Greece session 4 Sparta & Athens
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Greece session 4 Sparta & Athens

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This session contrasts the two best known Greek poleis on the eve of the fifth century BC.

This session contrasts the two best known Greek poleis on the eve of the fifth century BC.

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  • 1. ANCIENT GREECE iv-Sparta & Athens
  • 2. ANCIENT GREECE iv-Sparta & Athens
  • 3. τέτταρες τέτταρα δ´Τό Τέταρον Μάθηµα
  • 4. PRINCIPAL TOPICSI. Sparta; The Way of WarII. αγωγη (agōgē); School of the SoldierIII. Rise of StatismIV. Athens; The Light of ReasonV. Social HistoryVI. Democracy
  • 5. I. SPARTA THE WAY OF WAR
  • 6. Marble statue of a helmedI. SPARTA THE WAY OF WAR hoplite (5th century BC), Archæological Museum of Sparta, Greece
  • 7. FIRST, A WORD ABOUT NAMESthe Greeks usually referred to these people as Lacedaemonians (Λακεδαιµόνιοι ) In Greek mythology, Lacedaemon was a son of Zeus by the nymph Taygete. He married Sparta, the daughter of Eurotas, by whom he became the father of Amyclas, Eurydice, and Asine. He was king of the country which he named after himself, naming the capital after his wife.the southern part of the Greek peninsula, which Sparta came to dominate wascalled the Peloponnesos (PAY•lo•PO•nay•sose)this “island of Pelops” took its name from Pelops: in Greek mythology, Pelops (Greek Πέλοψ, from pelios: dark; and ops: face, eye), was king of Pisa in the Peloponnesus. He was the founder of the House of Atreus through his son of that name.
  • 8. FIRST, A WORD ABOUT NAMES
  • 9. ORIGINSSpartans, like all Hellenes, claimed divine descent In Greek mythology, Lacedaemon was a son of Zeus by the nymph Taygete.Spartans, like most of the Peloponnesians, spoke Doric Greek, thus claimeddescent from the Dorian invadersbut they also claimed a link to the Achaeans through intermarriagetherefore their foundation mythology dripped testosterone, the conquerors ofHomer’s bronze-clad heroes
  • 10. Homer refers to Sparta as the “hollow land”
  • 11. Homer refers to Sparta as the “hollow land” Hollow Lacedaemon. Site of the Menelaion, the shrine to Helen and Menelaus constructed anciently in the Bronze Age city that stood on the hill of Therapne on the left bank of the Eurotas River overlooking the future site of Dorian Sparta. Across the valley the successive ridges of Mount Taygetus are in evidence.
  • 12. Homer refers to Sparta as the “hollow land”it lies between two mountain ranges,Taygetus (2407 m) and Parnon (1935 m)Sparta, the capital city lies on the right bankof the Eurotas riverto its west is Messenia, the first object ofSparta’s wars of conquestits conquered peoples became the despisedand feared slaves, the helots
  • 13. SPARTAN SOCIETY Σπαρτιάται or Ὅµοιοι wariors the élite about 8,000 (Spartiates) or (Homoioi) (men only)Spartans or peers Περιοἶκοι (Perioikoi) free, but no estimate artisans inferiors those who live available around Εἵλωτες 170,000 to state-owned degraded & (Heílôtes) 224,000 slaves oppressed Helots (total)
  • 14. SPARTIATEShad only two purposes in life: males-(1) train for war (2) wage war Spartiate females-(1) prepare for child birth (2) give birth to superior genetic stockall other normal economic pursuits were performed by the lower classes!their unusual family life, such as it was, will be described lateronly Spartiates could dwell in the city of Spartaeach family also had a kleros (an allotment of agricultural land outside the city)
  • 15. SPARTIATEShad only two purposes in life: males-(1) train for war (2) wage war Spartiate females-(1) prepare for child birth (2) give birth to superior genetic stockall other normal economic pursuits were performed by the lower classes!their unusual family life, such as it was, will be described lateronly Spartiates could dwell in the city of Spartaeach family also had a kleros (an allotment of agricultural land outside the city)
  • 16. PERIOIKOIfree but non-citizens of Laconia, they were part of the Dorian conquerorsof the five Dorian tribes, the Spartans rose to power. the other four tribesbecame the perioikoithey were the craftsmen and conducted what little trade there wasforbidden to live in Sparta, hence, they were were those who “lived around”they could leave Lacedaimon to conduct businessthey had no political rights and could not marry Spartanstheir poleis formed a buffer around Sparta to keep out outside influences
  • 17. PERIOIKOIfree but non-citizens of Laconia, they were part of the Dorian conquerorsof the five Dorian tribes, the Spartans rose to power. the other four tribesbecame the perioikoithey were the craftsmen and conducted what little trade there wasforbidden to live in Sparta, hence, they were were those who “lived around”they could leave Lacedaimon to conduct businessthey had no political rights and could not marry Spartanstheir poleis formed a buffer around Sparta to keep out outside influences
  • 18. HELOTSan unfree group, their status was already disputed in antiquity: according to Critias they were “especially slaves” according to Pollux, their status was “between free men and slaves”tied to the land, they were agricultural labor, assigned to a particular klerosritually mistreated, humiliated and even slaughtered: every autumn, during thekrypteia, they could be killed by a Spartan citizen without fear of repercussionbastards, born of Helot women and Spartan fathers were µόθακες (mothakes), asort of intermediate class. Boys served in the army in inferior roles. Girls wereexposed at birth to die
  • 19. MESSENIAN WARS -8 TH-5 TH C.casus belli-it was said the first battle was initiated because some Messenian men carried off some Spartanwomen praying at a temple. When the Messenians refused to return them, the Spartans invaded Messenia
  • 20. MESSENIAN WARS -8 TH-5 TH C.casus belli-it was said the first battle was initiated because some Messenian men carried off some Spartanwomen praying at a temple. When the Messenians refused to return them, the Spartans invaded Messenia
  • 21. MESSENIAN WARS -8 TH-5 TH C.casus belli-it was said the first battle was initiated because some Messenian men carried off some Spartanwomen praying at a temple. When the Messenians refused to return them, the Spartans invaded Messenia743-724 BC-First Messenian War: after the Dorian invasion the Spartans beganto subjugate the Achaeans living to the west in Messenia. Those Messenianswho didn’t escape to other states were reduced to slavery and called helots685-668 BC-Second Messenian War: about forty years later the helots revoltedwith the aid of the Argives. These Achaeans also hated the Spartan Dorians.After many defeats the Spartans finally prevailed under the leadership of theirleader Tyrtaeus. This experience began the road to militarism
  • 22. MESSENIAN WARS -8 TH-5 TH C.casus belli-it was said the first battle was initiated because some Messenian men carried off some Spartanwomen praying at a temple. When the Messenians refused to return them, the Spartans invaded Messenia743-724 BC-First Messenian War: after the Dorian invasion the Spartans beganto subjugate the Achaeans living to the west in Messenia. Those Messenianswho didn’t escape to other states were reduced to slavery and called helots685-668 BC-Second Messenian War: about forty years later the helots revoltedwith the aid of the Argives. These Achaeans also hated the Spartan Dorians.After many defeats the Spartans finally prevailed under the leadership of theirleader Tyrtaeus. This experience began the road to militarism
  • 23. MESSENIAN WARS -8 TH-5 TH C.casus belli-it was said the first battle was initiated because some Messenian men carried off some Spartanwomen praying at a temple. When the Messenians refused to return them, the Spartans invaded Messenia743-724 BC-First Messenian War: after the Dorian invasion the Spartans beganto subjugate the Achaeans living to the west in Messenia. Those Messenianswho didn’t escape to other states were reduced to slavery and called helots685-668 BC-Second Messenian War: about forty years later the helots revoltedwith the aid of the Argives. These Achaeans also hated the Spartan Dorians.After many defeats the Spartans finally prevailed under the leadership of theirleader Tyrtaeus. This experience began the road to militarism5th c-Third Messenian War-the Pausanias Plot
  • 24. According to Myron of Priene, an anti-Spartan historian of themiddle 3rd century BC:"They assign to the Helots every shameful task leading to disgrace. For theyordained that each one of them must wear a dogskin cap (κυνῆ / kunễ) and wraphimself in skins (διφθέρα / diphthéra) and receive a stipulated number of beatingsevery year regardless of any wrongdoing, so that they would never forget they wereslaves. Moreover, if any exceeded the vigour proper to a slaves condition, theymade death the penalty*; and they allotted a punishment to those controlling themif they failed.”__________*this was to remove potential troublemakers and rebels Wikipedia
