Hitler Brought Down; Closing the Ring, 1943-20 July 1944

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After Stalingrad and El Alamein the military tide turns

After Stalingrad and El Alamein the military tide turns

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  • 1. The 12-Year Reich Session 5 Hitler Brought Down, Closing the Ring 1943-20 July 1944
  • 2. The 12-Year Reich Session 5 Hitler Brought Down, Closing the Ring 1943-20 July 1944
  • 3. Stalingrad, the romance with Hitler is over German and Romanian prisoners, February, 1943
  • 4. “Total War” Now, Volk, rise up and storm burst forth!
  • 5. U-boat war the tide turns in the battle of the Atlantic
  • 6. American forces finish securing North Africa next they prepare to invade Italy
  • 7. Italy invaded; Duce out, then rescued allied propaganda leaflet: “This was the first blow”
  • 8. the front draws nearer the way to Stalingrad was through Kiev, then the Russians in 10 months, have reversed matters, now the way to Breslau is through Kiev
  • 9. in 1944 the Red Army advances DEATH to the German fascist bandits
  • 10. the war in the west has begun German newspaper account of D-Day, 6 June 1944
  • 11. 20 juli 1944 scene of the failed bomb plot, immediately after Hitler’s “miraculous” escape
  • 12. We have not only a “leadership crisis’, but strictly speaking a “Leader (Führer) crisis”! Speer,recalling Goebbels’s assessment in late February, 1943
  • 13. showing the strain “rapidly ageing... “becoming increasingly a physical wreck... “showing pronounced signs of intense nervous strain--- distanced himself ever more from his people.” his left hand began to tremble (probably onset of Parkinson’s disease) his quack doctor Morell gave more “energy” injections his vegetarian diet didn’t help
  • 14. showing the strain “rapidly ageing... “becoming increasingly a physical wreck... “showing pronounced signs of intense nervous strain--- distanced himself ever more from his people.” his left hand began to tremble (probably onset of Parkinson’s disease) his quack doctor Morell gave more “energy” injections his vegetarian diet didn’t help
  • 15. “Total War”
  • 16. “Total War”
  • 17. women in war work Hitler grudgingly agrees to shelve his chauvinist view-- kinder, kuche,kirche
  • 18. Fremd und zwangsarbeitern Germany felt the press of military versus domestic manpower conflicts two answers besides women laborers were resorted to the ID paper (right) of the zivilarbeiter(in) civil worker (female) from Soviet Russia is a blend of the two workers were recruited from the allied/ occupied countries as volunteers then they were kept and worked as slaves slavery was the initial fate of Jews and POWs
  • 19. who shall be the “Total War” Czar? Göring, seen here in happier days, wanted the job Goebbels felt he deserved it Ley (DAF), Speer, Saukel, and Bormann all craved the post
  • 20. Widerstand (Resistance)
  • 21. the White Rose A GERMAN FLYER Manifesto of the Munich Students the leaflet dropped by Sophie and her brother Hans Scholl on 18 Feb 1943 their resistance had begun the previous summer the blue writing, “enemy propaganda”
  • 22. Hans & Sophie with Christoph Probst München, 24.Juli 42--at the beginning of the resistance movement.
