz that hadn’t been portrayed, or if it merely expanded the photographic record of Auschwitz, it would be valuable historically…but it has an enhanced value….In the fifty-four days between May 15 and July 8, 1944, a period partly covered in the Hoecker album, and called the Hungarian Deportation, four hundred and thirty-four thousand people were put aboard trains to Auschwitz—so many people that the crematoriums, which could dispose of a hundred and thirty-two thousand bodies a month, were overrun.” Here is a portfolio of images from Auschwitz
    115. 115. Nordhausen (Dora-Mittelbau) KZ in Thuringia, on the edge of the Harz mountains. Liberated by US troops,12 April 1945
    116. 116. Country murdered Austria 65,500 Belgium 28,500 Denmark 116 Estonia 1,000 France 76,100 Germany 165,000 Greece 59,200 Hungary 200,000 Italy 6,500 Latvia 67,000 Lithuania 220,000 Luxembourg 1,200 Netherlands 102,000 Norway 760 Poland 3,000,000 Rumania 270,000 Soviet Union 1,000,000 Tchechoslowakei 260,000 Yugoslavia 60-65,000 total 5,582,876
    117. 117. our Friend Harold’s cousin from the memorial at Theresienstadt
    118. 118. Dresden, 13-15.ii.45
    119. 119. Dresden, 13-15.ii.45
    120. 120. a view of the city in 1910 Dresden was a beautiful city in central Germany, the baroque capital of Saxony
    121. 121. Yalta, 4-11 February 1945 Bomber Command was eager to show that the Western Allies were doing their bit for the Soviet offensive
    122. 122. an RAF Lancaster drops its bombs
    123. 123. an RAF Lancaster drops its bombs
    124. 124. an RAF Lancaster drops its bombs
    125. 125. the next day
    126. 126. the next day
    127. 127. the next day
    128. 128. the next day
    129. 129. Goebbels adds a zero his inflated casualty figure, 202,040, increased the police report by a factor of 10
    130. 130. Kurt Vonnegut, a young POW, was there his novel is an imaginative depiction of the event
    131. 131. the battle for Berlin April 1945
    132. 132. the battle for Berlin April 1945
    133. 133. propaganda till the end STRUGGLE LEAFLET FOR THE DEFENDERS OF GREATER BERLIN Goebbels’ ministry produced this news sheet Der Panzerbär (The Armed Bear) the city crest of Berlin is a rampant bear here he’s depicted with shovel and Panzerfaust (antitank rocket) this last issue, 29 April Heroic Rings By Day and Night new Strong Points are being Created
    134. 134. Panzerfäuste (tank fists) range 150 meters, armor piercing up to 200 mm Achtung! Feuerstrahl! (Warning! Fire Jet!)
    135. 135. looking for another to kill the panzerfaust was also used in urban fighting to punch through walls
    136. 136. Soviet Katyusha rockets mounted on a Studebaker Lend-Lease truck; by war’s end 10,000 launchers are produced
    137. 137. “Stalin’s organs” in action
    138. 138. “Stalin’s organs” in action
    139. 139. “Stalin’s organs” in action
    140. 140. Stalin’s winter offensive, 17.i with massive superiority, the Red Army drives all before it civilians clog the roads German forces, stripped for the Ardennes offensive, fall back Königsberg and Posen hold out
    141. 141. As rumor of the approaching Soviet forces reaches German civilians, they flee on foot. Goebbels doesn’t have to exaggerate the outrages which vengeful Red soldiers perpetrate.
    142. 142. grasping at straws--4/12/45
    143. 143. grasping at straws--4/12/45 Hitler to Speer: “Here! You never wanted to believe it. Here! … “Here we have the great miracle that I always foretold. “Who’s right now? The war is not lost. Read it! “Roosevelt is dead!”
    144. 144. A Google view of the terrain
    145. 145. with the fall of the Seelow heights the road to Berlin lay open Allied propaganda sheet to demoralize German soldiers
    146. 146. with the fall of the Seelow heights the road to Berlin lay open 16-19 April --the Soviet offensive began with the biggest artillery barrage of the war 2.5 million men, 6,250 tanks, 7,500 aircraft, 41, 600 artillery pieces and mortars, 3,255 truck-mounted Katyusha launchers, & 95,383 motor vehicles German trenches atop the Seelower Höhe were evacuated before the opening barrage 143 searchlights blinded the defenders as the Reds crossed the Oder River under fire finally, after four days, numbers prevailed Allied propaganda sheet to demoralize German soldiers
    147. 147. Soviet monument to the capture of the Seelower Höhe
    148. 148. the end game a race develops between Zhukov’s generals, Konev and Chuikov, to see who can enter Berlin first a terrible slaughter of German soldiers and civilians occurs on the narrow roads of the pine forests south of Berlin Hitler continues to micromanage from the Führerbunker beneath the Reichschancellery by Hitler’s last birthday, 20.iv.45, Berlin is invested
    149. 149. the Zoo Flakturm a strong point in the defense
    150. 150. the Zoo Flakturm a strong point in the defense
    151. 151. the U-bahn stations were cautiously emptied
    152. 152. Hitler awards E.K.en to young defenders in the Reichskanzlei gardens
    153. 153. Hitler awards E.K.en to young defenders in the Reichskanzlei gardens
    154. 154. Hitler awards E.K.en to young defenders in the Reichskanzlei gardens
    155. 155. the Reichschancellery in better days
    156. 156. the Reichschancellery in better days
    157. 157. the Reichschancellery in better days
    158. 158. the Reichschancellery in better days
    159. 159. the Reichschancellery in better days
    160. 160. the Red army takes no chances as with the Reichstag, these symbolic buildings were fanatically defended
    161. 161. or was he? Stalin first published the photo of the Doppelgänger’s corpse, then discredited it a special team of Red Army forensics experts, in great secrecy, examined the burned remains found in the Reichschancellery gardens not until after the fall of the USSR were the reputed fragments of Hitler’s skull shown to Westerners there still remain questions of their authenticity stories about Hitler’s “escape” and “sightings” appeared for years after his death
    162. 162. the iconic symbol 30 April (restaged for photo 2 May)
    163. 163. Volkssturm POWs
    164. 164. HJ POWs
    165. 165. captured generas and staff
    166. 166. Jodl signs the surrender Rheims, France 7 May 1945
    167. 167. Marshall Zhukov reads the capitulation Berlin, 8 May
    168. 168. Marshall Keitel signs Berlin, 8 May
    169. 169. Winston gives the “V”
    170. 170. The funeral rites of the Third Reich’s leader were indeed macabre. Hitler’s jaws, kept so carefully...were retained by SMERSH, while the NKVD kept the cranium. These remnants were recently rediscovered in the former Soviet archives. The rest of the body, which had been concealed beneath a Soviet army parade-ground in Magdeburg, was exhumed at night [in 1970] and burned. The ashes were flushed into the town sewage system. Beevor, The Fall of Berlin 1945, p. 431

    ×