  • 25. Sparta was like no other state in the Greek world; like hardly any other state in allof history. This made it the subject of attention and interest, and of unusualadmiration, although not always, throughout the millennia. When people knowabout the Greeks, they know about Sparta. Later political philosophers are struckjust as Plato and Aristotle were by certain things about the Spartan way of life thatmake them take it seriously and admire it. Rousseau was a great admirer of Spartafor a variety of reasons. But one of the things that I dont want you to lose sight of isthat Sparta becomes a slave-holding state like no other Greek state.Now, there was slavery all over the ancient world. There was no society that weknow of in the ancient world that was without slavery and Greece was no different,but there were not very many slaves among the Greek states as a whole. There wascertainly nothing elsewhere like what the Spartans did to their slaves.The Spartan citizens had a system that allowed them to not work in order to live; noother Greek state would have that. To think about Greek slavery in the seventhcentury B.C., remember Hansons reconstruction of the development of the polis.Think about farmers who themselves worked the fields, and are assisted in theirwork in the fields by one or two slaves that they owned. Thats not the Spartansystem. Kagan
  • 26. The Spartan system will be Spartiates at home, training constantly for war, neverworking any fields, never engaging in trade or industry. Others do that for them. Ina small way this begins to resemble slavery as we think of it in the antebellumsouth in the United States, where great armies of slaves are doing all the work andwhere the plantation owners, “the Spartans,” dont do any work at all, but maintaina kind of a military aristocracy.Please dont push that analogy too far and I hope I havent misled you by suggestingit. I do it is because it may help us better understand the Spartans a little.My old colleague who taught history of American slavery, John Blassingame, said tome that when the emancipation came, the slaves were freed and so were the mastersand I think thats a very perceptive thing to say. Those southern plantation ownerswere sitting on a powder keg. Kagan (edited and emphasis added)
  • 27. They were in terror constantly that if everything didnt go just right something likeNat Turners rebellion would take place, and theyd come home and find theirwives and children with their throats cut. They were in constant terror and they hadto live a life that required all sorts of things that they might not have liked to do, inorder to repress the slave population on which they relied. That is what I want tocommunicate.The Spartans, after the two Messenian Wars [743-724 and 685-668 BC], were inconstant fear. I think its not too strong a word to describe the prospect of helotrebellions. The rebels might then be assisted by neighboring states which werejealous of or disliked the Spartans. Thucydides says flat out that thats the key tounderstanding Spartan policy and Spartan thinking. It is their fear of the helots.Most scholars would have accepted that without question; lately, some scholarshave wanted to question it. I must say Im not at all persuaded by the newinterpretations. I do think to understand the Spartans we have to comprehend theircontinuing permanent concern about the helots. Kagan
  • 28. II ΑΓΩΓΗ (AGŌGĒ)SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER
  • 29. II ΑΓΩΓΗ (AGŌGĒ)SCHOOL OF THE SOLDIER
  • 30. LYKOURGOS (LYCURGUS)“HE WHO BRINGS INTO BEING THE WORKS OF A WOLF” a real person? the legendary “lawgiver of Sparta” (c. 800-730 BC) travels and observations the oracle of Delphi his principles: equality (among citizens) ὀµὀιοι (homoioi) military fitness ἁρετή (aretē) austerity ἄσκεσις (askesis); spurning wealth (το πλυτος)
  • 31. Bas-relief of Lycurgus, one of 23 greatlawgivers depicted in the chamber ofthe U.S. House of Representatives.
  • 32. 675-650 Lycurgus received the great rhetra (Μεγάλη Ῥήτρα,“great saying or proclamation”)-the charter of aristocratic“republican” government at Sparta-from the oracle of Apollo atDelphi, which recognized the dual kingship, with each kingselected from the prominent families of Agiads andEurypontids, and a 30 member council, the Gerousia whichincluded the 2 kings and 28 elders. The right of ratificationresided with the ecclesia attended by all male citizens;citizenship requirements for Spartiatai included possession ofa kleros of public land, membership in one of the militarymesses (syssitia) and successful completion of the Spartanagogē…. Donald Kagan, class notes handout
  • 33. The Great Rhetra KEY Command Legislate Oversight Obedience
  • 34. LYCURGUS’ INSTITUTIONSsyssitia-Spartiates (Spartan citizens) are required to take their meals in militarymesses rather than with their familiesagogē-the system of military education, successful completion becomes arequirement for citizenshipkleros-this unit of public land was assigned to each male head of household. Itwas worked by a helot labor force. The Spartiatos was thus freed to practice hismilitary duties
  • 35. each Spartiate child is examined at birth by the state inspectors from his villageGerousia. Those boys or girls with any sort of birth deficiency are exposed to dieboys remain at home until age seven. Then they enter the military system andlive in barracks. They live in “packs” or “herds;” their new families. Theireducation is supervised by the “boy herder,” and carried out by the upper classboysages 7-12-they are taught privation and stealth
  • 36. each Spartiate child is examined at birth by the state inspectors from his villageGerousia. Those boys or girls with any sort of birth deficiency are exposed to dieboys remain at home until age seven. Then they enter the military system andlive in barracks. They live in “packs” or “herds;” their new families. Theireducation is supervised by the “boy herder,” and carried out by the upper classboysages 7-12-they are taught privation and stealth
  • 37. each Spartiate child is examined at birth by the state inspectors from his villageGerousia. Those boys or girls with any sort of birth deficiency are exposed to dieboys remain at home until age seven. Then they enter the military system andlive in barracks. They live in “packs” or “herds;” their new families. Theireducation is supervised by the “boy herder,” and carried out by the upper classboysages 7-12-they are taught privation and stealthages 12-19-more specifically military skills, graduates become reserve armyages 19-30-active army, then finally, marriage; but syssitia with their militaryunit continues
  • 38. “MENTORING”after puberty, each boy entered into a close relationship with an older maleSpartiate, his erotes (lover)he was then called the eromenos (beloved)the Athenian Xenophon, who spent many years in Sparta, was at pains to denythat this was a homosexual relationshipKagan’s response--”nonsense”even after the eromentos graduated and became an erotes himself, he retained alifelong relationship with his erotesthis constitutes the ultimate military male bonding and unit cohesion
  • 39. Degas, “Young Spartans Exercising” (1860) “In this painting, Lycurgus standsamong the mothers in the group of adults in back. Degas stated that his source forhis interpretation was Plutarch. This painting reveals the power of the utopian,naturalistic view of Sparta that was perpetuated in the modern era.--Pomeroy & al.Now, up to now, Ive been talking about men, but its important to talk aboutSpartan women too, because they were different from other Greek women, just asthe men were different. Just to make that clear, let me make it plain that the restof the Greeks treated women very, very differently from men, and one thing thatwas very striking and the difference was that the men engaged in physical exercise,especially in these competitions that were part of the great games, and those werealways carried out in the nude. Women did not engage in these sports activitiesand it would have been the greatest conceivable shame for a woman to be seen inthe nude, it was just absolutely unthinkable for the ordinary Greeks. But theSpartans do things their own way, and their women engage in dancing andathletics, and in competition and they did so in the nude, just as the boys did, andso they were not shut away from the boys all the time in the way that Greek girlswere kept away from the boys. Donald Kagan, lecture transcript, op. cit.
  • 40. Now, up to now, Ive been talking about men, but its important to talk aboutSpartan women too, because they were different from other Greek women, just asthe men were different. Just to make that clear, let me make it plain that the restof the Greeks treated women very, very differently from men, and one thing thatwas very striking and the difference was that the men engaged in physical exercise,especially in these competitions that were part of the great games, and those werealways carried out in the nude. Women did not engage in these sports activitiesand it would have been the greatest conceivable shame for a woman to be seen inthe nude, it was just absolutely unthinkable for the ordinary Greeks. But theSpartans do things their own way, and their women engage in dancing andathletics, and in competition and they did so in the nude, just as the boys did, andso they were not shut away from the boys all the time in the way that Greek girlswere kept away from the boys. Donald Kagan, lecture transcript, op. cit.
  • 41. PLUTARCH’S, SAYINGS OF SPARTANWOMENa Spartan mother burying her son received condolences from an old woman whocommented on her bad luck. “No, by the heavens, but rather good luck, for I borehim so that he could die for Sparta, and this is precisely what has happened.”another woman,seeing her son coming toward her after a battle and hearing fromhim that everyone else had died, picked up a tile and, hurling it at him, struck himdead, saying “And so they sent you to tell us the bad news?” quoted in Pomeroy & al., Ancient Greece, pp. 177-178
  • 42. ἢ τὰν ἢ ἐπὶ τᾶς (eh tan eh epi tas)Plutarch reported that Spartan mothers parting words to theirsons were “[Come home] either [with] it (your shield) or on it.”
