Greece 6 Golden Age

1,232 views

Published on

The fifth and fourth centuries are

Published in: Education, News & Politics
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,232
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
36
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Greece 6 Golden Age

  1. 1. ANCIENT GREECE vi-The Golden Age
  2. 2. ANCIENT GREECE vi-The Golden Age
  3. 3. PERHAPS SILVER AGE WOULDBE MORE APPROPRIATE Athenian silver “owls” were the common currency of the Aegean world.*At the beginning of the [Peloponnesian] war, Athens garnered 600talents [1 talent=6,000 drachmas] of annual tribute, in addition toperhaps some 400 talents of internal income generated through mining,trade, overseas rent, and commerce. By 431 there were some 6,000talents in reserve in the temple treasuries on the Acropolis. That pile wasthe equivalent of 36 million man-days of labor….In this regard, tragedy,comedy, and the Parthenon were not so much expressions of nativegenius as reflections of lots of money. Hanson, A War Like No Other, p. 27* These Athenian silver coins, worth four drachmas (in terms of modern American currency, over $300), were stamped with thehelmeted head of Athena and on the reverse side her iconic owl.
  4. 4. εξ ϡ´Τὀ ῏Εκτον Μάθηµα
  5. 5. PRINCIPAL TOPICSI. PericlesII. ArtIII. DramaIV. PhilosophyV. History
  6. 6. After Salamis [480 B.C.] the free Greeks would never fear any other foreign poweruntil they met the free Romans of the republic. No Persian king would ever againset foot in Greece….Before Salamis Athens was a rather eccentric city-state whoseexperiment with a radical democracy was in its twenty-seven-year-old infancy, andthe verdict on its success was still out. After Salamis an imperial democratic culturearose at Athens that ruled the Aegean and gave us Aeschylus, Sophocles, theParthenon, Pericles, Socrates, and Thucydides. Salamis proved that free peoplesfought better than unfree, and that the most free of the free---the Athenians---fought the best of all. Hanson, Carnage and Culture, pp. 56-57
  7. 7. I. PERICLES
  8. 8. ΠΕΡΙΚΛΗΣI. PERICLES PERICLES
  9. 9. Anaxagoras and Pericles-- Augustin-Louis Belle (1757 – 1841)
  10. 10. His familys nobility and wealth allowed him to fully pursue his inclinationtoward education. He learned music from the masters of the time ... and he isconsidered to have been the first politician to attribute great importance tophilosophy. He enjoyed the company of the philosophers Protagoras, Zeno ofElea and Anaxagoras. Anaxagoras in particular became a close friend andinfluenced him greatly. Pericles manner of thought and rhetorical charismamay have been in part products of Anaxagoras emphasis on emotional calm inthe face of trouble and skepticism about divine phenomena. His proverbialcalmness and self-control are also regarded as products of Anaxagorasinfluence. Wikipedia
  11. 11. ENTERING POLITICS born an aristocrat. His mother, Agariste, made him heir to “the curse of the Alkmaeonidai” spring 472-age 17 (?), first came to public notice as the patron (financier) of Aeschylus’ Persians at the Greater Dionysia, a splendid public Λειτουργία (liturgy) Pericles selection of this play, which presents a nostalgic picture of Themistocles famous victory at Salamis, shows that the young politician was supporting Themistocles against his political opponent Kimon Kimon’s aristocratic faction would succeed in ostracizing Themistocles shortly thereafter influenced by his upbringing to avoid lavish displays of wealth, Pericles avoided banquets and maintained a frugal private life
  12. 12. THE MAN WHO GAVE HIS NAME TOAN ERA463-age 32 (?), again came to public notice in the failedprosecution of the aristocratic leader Kimonhe was Ephialtes’ assistant in the democratic reforms ofthe Areopagus, last stronghold of the aristocrats461- two major events in the political struggles: Kimon’s ostracism the assassination of Ephialtes460-429--elected one of the ten strategoi almostwithout exception until his death at age 66 (?)
  13. 13. After Kimons ostracism, Pericles continued to espouse and promote a populistsocial policy. He first proposed a decree that permitted the poor to watch theatricalplays without paying, with the state covering the cost of their admission. With otherdecrees he lowered the property requirement for the archonship in 458–457 BC andbestowed generous wages on all citizens who served as jurymen in the Heliaia (thesupreme court of Athens) some time just after 454 BC. His most controversialmeasure, however, was a law of 451 BC limiting Athenian citizenship to those ofAthenian parentage on both sides.Such measures impelled Pericles critics to regard him as responsible for the gradualdegeneration of the Athenian democracy. Constantine Paparrigopoulos, a majormodern Greek historian, argues that Pericles sought for the expansion andstabilization of all democratic institutions. Hence, he enacted legislation grantingthe lower classes access to the political system and the public offices, from whichthey had previously been barred on account of limited means or humble birth.According to Samons, Pericles believed that it was necessary to raise the demos, inwhich he saw an untapped source of Athenian power and the crucial element ofAthenian military dominance. (The fleet, backbone of Athenian power since the daysof Themistocles, was manned almost entirely by members of the lower classes.) Wikipedia
  14. 14. WAR AND POLITICSMarathon was a victory for hoplites. It was the farmers, the middling group, and thoseabove them that had won that battle, but Salamis was a victory for the poor in Athens.Of course that vast fleet was rowed by poor Athenians, and now they had the glory forthe victory and, of course, after the war, when the fleet became the basis of Athenianstrength and glory, it was the common man and the poorest of the Athenians, who wasinvolved in achieving that desirable status. Kagan...military strategy seldom operates in a vacuum. Themistocles was well aware that thepromotion of the naval service--well over 20,000 landless Athenian citizens may haverowed at Salamis--the sacrifice of the Athenian countryside [in 480], public financingof ship construction, and the accompanying of Athenian infantry, had considerabledomestic ramifications: a landed and conservative minority could no longer claimmonopoly on the city’s defense. From now on, in all Athenian-led democracies,maritime power, urban fortifications, walls connecting port and citadel, and theemployment of the poor on triremes were felt to be essential to the survival of populargovernments… Hanson, Wars of the Ancient Greeks, pp. 102-103