  • 23. swift Nazi “justice”
  • 24. swift Nazi “justice” they began painting slogans on walls: “Down with Hitler,” “Hitler Mass Murderer,” “Freedom” then a series of printed flyers they were seized distributing the 6th flyer on 2/18/43 tried before notorious judge Roland Freisler on 2/22, they were found guilty and guillotined the same day
  • 25. other resistance “circles” the Munich university group was not alone army officers around General Ludwig Beck secretly plotted military intelligence, including the director (!), Admiral Canaris, worked against the war effort a soon to be world famous Lutheran pastor, Dietrich Bonhoeffer, and others in the church resistance searched their consciences
  • 26. a totally unexpected resistance: the Jews of the Warsaw ghetto
  • 27. a totally unexpected resistance: the Jews of the Warsaw ghetto 16.Oct.40--established, population 440,000, the largest ghetto in Europe. 38% of Warsaw’s pop. in 4.5% of the city’s area 16 Nov--enclosed with a wall & armed guards. thousands of Polish Jews & Romani (Gypsies) added; food rations reduced to starvation levels; over 100,000 die of disease & starvation before deportations to extermination camps 23.July-21.Sept.1942-- about 240,000 sent to Treblinka & murdered there by the end of 1942, it was clear that the deportations were to their deaths, and many of the remaining Jews decided to fight
  • 28. the Warsaw Ghetto and the railroad routes to the extermination KZs
  • 29. deportations --> uprising
  • 30. deportations --> uprising
  • 31. deportations --> uprising
  • 32. deportations --> uprising
  • 33. deportations --> uprising
  • 34. U-boat war
  • 35. U-boat war
  • 36. Adm Karl Dönitz, (1891-1980) U-boat Commander (BdU) (Befehlshaber der U-boote) 1916 posted to a U-boat 1918 commander, German U-boat arm 1936 named Führer der U-Boote 1939-1945 U-boats sunk 2,800 ships with a capacity of 15 million gross registered tons when Adm Raeder lost Hitler’s favor in 1943, Dönitz replaced him as OKM, Oberbefehlshaber der Kriegsmarine ironically, “Black May” followed
  • 37. “Black May,” 1943 U-boats reach their highest number, 240 (118 at sea) May also saw the greatest losses, 25% of the operational total nearly 3x the losses of the previous worst month at the same time there was a drop in Allied losses to the U-boat attacks shocked, Adm Dönitz ordered a temporary halt to the U-boat campaign, 24 May 1943
  • 38. what caused this dramatic shift? officers on the bridge of an escort vessel looking for U-boats early in the war
  • 39. ASDIC(Br) / sonar(US) the naval equivalent of radar, part of the “wizard war”
  • 40. Enigma, the Kriegsmarine model M-4 was recovered by the Poles in 1939 and gave British Intelligence access to the wolfpacks’ plans
  • 41. the film, 2001--the center http://www.bletchleypark.org.uk/
  • 42. and a variety of weapons and tactics
  • 43. and a variety of weapons and tactics
  • 44. and a variety of weapons and tactics
  • 45. and a variety of weapons and tactics
  • 46. and a variety of weapons and tactics
  • 47. and a variety of weapons and tactics
  • 48. and a variety of weapons and tactics
  • 49. and on the Ostfront
  • 50. and on the Ostfront Germany’s Victory EUROPE’S FREEDOM
  • 51. Leningrad Moscow Kursk Kiev
  • 52. Großoffensiv “Zitadelle” major offensive “Citadel” Kursk 4-20 July 1943
  • 53. Großoffensiv “Zitadelle” major offensive “Citadel” Kursk 4-20 July 1943
  • 54. Soviet poster you’re not going “NACH OSTEN” any more на запад to the West!
  • 55. new Tiger tanks were available in large numbers Waffen SS units were optimistic, as was Hitler
  • 56. Waffen SS new Tiger tanks were available in large numbers Waffen SS units were optimistic, as was Hitler
  • 57. the new Soviet T-34 was arguably even better. Note the sloped armor to send “incoming” ricocheting off
  • 58. the German Panther tried to get the T-34 slope factor right but was bedeviled by other faults, side armor too thin
  • 59. battle of Prokhorovka, 12.juli “the greatest tank battle of all times”
  • 60. battle of Prokhorovka, 12.juli “the greatest tank battle of all times” the Soviets launched a counter offensive, hoping to catch the Germans off balance “best described as a very costly tactical loss but an operational draw for the Soviets” neither accomplished their missions that day losses a contentious subject: Soviet-200(?) 822 (?) --probably 150-300 German-80(?) “hundreds, including ‘dozens’ of Tigers” (?) --probably 70-80 “operational reductions” short/long term
  • 61. Red tank recovery vehicle towing a damaged T-34 from the Prokhorovka battlefield
  • 62. immediate results
  • 63. immediate results 13 juli- Hitler summons v Kluge & v Manstein to Wolfsschanze 3 days earlier the Western Allies had invaded Sicily, Hitler announces his intention to “temporarily” call off Zitadelle Manstein insists “on the brink of victory,” Hitler gives him a few more days 17 juli- operation cancelled, entire SS Panzer Korps transferred to Italy 22 august-utter exhaustion, both sides, battle of Kursk ends
  • 64. long term results
  • 65. long term results as series of Red Army operations lead to the crossing of the Dnieper and the liberation of Kiev, autumn of 1943 a new pattern emerges--the initiative passes to the Soviets Germans spend the rest of the war reacting to their moves the Italian front drains resources from Ostfront only the Soviets have the manpower, Lend-Lease, and industrial production to recover fully Germany will never again launch a major eastern offensive