  • 43. III. RISE OF STATISM
  • 44. III. RISE OF STATISM
  • 45. THE KRYPTEIAat age twenty, the best graduates of the agogē are offered the chance to choose this éliteorganization for their active military servicea sort of proto-SS, these secret police had the primary responsibility for repressing thehelots, sometimes with public punishmentsThe kryptes were also sent out into the countryside with only a knife to survive on theirskills and cunning with the instructions to kill any helot they encountered at night and totake any food they needed--PlutarchKrypteia members stalked the helot villages and surrounding countryside, spying on theservile population. Their mission was to root-out potential sedition. Troublesome helotscould be summarily executed
  • 46. THE STATE UNDERMINES THE FAMILYwe’ve already noted how euthanizing “unfit” children was a state decisionalthough Spartiates could marry after age twenty in order to produce future soldiers,many measures were designed to subordinate the family to the state: age 20-30 Spartiates had to steal away to have marital relations even after age 30, meals were taken with the 15 man syssition; “unit cohesion” trumped family life every possible cultural norm was designed to place loyalty to the state above self or familyKagan calls Sparta “a polis on steroids” suggests it be written P*O*L*I*S
  • 47. MODERN VIEWS ONSPARTAAs late as the twentieth century, critics of western capitalist society have idealized theSpartans as highly virtuous, patriotic people produced by a noncapitalistic society. Inrecent years, however, some who cherish individual freedom and social mobility havecome to see in Sparta a forerunner of totalitarian regimes such as Nazi Germany, andin fact some Nazis did identify with Sparta. Furthermore the blueprint for twentieth-century communism had many affinities with the Spartan utopia. Nevertheless eventoday, the old preference for Sparta has reappeared in the works of some feministtheorists, who have noted that the lives of women in Sparta appear to have been moreconducive to good health, enjoyable, and in many ways superior to those of women indemocratic Athens.Although Athens was no more a typical Greek polis than was Sparta, examiningAthens and Sparta together is a useful way of understanding the ancient Greek viewof life….It is to Athens that we now turn. Pomeroy & al., Ancient Greece, p. 178
  • 48. IV. ATHENS: THELIGHT OF REASON
  • 49. IV. ATHENS: THELIGHT OF REASON “We are lovers of wisdom, but without weakness.”--Pericles
  • 50. δεί τὰ ταῦτα παθείν ‘ινα σοφίαν ἔχοµενIt is necessary to suffer these things in order that we attain wisdom --my Greek teacher’s response when I complained about the difficulty of Greek
  • 51. Pericles’ funeral oration for the Athenian war dead 430 BC“… in the matter of education, whereas [the Spartans] from early youth are always undergoing laboriousexercises which are to make them brave, we live at ease, and yet are equally ready to face the perils which theyface. For we are lovers of the beautiful in our tastes and our strength lies, in our opinion, not in deliberationand discussion, but that knowledge which is gained by discussion preparatory to action.Pericles rises to crescendo in his praise of Athens, "In short, I say that as a city we are the school of Hellas;while I doubt if the world can produce a man, who where he has only himself to depend upon, is equal to somany emergencies, and graced by so happy a versatility as the Athenian….For we have a peculiar power ofthinking before we act, and of acting, too, whereas other men are courageous from ignorance but hesitateupon reflection. And they are surely to be esteemed the bravest spirits who, having the clearest sense both ofthe pains and pleasures of life, do not on that account shrink from danger." Jowett translation, 1888
  • 52. ...education in Athens was left entirely to individual enterprise. After their sixth yearthe [wealthy] boys were put in the charge of a paidagogos, who was usually an oldslave. He had no responsibility for their education; his function was to accompanythem to school and generally to keep watch over them. On a familiar Greek vasepainting is a representation of one of these old men carrying the lyre of his master’sson as the latter makes his way to school. Everyday Life in Ancient Times, p. 229
  • 53. We also see scrolls of papyrus, which was the only paper the Greeksknew….Generally, however, papyrus was used sparingly, since it was expensive. Nearlyall the work was done on wax tablets.Reading and writing were taught first. With them came some work in numbers, but theGreeks used letters of the alphabet for their numerical system, and most simplemathematical calculations were performed on an abacus. [They were invented inMesopotamia and arrived in Greece in the 5th century--Wikipedia] Everyday Life in Ancient Times, p. 229
  • 54. We also see scrolls of papyrus, which was the only paper the Greeksknew….Generally, however, papyrus was used sparingly, since it was expensive. Nearlyall the work was done on wax tablets.Reading and writing were taught first. With them came some work in numbers, but theGreeks used letters of the alphabet for their numerical system, and most simplemathematical calculations were performed on an abacus. [They were invented inMesopotamia and arrived in Greece in the 5th century--Wikipedia] Everyday Life in Ancient Times, p. 229
  • 55. Languages, save native Greek, were not taught. The principal textbookfrom earliest times was Homer, and all young Greeks knew their Iliad andOdyssey, many of them by heart. Such subjects as natural science,geography, and history formed part of a higher stage of education and weregenerally taught in the philosophical surroundings of the academies.As early as the 5th century some geometry was added to the usualcurriculum, although Socrates thought it should be limited to what wasstrictly necessary.[Rhetoric was taught to those with political ambitions by private tutorscalled sophists] Everyday Life in Ancient Times, p. 229
  • 56. Languages, save native Greek, were not taught. The principal textbookfrom earliest times was Homer, and all young Greeks knew their Iliad andOdyssey, many of them by heart. Such subjects as natural science,geography, and history formed part of a higher stage of education and weregenerally taught in the philosophical surroundings of the academies.As early as the 5th century some geometry was added to the usualcurriculum, although Socrates thought it should be limited to what wasstrictly necessary.[Rhetoric was taught to those with political ambitions by private tutorscalled sophists] Everyday Life in Ancient Times, p. 229
  • 57. V. SOCIAL HISTORY
  • 58. V. SOCIAL HISTORY
  • 59. FROM EARLIEST TIMES ATTICA WASORGANIZED INTOφυλη (phylē, tribe) • originally four, named after mythical founder herosφρατρια (phratria, • these aristocratic strongholds werephratry, that is religious as well as political“brotherhood” or “kinfolk” organizationsγενος (genos, clan or • also, originally, only the aristocratsextended family were considered to have genosοικος (oikos, household) • our word economics comes from the Greek “rules for the household”
  • 60. The sea traffic of Athens must have been rapidly growing in the first half ofthe seventh century. It is easy to see how the active participation of Athensin trade began to undermine the aristocracy of birth, by introducing a newstandard of social distinction. The nobles engaged in mercantile commercewith various success, some becoming richer, and others poorer; and theindustrial folk increased in wealth and importance. The result wouldultimately be that wealth would assert itself as well as birth, both sociallyand politically; and in the second half of the seventh century we find that,though the aristocracy has not been fully replaced...all the conditions arepresent for such a transformation. J.B. Bury, A History of Greece, p. 167
  • 61. ORIGINAL THREE CLASSES OFFREEDMENEupatridai=the aristocracy, literally “well fathered.” They called themselves hoiagathoi (the good), others, hoi kakoi (the bad). There was no ennobling.Aristocracy could only be inheritedGeorgoi=land-owning peasant farmers. Landless agricultural workers(hektemoroi, sixth-parters) their fee of the crops which their labor produced,paid to the land ownerDemiurgoi=the artisans and merchants who lived in Athens or the surroundingvillages. Perhaps, “those who made stuff” (dēmiourgos ‘craftsman,’ from dēmios‘public’ (from dēmos ‘people’) + -ergos ‘working.’)
  • 62. LATER FOUR CLASSES BY WEALTHPentacosiomedimnoi=those large proprietors whose income reached fivehundred medimnoi (measures) of grain at a time when oil and wine had notbeen much cultivated, i.e., the landed aristocracy, could serve as strategoiHippés=those whose produce equalled <300, but>500 measures. Those gentrywho could maintain a horse (hippos) and fight as cavalry in warZeugitai=those whose income was =200 medimnoi. These yeomen farmerswere those who could support a pair of oxen (zugon=yoke), hoplitaiThetes= 199 or <manual workers or sharecroppers, in war, servants or rowers according to the Solon reforms, early sixth century
  • 63. OTHERSwomen and children=Attic society, like the rest of the ancient world (and mostof mankind’s [sic] experience thereafter) was patriarchal.metoikoi=the metics were resident aliens. They, like women and male childrenunder twenty, all non-citizens, could not participate in the assembly (ἐκκλησία-ekklēsia)douloi=the slaves. Household slavery had existed since time immemorial, butthe seventh century advance in commerce and industry led to a slave trade fromAsia Minor, Thrace and the Black Sea coast to satisfy the demand for increasedlabor. No data exist for the early years, but: Between 317 BC and 307 BC, the tyrant Demetrius Phalereus ordered a general census of Attica, which arrived at the following figures: 21,000 citizens, 10,000 metics and 400,000 slaves.--Wiki
  • 64. Claof dof bCoi
  • 65. Classical Athens is renowned for being the birthplaceof democracy. Yet it also holds the dubious distinctionof being the first society with large numbers of slaves.Coincidence? Probably not, as Paul Cartledge explains
  • 66. ...any human being that by nature (κατά φῦσις) belongs not to himself but toanother is by nature a slave.But is there anyone thus intended by nature to be a slave, and for whom sucha condition is expedient and right, or rather is not all slavery a violation ofnature?There is no difficulty in answering this question, on the grounds both ofreason and of fact. For that some should rule and others be ruled is a thingnot only necessary, but expedient; from the hour of their birth some aremarked out for subjection, others for rule. [emphasis added, jbp] Aristotle, Politics, bk i, 4-6, Benjamin Jowett, trans. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1928
  • 67. VI. DEMOCRACY
  • 68. VI. DEMOCRACY
  • 69. DRACŌ- ( Δράκων, Drakōn) (circa 7th century BC)RULE OF LAWthe first Athenian legislator. Prior to this, all law was customary, i.e., whateverthe local basileis said they remembered it was. There were no written statutes39th Olympiad (621 or 20 BC)--a member of the aristocratic Council (Βουλή-Bou•LAY), he replaced the prevailing system of oral law and blood feud by awritten code to be enforced only by a courtthe example of murder, a crime with religious overtones, believed to pollute thepolishis punishments were so strict that the code was said to be written in bloodrather than ink
  • 70. SOLŌN- ( Σόλων, c. 638 BC – 558 BC ) statesman, lawmaker, and poet...often credited with having laid the foundations for Athenian democracy early sixth century-to revise or abolish the older laws of Draco, all debts were abolished and all debt-slaves were freed. The status of the hectemoroi (the "one- sixth workers"), who farmed in an early form of share cropping , was also abolished. These reforms were known as the Seisachtheia, the "shaking-off of burdens." reduced the power of the old aristocracy by making wealth rather than birth a criterion for holding political positions, a system called timokratia orbust titled Solon, National Museum, Naples Timocracy
  • 71. SOLON- THE POET AND REFORMERπολλοὶ γὰρ πλουτεῦσι κακοί, ἀγαθοὶ δὲ πένονται:ἀλλ ἡµεῖς αὐτοῖς οὐ διαµειψόµεθατῆς ἀρετῆς τὸν πλοῦτον: ἐπεὶ τὸ µὲν ἔµπεδον αἰεί,χρήµατα δ ἀνθρώπων ἄλλοτε ἄλλος ἔχει.Some wicked men are rich, some good are poor;We will not change our virtue for their store:Virtues a thing that none can take away,But money changes owners all the dayHere translated by the English poet JohnDryden, Solons words define a moral highground where differences between rich andpoor can be reconciled or maybe just ignored.His poetry indicates that he attempted to usehis extraordinary legislative powers toestablish a peaceful settlement between thecountrys rival factions. Wikipedia Solon, depicted as a medieval scholar in the Nuremberg Chronicle
  • 72. Solon’s poems, written around the beginning of the sixth century,constitute our earliest direct [primary source] evidence forAthenian society at a crucial time in its development. [Kagan callsSolon “the first historical person”] The histories of Herodotus andThucydides, though dealing mainly with fifth century events, alsocontain some valuable information about early Athens. Pomeroy & al., Ancient Greece, p. 181
  • 73. Another thing that [Solon] did — Im going to talk aboutcitizenship for a moment; the Greek poleis were very jealous oftheir citizenship. Their theory of the polis was that all citizens werethe descendants of the original founders of the city. In otherwords, everybody in Athens was a relative of some kind.Of course it wasnt true; certainly in Athens we know there weremany immigrants .... But the fact remains that that was the[widespread belief], and the notion of this — the power, thecentrality of the concept of polis to them is something we need tounderstand, and they were jealous of it and selfish with it. This wasnot something they would simply allow people to acquire, if theywanted it. This place is us and its not them and we dont makepeople citizens, .... To be a citizen of Athens in those days, you hadto have a father who was a citizen of Athens; nothing else woulddo .... Kagan
  • 74. But Solon changed that; Solon offered citizenship to individualswho came to Athens to settle and could show that they had avaluable skill, a valuable craft and the results were that Athenswould become in the decades following Solon, a great center forthe manufacturing of a variety of things; pottery is what[remains], and painted pottery is a great part of the Atheniantradition, but sculpture also and all kinds of things that weprobably dont have, because they would have been destroyed overtime. But the idea was, if you were a skilled craftsman, you couldcome to Athens. Before Solon, anybody who came to Athens, couldstay, could make themselves a permanent resident, but he wouldalways be what the Greeks called a metoikos, we say in English ametic, meaning a resident alien, never to be a citizen….Solon arranged for them to become Athenian citizens...it turnedout to be one of those things that Solon instituted that would havelong range consequences, helpful to the Athenian state. Kagan
  • 75. But Solon changed that; Solon offered citizenship to individualswho came to Athens to settle and could show that they had avaluable skill, a valuable craft and the results were that Athenswould become in the decades following Solon, a great center forthe manufacturing of a variety of things; pottery is what[remains], and painted pottery is a great part of the Atheniantradition, but sculpture also and all kinds of things that weprobably dont have, because they would have been destroyed overtime. But the idea was, if you were a skilled craftsman, you couldcome to Athens. Before Solon, anybody who came to Athens, couldstay, could make themselves a permanent resident, but he wouldalways be what the Greeks called a metoikos, we say in English ametic, meaning a resident alien, never to be a citizen….Solon arranged for them to become Athenian citizens...it turnedout to be one of those things that Solon instituted that would havelong range consequences, helpful to the Athenian state. Kagan
  • 76. But Solon changed that; Solon offered citizenship to individualswho came to Athens to settle and could show that they had avaluable skill, a valuable craft and the results were that Athenswould become in the decades following Solon, a great center forthe manufacturing of a variety of things; pottery is what[remains], and painted pottery is a great part of the Atheniantradition, but sculpture also and all kinds of things that weprobably dont have, because they would have been destroyed overtime. But the idea was, if you were a skilled craftsman, you couldcome to Athens. Before Solon, anybody who came to Athens, couldstay, could make themselves a permanent resident, but he wouldalways be what the Greeks called a metoikos, we say in English ametic, meaning a resident alien, never to be a citizen….Solon arranged for them to become Athenian citizens...it turnedout to be one of those things that Solon instituted that would havelong range consequences, helpful to the Athenian state. Kagan
  • 77. But Solon changed that; Solon offered citizenship to individualswho came to Athens to settle and could show that they had avaluable skill, a valuable craft and the results were that Athenswould become in the decades following Solon, a great center forthe manufacturing of a variety of things; pottery is what[remains], and painted pottery is a great part of the Atheniantradition, but sculpture also and all kinds of things that weprobably dont have, because they would have been destroyed overtime. But the idea was, if you were a skilled craftsman, you couldcome to Athens. Before Solon, anybody who came to Athens, couldstay, could make themselves a permanent resident, but he wouldalways be what the Greeks called a metoikos, we say in English ametic, meaning a resident alien, never to be a citizen….Solon arranged for them to become Athenian citizens...it turnedout to be one of those things that Solon instituted that would havelong range consequences, helpful to the Athenian state. Kagan
  • 78. But Solon changed that; Solon offered citizenship to individualswho came to Athens to settle and could show that they had avaluable skill, a valuable craft and the results were that Athenswould become in the decades following Solon, a great center forthe manufacturing of a variety of things; pottery is what[remains], and painted pottery is a great part of the Atheniantradition, but sculpture also and all kinds of things that weprobably dont have, because they would have been destroyed overtime. But the idea was, if you were a skilled craftsman, you couldcome to Athens. Before Solon, anybody who came to Athens, couldstay, could make themselves a permanent resident, but he wouldalways be what the Greeks called a metoikos, we say in English ametic, meaning a resident alien, never to be a citizen….Solon arranged for them to become Athenian citizens...it turnedout to be one of those things that Solon instituted that would havelong range consequences, helpful to the Athenian state. Kagan