  • 66. strategic outcome
  • 67. strategic outcome the loss further convinces Hitler of the incompetence of his General Staff he continues his interference in military matters, by the war’s end he is involved in tactical decisions Stalin moves in the opposite direction, he sees Stavka’s planning justified on the battlefield, steps back from operational planning, only rarely overrules military decisions predictable results ensue for both sides: German Army moves from loss to loss as Hitler “micromanages” Soviet Army gains freedom and becomes more and more fluid
  • 68. Italy
  • 69. Now it’s gonna get serious Italy MUSSOLINI FALLEN ITALY BREAKS DOWN Allied propaganda leaflet
  • 70. “Operation Husky” Sicily Landings 9/10 July -17 August
  • 71. “Operation Husky” Sicily Landings 9/10 July -17 August
  • 72. Italy in chaos--24 July-15 Sept
  • 73. Italy in chaos--24 July-15 Sept
  • 74. as Sicily is overrun, alarm spreads
  • 75. as Sicily is overrun, alarm spreads 24 July--the Fascist Grand Council meets for ten hours, votes 19-7 to ask the king to save Italy from destruction 25 July--Mussolini summoned to the palace, relieved of duties and arrested, replaced by Marshall Badoglio Hitler calls an emergency meeting of his top advisors after learning of this, urges immediate forceful action-- arrest them all! king, Badoglio, the pope! wiser heads prevail
  • 76. a fiery interruption, 24 July-3 August Operation Gomorrah, the firebombing of Hamburg
  • 77. a fiery interruption, 24 July-3 August Operation Gomorrah, the firebombing of Hamburg
  • 78. Pietro Badoglio, 1871-1956 victor of the Ethiopian War, 1936 used mustard gas and bombed hospitals, never tried for war crimes resigned his commission after the poor performance in Greece, 1940 called by Victor Emmanuel III to form a government, 25 July 1943 made a speech promising to continue the war secretly began negotiations with the Allies
  • 79. suspicious, Hitler prepares Kesselring prepares a brilliant evacuation of Sicily on the night of 11-12 August by early September, when Italy’s “treachery”/ good sense came to light, he had 16 divisions on the Italian mainland hardened SS units from Ostfront troops formerly stationed on Sardinia, Corsica, and Sicily they quickly seized control of central Italy and took the unprepared Italian Army prisoner over 650,000 former “comrades” became Generalfeldmarshall Albert Kesselring slave laborers 1885-1960
  • 80. Operation Eiche (Oak) 12.ix Austrian SS Hauptsturmführer Otto Skorzeny leads a perfect airborne rescue mission to free the Duce German intelligence had located the site where he was being held captive the German commandos overwhelmed Mussolini’s guards without a shot being fired Skorzeny flew him out in a Fiesler Storch light aircraft
  • 81. Nazis prepare strong defensive lines
  • 82. the war against the Jews
  • 83. the war against the Jews
  • 84. Denmark; the greatest rescue action of WW II
  • 85. Danish fishing boats used in the rescue
  • 86. Danish fishing boats used in the rescue
  • 87. Italy: resistance by the Church October, 1943
  • 88. ...what happened in Spain [ the church desecrations, murder of clergy and women religious by the Republicans] clearly influenced Pius XII's attitudes towards Hitler, whom he considered similar to Mussolini and Franco. I think this helps to explain his support of Operation Barbarossa and his reluctance to comprehend the Holocaust, let alone quot;speak outquot; on behalf of the Jews. The issue is much more complex than that, but Pacelli seriously misjudged the (admittedly horrible) world in which he lived. This was not true - nearly all of the research bears out - of the lower clergy, especially in Italy but also in Germany and Austria. Professor Evan B. Bukey, University of Arkansas e-Mail to JBP, 13 March 2008
  • 89. Himmler’s Posen speech 4 October 1943
  • 90. Himmler’s Posen speech 4 October 1943 “… referring to the Jewish evacuation program, the extermination of the Jewish people “… a glorious page in our history, and one that has never been written and never can be written “We had the moral right, we had the duty to our people, to destroy this people which wanted to destroy us. “The difficult decision had to be taken to have this people disappear from the earth.”
  • 91. 1944--”Hoping for Miracles” (Kershaw’s Chapter 13)
  • 92. “undoubting faith & fanatical will to victory” despite increasing ill health, Hitler clings to his mantra “It is impressive, with what certainty the Führer believes in his mission.” -- Goebbels, early June, 1944 “Hitler lived increasingly in a world of illusion” -- Kershaw like his hero, Frederick the Great, Hitler expected to be saved by a rift in the “unnatural” alliance of the Western Powers and the USSR
  • 93. from dilettante to workaholic “The leisured times of the pre-war years were gone. “...detachment from day-to-day issues...relaxation, listening to music, watching films, indulging in indolence… had indeed given way to a punishing work schedule… “Hitler brooded incessantly over the most detailed matters of military tactics… “Nights with little sleep; rising late in the mornings; … a strict spartan diet, and meals often taken alone in his room; no exercise beyond a brief daily walk with his Alsatian bitch Blondi; the same surroundings [Wolfsschanze], the same entourage… “...scarcely conducive to...rational reflection.”