  • 79. Well, brilliant, marvelous Solon was so clever he realized thatwhen youre moderate, the wonderful achievement of a moderateperson is that everybody is dissatisfied, because the guys on thatend are unhappy and the guys [on the other] end are unhappy, andso he knew that there would be immediate efforts to overthrowwhat he had done. So, one of his stipulations was that theAthenians would have to leave his laws unchanged for ten years,and he also knew that his own life would be extremelyuncomfortable hanging around Athens while everybody came andsaid, what the hell did you do Solon? So, he left town and went onhis travels for ten years after that.Well, it saved him a lot of grief, but it didnt save his legislation,because there was tremendous strife in Athens after the year ofSolons archonship, indeed, something resembling chaos.... Kagan
  • 80. Anarchy (from Greek: ἀναρχίᾱ anarchíā) no archon, no leader/leadershipThey were technically years of anarchy; that is to say, there wasso much dispute and conflict in Athens that they were unable toelect the nine archons...that was how serious the conflictwas....localism, regionalism was very powerful in Attica and it wasregionalism that was a large part of the problem in this period.Important figures in the aristocracy from different parts of Attica,each sought to make himself the dominant force in Atheniansociety, and to bring about changes that were satisfactory to [him],but they ran into the fact that they had competition....There werethree factions that were identified...by the Athenians and they allstruggled.... Kagan
  • 81. THE FACTIONSPedieis - Lycurgus [not to be confused with the Spartan] was the leader of the Pedieis. They werethe basileis who resided on the fertile plains. These landowners could grow grain, giving themleverage during the food shortage which had resulted from the decades-long war with Megara(second quarter of the 6th century). These richest barons wanted the total repeal of Solon’s reforms--reactionaries
  • 82. THE FACTIONSPedieis - Lycurgus [not to be confused with the Spartan] was the leader of the Pedieis. They werethe basileis who resided on the fertile plains. These landowners could grow grain, giving themleverage during the food shortage which had resulted from the decades-long war with Megara(second quarter of the 6th century). These richest barons wanted the total repeal of Solon’s reforms--reactionaries
  • 83. THE FACTIONSPedieis - Lycurgus [not to be confused with the Spartan] led the Pedieis, referring to the basileiswho resided on the fertile plains. These landowners could grow grain, giving them leverage duringthe food shortage which had resulted from the decades-long war with Megara (second quarter of the6th century). These richest barons wanted the total repeal of Solon’s reforms--reactionariesParalioi - Paralioi referred to the aristocrats living along the coast. Led by Megacles, anAlcmaeonid, the Paralioi party was not as strong as the Pedieis primarily because they did not havethe same ability to produce grain as did the plainsmen. With the Megarans patrolling the sea, muchof the import/export possibilities were limited. They were more open to Solon’s reforms
  • 84. THE FACTIONSPedieis - Lycurgus [not to be confused with the Spartan] led the Pedieis, referring to the basileiswho resided on the fertile plains. These landowners could grow grain, giving them leverage duringthe food shortage which had resulted from the decades-long war with Megara (second quarter of the6th century). These richest barons wanted the total repeal of Solon’s reforms--reactionariesParalioi - Paralioi referred to the aristocrats living along the coast. Led by Megacles, anAlcmaeonid, the Paralioi party was not as strong as the Pedieis primarily because they did not havethe same ability to produce grain as did the plainsmen. With the Megarans patrolling the sea, muchof the import/export possibilities were limited. They were more open to Solon’s reforms
  • 85. THE FACTIONSPedieis - Lycurgus [not to be confused with the Spartan] led the Pedieis, referring to the basileiswho resided on the fertile plains. These landowners could grow grain, giving them leverage duringthe food shortage which had resulted from the decades-long war with Megara (second quarter of the6th century). These richest barons wanted the total repeal of Solon’s reforms--reactionariesParalioi - Paralioi referred to the aristocrats living along the coast. Led by Megacles, anAlcmaeonid, the Paralioi party was not as strong as the Pedieis primarily because they did not havethe same ability to produce grain as did the plainsmen. With the Megarans patrolling the sea, muchof the import/export possibilities were limited. They were more open to Solon’s reformsHyperakrioi-The last group...dwelled primarily in the hills and were by far the poorest of theAthenian population. Their only products that could be bartered were items like honey and wool.Peisistratos [δεµοτατότικος-the most democratic] organized them into the Hyperakrioi, or hilldwellers. This party was grossly outnumbered by the Plain party (even when combined with theCoastal party)
  • 86. THE FACTIONSPedieis - Lycurgus [not to be confused with the Spartan] led the Pedieis, referring to the basileiswho resided on the fertile plains. These landowners could grow grain, giving them leverage duringthe food shortage which had resulted from the decades-long war with Megara (second quarter of the6th century). These richest barons wanted the total repeal of Solon’s reforms--reactionariesParalioi - Paralioi referred to the aristocrats living along the coast. Led by Megacles, anAlcmaeonid, the Paralioi party was not as strong as the Pedieis primarily because they did not havethe same ability to produce grain as did the plainsmen. With the Megarans patrolling the sea, muchof the import/export possibilities were limited. They were more open to Solon’s reformsHyperakrioi-The last group...dwelled primarily in the hills and were by far the poorest of theAthenian population. Their only products that could be bartered were items like honey and wool.Peisistratos [δεµοτατότικος-the most democratic] organized them into the Hyperakrioi, or hilldwellers. This party was grossly outnumbered by the Plain party (even when combined with theCoastal party)
  • 87. THE FACTIONSPedieis - Lycurgus [not to be confused with the Spartan] led the Pedieis, referring to the basileiswho resided on the fertile plains. These landowners could grow grain, giving them leverage duringthe food shortage which had resulted from the decades-long war with Megara (second quarter of the6th century). These richest barons wanted the total repeal of Solon’s reforms--reactionariesParalioi - Paralioi referred to the aristocrats living along the coast. Led by Megacles, anAlcmaeonid, the Paralioi party was not as strong as the Pedieis primarily because they did not havethe same ability to produce grain as did the plainsmen. With the Megarans patrolling the sea, muchof the import/export possibilities were limited. They were more open to Solon’s reformsHyperakrioi-The last group...dwelled primarily in the hills and were by far the poorest of theAthenian population. Their only products that could be bartered were items like honey and wool.Peisistratos [δεµοτατότικος-the most democratic] organized them into the Hyperakrioi, or hilldwellers. This party was grossly outnumbered by the Plain party (even when combined with theCoastal party)
  • 88. PEISISTRATOS- ( Πεισίστρατος, f. 561 BC – 528/27 BC ) The Athenian FDR 565-heroic general in the Megaran War, wounded, asked for a bodyguard to protect him from his enemies 561 & 556-he twice attempted to become a tyrant in the chaos following the Solonian reforms, the second time with the aid of Megacles and the Paralioi faction
  • 89. PEISISTRATOS- ( Πεισίστρατος, f. 561 BC – 528/27 BC ) The Athenian FDR 565-heroic general in the Megaran War, wounded, asked for a bodyguard to protect him from his enemies 561 & 556-he twice attempted to become a tyrant in the chaos following the Solonian reforms, the second time with the aid of Megacles and the Paralioi faction Many of the poleis around Athens had replaced their aristocracies or oligarchies with tyrants: Sicyon, Corinth, Megarariding into Athens with “Athena”
  • 90. PEISISTRATOS- ( Πεισίστρατος, f. 561 BC – 528/27 BC ) The Athenian FDR 565-heroic general in the Megaran War, wounded, asked for a bodyguard to protect him from his enemies 561 & 556-he twice attempted to become a tyrant in the chaos following the Solonian reforms, the second time with the aid of Megacles and the Paralioi faction Many of the poleis around Athens had replaced their aristocracies or oligarchies with tyrants: Sicyon, Corinth, Megara [date uncertain]-after two periods of exile, he returned with a body of mercenaries and kept the power for the remainder of his life a different sort of tyrant, he used his power to aid the poorestriding into Athens with “Athena” farmers and hoplites and made the legal system more accessible. His reign was later viewed as a “golden age”
  • 91. [But one of his least popular “reforms” was a 5% tax--the 1st of its kind]Aristotle tells this story, one day Peisistratus was traveling aroundthe countryside of Attica, as I guess he sometimes did, and he wentup on the slopes of Mount Hymettus, not too far from the city ofAthens. You can go up there today, the notion of anybody farmingon that mountain is totally incredible.... So anyway, he goes up tothis farmer and he says, "Say farmer what do you grow on yourfarm?" The farmer, you have to imagine a gnarled old mean, nastyold guy saying, "On my farm I grow rocks and Peisistratus iswelcome to his five percent."Well, what did Peisistratus say, off with his head or send him on tothe moon? He said, “well, arent you a cute little fellow. I herebydeclare your farm exempt from taxes forever”, and it became afamous thing, the tax free farm. It shows up in a Byzantineencyclopedia; that story is still being told. So, you got a very specialkind of tyrant here. Kagan
  • 92. Peisistratos enacted a popular program to beautify Athens andpromote the arts. He minted coins with Athenas symbol (theowl).... Under his rule were introduced two new forms of poetry,the dithyramb and tragic drama, and the era also saw growth intheater, arts and sculpture. He commissioned the permanentcopying and archiving of Homers two epic poems, the Iliad andthe Odyssey, and the canon of Homeric works is said to derivefrom this particular archiving. Wikipedia
  • 93. Hippias of Athens (Ancient Greek: Ἱππίας ὁ Ἀθηναῖος) was oneof the sons of Peisistratus, and was tyrant of Athens in the 6thcentury BC.Hippias succeeded Peisistratus in 527 BC, and in 525 BC heintroduced a new system of coinage in Athens. His brotherHipparchus, who may have ruled jointly with him, was murdered byHarmodius and Aristogeiton (the Tyrannicides) in 514 BC. Hippiasexecuted the Tyrannicides and became a bitter and cruel ruler. Wikipedia
  • 94. Harmodius and Aristogeton, the tyrannicides, kill Hipparchos in 514 BC but fail to kill his brother, the tyrant Hippias
  • 95. The Alcmaeonidae family, who Peisistratus had exiled in 546 BC, had built a new temple atDelphi, then bribed the priestess to command the Spartans to help them overthrowHippias. A Spartan force was sent to help, but Hippias and his family, the Pisistratidae,allied themselves with Cineas of Thessaly, and the Spartans and Alcmaeonidae were at firstdefeated.A second attempt, led by Cleomenes I of Sparta, successfully entered Athens and trappedHippias on the Acropolis. They also took the Pisistratidae children hostage, and Hippiaswas forced to leave Athens in order to have them returned safely. He was expelled fromAthens in 510. Shortly before the end of his rule, he married his daughter, Archedike, toAiantides, son of Hippoklos, the tyrant of Lampsakos, to facilitate his access to [thePersian Great King] Darius court at Susa.The Spartans later thought that a free, democratic Athens would be dangerous to Spartanpower, and attempted to recall Hippias and reestablish the tyranny. Hippias had fled toPersia, and the Persians threatened to attack Athens if they did not accept Hippias;nevertheless the Athenians preferred to remain democratic despite the danger from Persia.Soon after this, the Ionian Revolt began. It was put down in 494 BC, but Darius I of Persiawas intent on punishing Athens for their role in the revolt. In 490 BC Hippias, still in theservice of the Persians, led Darius to Marathon, Greece. WikipediaBut that’s another story...
  • 96. CLEISTHENES- ( Κλεισθενης, f. late sixth century)son of Megacles, who had first aided Peisistratos,then fallen out with him and been exiled511/10-with help from the Alcmaeonidae(Cleisthenes genos, "clan"), he was responsible foroverthrowing Hippias, the tyrant son ofPisistratus. After the collapse of Hippias tyranny,Isagoras and Cleisthenes were rivals for power,but Isagoras won the upper hand by appealing tothe Spartan king Cleomenes I to help him expelCleisthenes.508/7-when Isagoras overplayed his hand he wasoverthrown and Cleisthenes began his reforms Cleisthenes is known as "the father of Athenian democracy". Modern bust, on view at the Ohio Statehouse, Columbus, Ohio
  • 97. Now, this requires that they establish a new constitution, because theyre going tohave a regime the like of which no one had ever seen before. But in trying tounderstand this constitution and its not easy — the ancient sources tell us a lotabout it, but its not perfectly clear whats in everybodys mind as they do whatthey do. Motives and purposes are not clear as youll see in a moment. Butanyway, what I want you to fix on is this.Dont imagine that whats taking place here is even anything like the AmericanConstitutional Convention in Philadelphia, where a bunch of delegates have beenselected from here and there, and they all sit and argue with each other over thehot summer and finally come up with various plans. Its better to think of theFrench Revolution, think of the convention where the sort of the mass of thepeople have gained control of the situation, after driving the king from his throne,and after really putting aside a more aristocratic council that came before it, andthey sit down with radical people running around, ready to kill people. This isthe outfit thats going to end up killing the king and his queen, and all thearistocrats they can lay their hands on. In other words, we are in a revolutionarysituation, and force and terror are in the air. Everybody is fully aware of thedanger of this and that, and of some dangers that probably dont even exist. Kagan
  • 98. Now, this requires that they establish a new constitution, because theyre going to François Antoine de Boissy dAnglashave a regime the like of which no one( had5ever1seen8before. s a in trying h 1 7 6 – 8 2 ) w a But F r e n c tounderstand this constitution and its not easy — the ancient sources tell us a lotabout it, but its not perfectly clear whats in everybodys mind as they doFirst statesman of the Revolution, whatthey do. Motives and purposes are notRepublic and Empire a moment. But clear as youll see inanyway, what I want you to fix on is this. On the Jacobin journée of 1st Prairial 1795, he was presiding overDont imagine that whats taking place here Convention, and like the American the is even anything remained in hisConstitutional Convention in Philadelphia, where a bunch of delegates have been post despite insults and menaces ofselected from here and there, and they all sit and argue with each other over thehot summer and finally come up with various plans. Its When to think of the the insurgents. better the head of the deputy, Jean Féraud, wasFrench Revolution, think of the convention where the sort of the mass of thepeople have gained control of the situation, after driving him on from his throne, presented to the king the end of aand after really putting aside a more aristocratic council that came before it, and pike, he saluted it impassively.they sit down with radical people running around, ready to kill people. This isthe outfit thats going to end up killing the king and his queen, and all thearistocrats they can lay their hands on. In other words, we are in a revolutionarysituation, and force and terror are in the air. Everybody is fully aware of thedanger of this and that, and of some dangers that probably dont even exist. Kagan
  • 99. Now, this requires that they establish a new constitution, because theyre going to François Antoine de Boissy dAnglashave a regime the like of which no one( had5ever1seen8before. s a in trying h 1 7 6 – 8 2 ) w a But F r e n c tounderstand this constitution and its not easy — the ancient sources tell us a lotabout it, but its not perfectly clear whats in everybodys mind as they doFirst statesman of the Revolution, whatthey do. Motives and purposes are notRepublic and Empire a moment. But clear as youll see inanyway, what I want you to fix on is this. On the Jacobin journée of 1st Prairial 1795, he was presiding overDont imagine that whats taking place here Convention, and like the American the is even anything remained in hisConstitutional Convention in Philadelphia, where a bunch of delegates have been post despite insults and menaces ofselected from here and there, and they all sit and argue with each other over thehot summer and finally come up with various plans. Its When to think of the the insurgents. better the head of the deputy, Jean Féraud, wasFrench Revolution, think of the convention where the sort of the mass of thepeople have gained control of the situation, after driving him on from his throne, presented to the king the end of aand after really putting aside a more aristocratic council that came before it, and pike, he saluted it impassively.they sit down with radical people running around, ready to kill people. This isthe outfit thats going to end up killing the king and his queen, and all thearistocrats they can lay their hands on. In other words, we are in a revolutionarysituation, and force and terror are in the air. Everybody is fully aware of thedanger of this and that, and of some dangers that probably dont even exist. Kagan
  • 100. Now, this requires that they establish a new constitution, because theyre going tohave a regime the like of which no one had ever seen before. But in trying tounderstand this constitution and its not easy — the ancient sources tell us a lotabout it, but its not perfectly clear whats in everybodys mind as they do whatthey do. Motives and purposes are not clear as youll see in a moment. Butanyway, what I want you to fix on is this.Dont imagine that whats taking place here is even anything like the AmericanConstitutional Convention in Philadelphia, where a bunch of delegates have beenselected from here and there, and they all sit and argue with each other over thehot summer and finally come up with various plans. Its better to think of theFrench Revolution, think of the convention where the sort of the mass of thepeople have gained control of the situation, after driving the king from his throne,and after really putting aside a more aristocratic council that came before it, andthey sit down with radical people running around, ready to kill people. This isthe outfit thats going to end up killing the king and his queen, and all thearistocrats they can lay their hands on. In other words, we are in a revolutionarysituation, and force and terror are in the air. Everybody is fully aware of thedanger of this and that, and of some dangers that probably dont even exist. Kagan
  • 101. We are in a situation that resembles civil war, The Athenians, who will be sitting in theassembly passing the laws that produce the constitution that Cleisthenes favors are, first ofall, already afraid that the local aristocrats will use force or guile against them. But on topof that there have been two Spartan invasions of Attica in the last couple of years andtheres nothing to stop King Cleomenes from coming back again. In fact, Id go further; Idsay theres every reason to fear that thats going to happen. Again, thats where the analogyto the French Revolution works well.Nothing that happens in that most radical period of the French Revolution isunderstandable If you dont know that the French regularly expect that the kings andemperors of Europe will be marching against them with professional armies very soon, andtheir fear is absolutely justified, and so is the Athenian fear that the Spartans will becoming.So its in that hot environment, where fear is all over the place, that this new democraticconstitution will be shaped. The place where its happening is in the assembly. Theassembly sits on a hillside in the middle of Athens. A hill called the pynx. There in theopen air all adult male citizens are eligible to participate in what takes place.What about the people who have been thrown off the citizen lists by Isagoras? Are theythere? This is just my reasoning; we dont have any hard evidence. My answer is absolutelythey are. Who is going to tell them not to? You show up on the hill, whos going to kick youoff? Does Cleisthenes want you kicked out? Hell no, because as we will see, one of his mainplanks is enrolling those people as citizens. Kagan