  • 94. from dilettante to workaholic “The leisured times of the pre-war years were gone. “...detachment from day-to-day issues...relaxation, listening to music, watching films, indulging in indolence… had indeed given way to a punishing work schedule… “Hitler brooded incessantly over the most detailed matters of military tactics… “Nights with little sleep; rising late in the mornings; … a strict spartan diet, and meals often taken alone in his room; no exercise beyond a brief daily walk with his Alsatian bitch Blondi; the same surroundings [Wolfsschanze], the same entourage… “...scarcely conducive to...rational reflection.”
  • 95. threats to his security Hitler’s press chief warns of an assassination plan he read in a Stockholm newspaper an army officer intended to shoot Hitler with his pistol security at Wolfsschanze is increased allied air-superiority leads to heavy raids on Berlin, so Hitler decides to increase the strength of the bunkers at FHQ 22 Feb--he leaves for the Berghof while OT does the work he will not return until mid-July Adolf Hitler is the victory!
  • 96. “No other war leader -- not Churchill, Roosevelt, or even Stalin -- was so consumed by the task of running military affairs, so unable to delegate authority.” Kershaw, ii, p. 612
  • 97. Atlantikwall
  • 98. Atlantikwall
  • 99. Morale on the home front worsens as bombing intensifies and the Red army draws closer
  • 100. Morale on the home front worsens as bombing intensifies and the Red army draws closer
  • 101. SIGN OF LIFE OF Family Tüllmann text reads: badly damaged, can remain living [there],letter follows. Engelbert [Tüllmann]
  • 102. AND NOW WE TRIUMPH!
  • 103. The intensified level of repression during the last years of the war, along with the negative unity forged by fear of the victory of Bolshevism, went a long way towards ensuring that the threat of internal revolt, as had happened in 1918, never materialized. Kershaw, ii, p. 614
  • 104. Wunderwaffen Wonder Weapons
  • 105. Wunderwaffen Wonder Weapons
  • 106. Hitler placed great hopes in the Me-262, the world’s first jet fighter
  • 107. its late introduction denied it a decisive role
  • 108. its late introduction denied it a decisive role designed by Willi Messerschmidt April, 1941--maiden flight with piston engines July, 1942--with jet engines April, 1944--introduction for training August, 1944--first combat operations, early losses led to withdrawal for ”further training and a revision of combat tactics.” March, 1945-inflicts heavy losses, but… too little, too late
  • 109. Vergeltungswaffe-2 v Braun and Riedel built the first prototype in 1936 problems with liquid fuel, supersonic aerodynamics, and guidance and control plagued testing and production RAF bombing of Peenemunde, August, 1943 caused a shift of production to Mittelbau-Dora here 20,000 slave laborers died producing the V-2s operations began 2 Sept 1944 over 3,000 were launched, killing 7,000 military and civilian personnel single most expensive project of the Third Reich
  • 110. V-1 “buzz bomb” begun later, but put in service earlier than the V-2
  • 111. Vengeance weapon-1 1942--Luftwaffe’s “Kirschkern” program begins like the V-2, hopes are high and projections of the production rate are optimistic January, 1944--production begins, Gen’l Milch promises Hitler that, beginning on his birthday, 20 April, 1,500 V-1s will achieve the total devastation of London within three months of such bombing, Britain should be on its knees given this sort of talk, Hitler’s illusions become more understandable
  • 112. …’working towards the Führer’, striving--as the key to retaining power and position--to accomplish what it was known he would favor, to provide the miracle he wanted, and to accomodate his wishes, however unrealistic, still applied. Reluctance to convey bad or depressing news to him was the opposite side of the same coin. Together the consequence was inbuilt, systemic, over- optimism…. Kershaw, ii, p.623
  • 113. the campaign begins
  • 114. the campaign begins 50 launch sites are built in the Pas de Calais by early June 12 June--10 V-1s launch against London: 4 crash on launch 5 reach London, cause little damage Hitler is furious, cancels production three days later 244 hit London causing a sensation. Production ordered resumed. almost 30,000 are made. Approx 10,000 are fired at England. 2,419 reach London killing about 6,184 and injuring 17,891
  • 115. Margarethe I the occupation of Hungary
  • 116. Margarethe I the occupation of Hungary FLAG OF THE PRO-GERMAN ARROW CROSS PARTY
  • 117. by aligning with Hitler Hungary gained back much of what the Paris peace settlement had taken from her
  • 118. Horthy’s visit to the regained Northern Transylvania in 1940
  • 119. Miklos Horthy, Regent of the Kingdom of Hungary, 1920-1944 CinC of the Austro-Hungarian Navy in the last years of World War I his conservative government replaced the “Red terror” of Bela Kuhn in November, 1919 when the last Habsburg, Karl I, died in 1922, Admiral Horthy was “regent without a king” Hitler woos Horthy with territories from Slovakia, Romania, & the Carpatho- Ukraine he joins the axis with the invasion of Yugoslavia
  • 120. Hungary’s fall from favor begins with Stalingrad, Hitler blames the loss on the Hungarian and Romanian divisions on the “shoulders” of the salient where the Red Army broke through 12 February 1944--Horthy writes Hitler demanding the return of 9 divisions from Ostfront to defend his Carpathian border from the approaching Red Army Hitler fears that both Hungary and Romania might pull an “Italy”, make a separate peace; orders the army to prepare invasion plans: Margarethes I & II
  • 121. 18 March 1944
  • 122. 18 March 1944 the 75 year old head of state is summoned to Hitler along with his chief ministers and chief of his general staff Hitler accuses him (correctly) of secretly opening negotiations with the allies, blames him for leaving his almost one million Jews without any disabilities announces he intends to occupy Hungary and demands an invitation when Horthy refuses, Hitler compels him to install a puppet regime the Wehrmacht enters, as does Adolf Eichmann
  • 123. Ostfront
  • 124. Ostfront
  • 125. a challenge to Hitler’s authority 4.i.44--Manstein flies to Hitler’s headquarters (FHQ) to report on the danger to Army Group South he wants to abandon the Crimea and the Dnieper bend to shorten the front Hitler refuses. Manstein asks to speak privately, renews his request that he, not Hitler, be made commander in chief of Ostfront, the way Kesselring in Italy and Rundstedt in France were request denied • insubordination duly noted. Guderian, another favorite general, also met a stone wall when he asked Hitler to get rid of Keitel, head of OKW Generalfeldmarshall Erich v Manstein
  • 126. Sowjetische Frühjahrsoffensive 1944 Soviet Spring Offensive 4 märz-12 mai
  • 127. Sowjetische Frühjahrsoffensive 1944 Soviet Spring Offensive 4 märz-12 mai Soviet gains during their winter offensive leave them well positioned for the new assault the Ukraine was the focus of the Spring Offensive the Red Army drove from the Dnieper to the Bug to the Dniester Rivers 10 April--with the fall of Odessa it became impossible to supply the German forces in the Crimea 10 May--Sevastopol is evacuated by sea
  • 128. Operation Bagration Soviet Summer Offensive opens 22 June
  • 129. 57,000 prisoners from the 4th Panzer Army are marched through the streets of Moscow 17 juli 1944
  • 130. D-Day 6 June 1944
  • 131. D-Day 6 June 1944
  • 132. some familiar images
  • 133. some familiar images
  • 134. some familiar images
  • 135. some familiar images
  • 136. war on four fronts
  • 137. war on four fronts Allied propaganda leaflet
  • 138. closing the ring--July, 1944
  • 139. closing the ring--July, 1944 26 June--the fall of Cherbourg and the D-Day beachhead firmly established, Hitler still “believed” the “Vengeance Weapons” would turn the tide 22 June--Stalin launches “Operation Bagration” on the third anniversary of Hitler’s invasion Hitler refuses Busch’s request to abandon the “fortified places” (Feste Plätze) mid July--they are encircled; the Soviet breakthrough advances 200 miles, within striking distance of Warsaw a disaster greater than Stalingrad: 28 divisions lost, 350,000 men killed or captured
  • 140. 15. juli--Hitler greets Gen’l Fromm at the left, ramrod straight, is Fromm’s ADC, Claus Graf Schenk von Stauffenberg
  • 141. 20 juli--a bomb bursts during Hitler’s military briefing did they get him?
  • 142. People are saying: Lieber ein Ende mit Schrecken als ein Schrecken ohne Ende! Better ‘an end with horror’ than ‘horror without end’!