  • 102. We are in a situation that resembles civil war, The Athenians, who will be sitting in theassembly passing the laws that produce the constitution that Cleisthenes favors are, first of ΠΝΥΞall, already afraid that the local aristocrats will use force or guile against them. But on topof that there have been two Spartan invasions of Attica in the last couple of years andPNYXtheres nothing to stop King Cleomenes from coming back again. In fact, Id go further; Idsay theres every reason to fear that thats going to happen. Again, thats where the analogyto the French Revolution works well.Nothing that happens in that most radical period of the French Revolution isunderstandable If you dont know that the French regularly expect that the kings andemperors of Europe will be marching against them with professional armies very soon, andtheir fear is absolutely justified, and so is the Athenian fear that the Spartans will becoming.So its in that hot environment, where fear is all over the place, that this new democraticconstitution will be shaped. The place where its happening is in the assembly. Theassembly sits on a hillside in the middle of Athens. A hill called the pynx. There in theopen air all adult male citizens are eligible to participate in what takes place.What about the people who have been thrown off the citizen lists by Isagoras? Are theythere? This is just my reasoning; we dont have any hard evidence. My answer is absolutelythey are. Who is going to tell them not to? You show up on the hill, whos going to kick youoff? Does Cleisthenes want you kicked out? Hell no, because as we will see, one of his mainplanks is enrolling those people as citizens. Kagan
  • 103. We are in a situation that resembles civil war, The Athenians, who will be sitting in theassembly passing the laws that produce the constitution that Cleisthenes favors are, first ofall, already afraid that the local aristocrats will use force or guile against them. But on topof that there have been two Spartan invasions of Attica in the last couple of years andtheres nothing to stop King Cleomenes from coming back again. In fact, Id go further; Idsay theres every reason to fear that thats going to happen. Again, thats where the analogyto the French Revolution works well.Nothing that happens in that most radical period of the French Revolution isunderstandable If you dont know that the French regularly expect that the kings andemperors of Europe will be marching against them with professional armies very soon, andtheir fear is absolutely justified, and so is the Athenian fear that the Spartans will becoming.So its in that hot environment, where fear is all over the place, that this new democraticconstitution will be shaped. The place where its happening is in the assembly. Theassembly sits on a hillside in the middle of Athens. A hill called the pynx. There in theopen air all adult male citizens are eligible to participate in what takes place.What about the people who have been thrown off the citizen lists by Isagoras? Are theythere? This is just my reasoning; we dont have any hard evidence. My answer is absolutelythey are. Who is going to tell them not to? You show up on the hill, whos going to kick youoff? Does Cleisthenes want you kicked out? Hell no, because as we will see, one of his mainplanks is enrolling those people as citizens. Kagan
  • 104. So, in fact, I will bet a lot of money that in all the electioneering thatwent on about all these different things, they were a group he musthave targeted and said youve been unfairly treated by thesearistocrats. If I get in power, I will see to it that you are enrolledagain as citizens. So, all of that is happening, and people are veryexcited about what is going on. Thats the background for theserather dry and puzzling details Im about to lay on you to try todescribe what these new laws were that amounted to some kind of ademocracy.
  • 105. THE CLEISTHENES REFORMSthe heart of the new constitution was a radical change of the tribes, the phylaethe four ancient tribes Geleontes, Hopletes, Argadeis and Aegicoreiswere replaced by ten new ones Erechthesis, Aegeis, Pandianis, Leontis, Acamantis, Oeneis, Cecropis, Hippothontis, Aeantis, and Antiochis
  • 106. So, he picks out a hundred names of heroes and he assigns them to the ten tribes by lot,and now you suddenly have ten new tribes. If you can try to think yourself back to a tribalsociety and think about what a disruptive thing this is. All my life Ive been a member ofthe tribe named after, Ion, and so have my ancestors, and so my other ancestors. No more.Hes not around anymore; theres a new tribe that was invented that Im a member of. So,thats a very surprising thing. But thats not the end of the story; each tribe now is dividedup into three parts. The word for a third is trittys and the plural is trittyes, and heres thepoint. Each of the tribes has one of its trittys in and around the city of Athens. It hasanother one in the middle of Attica and the third will be in the region called the coast, thePeralia.So every tribe is geographically distributed across all of Attica. The city region, the coastregion, and the midland region, each one of these regions has ten trittyes, one for each ofthe ten tribes. Now, lets take it a step further, the trittyes themselves are formed of unitsthat are called demes. The Greek word for it, and its very confusing, is demos. Now, thedemos is this deme, this political unit. It also means a village, it also means the wholeAthenian people, and it also means only the poor Athenian people. So, there you are. Butin the context that were dealing with it here, we mean these units that are geographicaland have a constitutional function. Kagan
  • 107. There is, however, even here a certain amount of confusion, because some of the demes areactually made up of an original village. They dont mess with that. A deme is the equivalentof a — in other words, a deme is a deme. The two different meanings of the word deme;other demes for the constitutional purpose are made up of a number of villages. So, therewould be a lot of these old demes placed into the new constitutional deme. The idea,however, is that every trittys must be of the same size in terms of population, because thewhole idea is to get each tribe to be numerically equal and one reason for that is, becausethe tribes will be the regiments of the Athenian army. You line up and fight in accordancewith your deme, which is located in the certain trittys, which becomes a regiment. Yourtribe is a regiment of the army. Kagan
  • 108. Heres another thing that Cleisthenes tried, with the law, to change the way in which anAthenian was officially designated. It used to be, before Cleisthenes came along, you ask aman who are you. He would say I am Cleisthenes, the son of Megacles. Just thepatronymic, just like you bear the name of your father, unless you chose to bear the nameof your mother, which is evidence of how un-Athenian you really are. So, thats the way itwas, but under the laws of Cleisthenes, henceforth, citizens were to be designated not asCleisthenes, son of Megacles, but as Cleisthenes from Alopeke, that is, his deme.He was to be the citizens name and his deme name. People have argued about what thepoint of all this was, but I think one limited point, before we get to the full story, is simplyanother way of cutting down the influence of birth in the society. Its a way of damagingthe aristocratic principle and asserting in its place — look whats really happening here,that there is something which is the polis that has nothing to do with birth that is the partof the legal structure which is a polis. Its a whole new concept thats really creeping inhere, replacing the old traditional way of organizing society with one that is the work ofcitizens coming together and determining how they themselves will be governed. Let thatbe the story of the tribes for a moment. Kagan
  • 109. Now, here we go with another council [βουλη], youve heard about the council of fourhundred, youve heard about the council of three hundred. We can do better than that;were going to have the council of five hundred. It will be the council that is the democraticcouncil for the remainder of the history of the Athenian democracy, with the exception ofshort periods of oligarchic rebellion that remove it, but it comes back when the democracydoes.Let me describe it briefly. It is open to all Athenian adult male citizens. Membership on thecouncil comes through some combination of allotment and election — the point of it is thatan assembly of thousands is not well equipped to conduct all kinds of business that has tobe conducted for the state, and even its own business. You need a smaller group to preparethe agenda for a full assembly [εκκλεσια] meeting, and so that was the function of the fivehundred.It is, and this is very important, one of those very democratic elements, the assembly ofcourse was totally democratic, because adult male citizens participate if they wish. But youcan easily get around that in some degree if you have a council or little group that actuallydetermines whats going to happen. From the first it wasnt so. The members of the councilhad to be — Im sorry, the council itself was as democratic as the assembly. So, well comeback to that council later on, but there it is in place.Another thing that happened was that by now the army of Athens, which originally hadbeen led simply by the polemarch, the archon who was chosen for the military leadership,had given way to generals who commanded the different tribes. It used to be that eachtribe elected its own general, but in the new system now, the entire people elected thegenerals for each of the tribes. In other words, the ten tribes still had a general apiece, butthe entire population elected him. Kagan
  • 110. ostraca Pericles Ostracism (Greek: έξω-οστρακισµός – exo (out)-ostrakismos) was a procedure under the KimonAthenian democracy in which any citizen could be expelled from the city-state of Athens for ten Aristides years.
  • 111. every January-automatic vote in the Assembly, “Shallthere be an ostracism?” (simple majority decides)March-if there is an ostracism, the Agora is fenced off. Atthe 10 gates (one for each tribe) an official verifiescitizenship. Once in, you cannot leave until the polls close ostraca Pericles Kimon Aristides
  • 112. every January-automatic vote in the Assembly, “Shallthere be an ostracism?” (simple majority decides)March-if there is an ostracism, the Agora is fenced off. Atthe 10 gates (one for each tribe) an official verifiescitizenship. Once in, you cannot leave until the polls closethe ostraca are counted (6,000 votes necessary)if the quota is met, the ostraca are sorted. The man withthe most votes (plurality) “wins”his punishment? ostracawhat an ostracism is not Pericles Kimon Aristides
  • 113. THE ROAD TO ATHENIANDEMOCRACY DRACO SOLON CLEISTHENES PERICLES
  • 114. Because of a family tradition ofnaming descendants after theirforebears, members of the familycan easily be confused. Hence,what follows is a partial family treeof the historical Alcmaeonid family.Males are in blue, females in red,and those related by marriage inwhite. as the note says, it’s easy to become lost among the Alcmaeonidai. Let me try to help with this review of the ones we’ve already met.
  • 115. Megacles was a member of the Alcmaeonidae family, and the archon eponymous in 632BC when Kylon made his unsuccessful attempt to take over Athens. Megacles was Because of a family tradition ofconvicted of killing Kylon (who had taken refuge on the Acropolis as a suppliant of naming descendants after theirAthena) and was exiled from the city, along with all the other members of his genos, theAlcmaeonidae. The Alcmaeonidae inherited a forebears, ("stain") thatthe family miasma members of lasted forgenerations among Megacles descendants. can easily be confused. Hence, what follows is a partial family tree of the historical Alcmaeonid family. Males are in blue, females in red, and those related by marriage in white.
  • 116. Megacles was a member of the Alcmaeonidae family, and the archon eponymous in 632BC when Kylon made his unsuccessful attempt to take over Athens. Megacles was Because of a family tradition ofconvicted of killing Kylon (who had taken refuge on the Acropolis as a suppliant of naming descendants after theirAthena) and was exiled from the city, along with all the other members of his genos, theAlcmaeonidae. The Alcmaeonidae inherited a forebears, ("stain") thatthe family miasma members of lasted forgenerations among Megacles descendants. can easily be confused. Hence, what follows is a partial family tree of the historical Alcmaeonidyear-long the tyrant who hosted the family. Males e t i t iin n f o rfemales a u red, e r c o m p are o blue, h i s d in g h t and thosehand. by marriage in Agariste’s related white.
  • 117. Megacles was a member of the Alcmaeonidae family, and the archon eponymous in 632BC when Kylon made his unsuccessful attempt to take over Athens. Megacles was Because of a family tradition ofconvicted of killing Kylon (who had taken refuge on the Acropolis as a suppliant of naming descendants after theirAthena) and was exiled from the city, along with all the other members of his genos, theAlcmaeonidae. The Alcmaeonidae inherited a forebears, ("stain") thatthe family miasma members of lasted forgenerations among Megacles descendants. can easily be confused. Hence, what follows isgrandson family above, Megacles, the a partial of the tree of theof Alcmaeon. The winner of son historical Alcmaeonid family. Males are He blue, females in red, of Agariste. in was an opponent Pisistratus in the 6th century BC. He and those related by marriage in drove out Pisistratus during the white. first reign as tyrant in 560 latters BC, but the two then made an alliance with each other, and Pisistratus married Megacles daughter. However, Megacles turned against Pisistratus when Pisistratus refused to have children with Megacles daughter, which brought an end to the second tyranny.
  • 118. Megacles was a member of the Alcmaeonidae family, and the archon eponymous in 632BC when Kylon made his unsuccessful attempt to take over Athens. Megacles was Because of a family tradition ofconvicted of killing Kylon (who had taken refuge on the Acropolis as a suppliant of naming descendants after theirAthena) and was exiled from the city, along with all the other members of his genos, theAlcmaeonidae. The Alcmaeonidae inherited a forebears, ("stain") thatthe family miasma members of lasted forgenerations among Megacles descendants. can easily be confused. Hence, what follows isgrandson family above, Megacles, the a partial of the tree of theof Alcmaeon. The winner of son historical Alcmaeonid family. Males are He blue, females in red, of Agariste. in was an opponent Pisistratus in the 6th century BC. He and those related by marriage in drove out Pisistratus during the white. first reign as tyrant in 560 latters BC, but the two then made an alliance with each other, and Pisistratus married Megacles daughter. However, Megacles turned against Pisistratus when Pisistratus refused to have children with Megacles daughter, which brought an end to the second tyranny.
  • 119. Megacles was a member of the Alcmaeonidae family, and the archon eponymous in 632BC when Kylon made his unsuccessful attempt to take over Athens. Megacles was Because of a family tradition ofconvicted of killing Kylon (who had taken refuge on the Acropolis as a suppliant of naming descendants after theirAthena) and was exiled from the city, along with all the other members of his genos, theAlcmaeonidae. The Alcmaeonidae inherited a forebears, ("stain") thatthe family miasma members of lasted forgenerations among Megacles descendants. can easily be confused. Hence, Cleisthenes, son of Megacles, what follows isgrandson family above, Megacles, the a partial of the tree grandson of Cleisthenes of Sicyon. Uncle of Pericles mother of theof Alcmaeon. The winner of son historical Alcmaeonid family. Males are He blue, females in red, of Agariste. in was an opponent Agariste and father of Pisistratus in the 6th century BC. He Alcibiades maternal and those related by marriage in drove out Pisistratus during the grandfather Megacles. Author white. first reign as tyrant in 560 latters of the reforms of 507. BC, but the two then made an alliance with each other, and Pisistratus married Megacles daughter. However, Megacles turned against Pisistratus when Pisistratus refused to have children with Megacles daughter, which brought an end to the second tyranny.
  • 120. Because of a family tradition of naming descendants after their forebears, members of the family can easily be confused. Hence,Cleisthenes, son of Megacles, what follows is a partial family treegrandson of Cleisthenes of Sicyon.Uncle of Pericles mother of the historical Alcmaeonid family.Agariste and father of Males are in blue, females in red,Alcibiades maternal and those related by marriage ingrandfather Megacles. Author white.of the reforms of 507.
  • 121. Because of a family tradition of naming descendants after their forebears, members of the family can easily be confused. Hence,Cleisthenes, son of Megacles, what follows is a partial family treegrandson of Cleisthenes of Sicyon.Uncle of Pericles mother of the historical Alcmaeonid family.Agariste and father of Males are in blue, females in red,Alcibiades maternal and those related by marriage ingrandfather Megacles. Author white.of the reforms of 507.
  • 122. PERICLES- ( Περικλῆς, Periklēs, "surrounded by glory"; c. 495 – 429 BC) son of Xanthippos, the hero of Mycale and Agariste, the niece of Cleisthenes his enemies called him a tyrant and argued that he had inherited the curse of the Alcmaeonidae through his mother Agariste probably the best known Athenian leader during its Golden Age and at the start of the Peloponnesian War but his life is another story the inscription “Pericles, two other stories... son of Xanthippos,Athenian”. Marble, Romancopy after a Greek original from ca. 430 BC