  15. 15. WAR AND POLITICS (CONT.)From now on, in all Athenian-led democracies, maritime power, urban fortifications, walls connectingport and citadel, and the employment of the poor on triremes were felt to be essential to the survival of who would elect non-aristocrats like Themistocles--his mother waspopular governments...probably not even Greek--to guide the city. Taxes and forced contributions would payfor the investments. In times of national crisis the record of naval power at Artemisiumand Salamis apparently confirmed that ships were strategically invaluable and theirimpoverished crews every bit as brave as hoplite landowners.But to the agrarian conservative mind all this was anathema. All philosophers deploredthe naval triumphs of the Persian wars and were frightened by the bellicosity of therabble in the Athenian Assembly. Plato went so far as to say that the stunning navalvictory at Salamis that saved western civilization made the Greeks ‘worse’ as a people,while Aristotle linked the sea-battles of the Persian wars with the rise of demagogueryitself. Hanson, Wars of the Ancient Greeks, pp. 102-103
  16. 16. “He knew the importance of keeping themass of the people gainfully employed, Chryselephantine“and, to quote Plutarch: “It was his desire and design that the undisciplined mechanic multitude should not go without their share of the public funds, and yet should not have these given him for sitting still and doing nothing.”“Funds for constructing the massivebuildings that still adorn the Acropoliswere obtained by the transfer of thetreasury of the Delian League to Athens“Pheidias worked on the building fornine years, from 447-438.” Everyday Life in Ancient Times, pp.234-235
  17. 17. "Rather, the admiration of the present and succeeding ages will be ours, since wehave not left our power without witness, but have shown it by mighty proofs; andfar from needing a Homer for our panegyrist, or other of his craft whose versesmight charm for the moment only for the impression which they gave to melt atthe touch of fact, we have forced every sea and land to be the highway of ourdaring, and everywhere, whether for evil or for good, have left imperishablemonuments behind us." Pericles Funeral Oration as recorded by Thucydides (II, 41) γ[›]
  18. 18. A modern conception of the acropolis as it was in the Age of Pericles
  19. 19. II. ART
  20. 20. II. ARTPhidias Showing the Frieze of the Parthenon to his Friends- Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema.1868
  21. 21. II. ARTPhidias Showing the Frieze of the Parthenon to his Friends- Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema.1868
  22. 22. Little is left of all this wealth of great art; the sculptures, defaced and broken intobits, have crumbled away; the buildings are fallen; the paintings gone forever; of thewritings, all lost but a very few. We have only the ruin of what was...yet these fewremains of the mighty structure have been a challenge and an incitement to menever since and they are among our possessions to-day which we value as mostprecious. Edith Hamilton, The Greek Way, p.13
  23. 23. Aphrodite of Milos (Greek: Ἀφροδίτη τῆςΜήλου, Aphroditē tēs Mēlou), better knownas the Venus de Milo, is an ancient Greekstatue and one of the most famous works ofancient Greek sculpture. It is believed todepict Aphrodite (Venus to the Romans) theGreek goddess of love and beauty. It is amarble sculpture, slightly larger than life size.Its arms and original plinth have been lost.From an inscription that was on its plinth, itis thought to be the work of Alexandros ofAntioch; it was earlier mistakenly attributedto the master sculptor Praxiteles. It iscurrently on permanent display at the LouvreMuseum in Paris.It was discovered by a peasant on April 8,1820, inside a buried niche within the ancientcity ruins of Milos on the Aegean island ofMilos (also Melos, or Milo). Wikipedia
  24. 24. The Discobolus of Myron ("discus thrower" GreekΔισκοβόλος, "Diskobolos") is a famous Greek sculpture thatwas completed towards the end of the Severe period, circa460-450 BC. The original Greek bronze is lost. It is knownthrough numerous Roman copies, both full-scale ones inmarble or smaller scaled versions in bronze.A discus thrower is depicted about to release his throw: "bysheer intelligence", Sir Kenneth Clark observed "Myron hascreated the enduring pattern of athletic energy. He hastaken a moment of action so transitory that students ofathletics still debate if it is feasible, and he has given it thecompleteness of a cameo." The moment thus captured in thestatue is an example of rhythmos, harmony and balance.The pose is said to be unnatural to a human, and todayconsidered a rather inefficient way to throw the discus. Alsothere is very little emotion shown in the discus throwersface, and "to a modern eye, it may seem that Myrons desirefor perfection has made him suppress too rigorously thesense of strain in the individual muscles," --Clark. The othertrademark of Myron embodied in this sculpture is how wellthe body is proportioned, the symmetria. Wikipedia Roman bronze reduction of Myrons Discobolus, 2nd century AD (Glyptothek, Munich).
  25. 25. The potential energyexpressed in this sculpturestightly-wound pose,expressing the moment ofstasis just before the release, isan example of theadvancement of Classicalsculpture from Archaic. Thetorso shows no muscularstrain, however, even thoughthe limbs are outflung. Wikipedia
  26. 26. The potential energyexpressed in this sculpturestightly-wound pose,expressing the moment ofstasis just before the release, isan example of theadvancement of Classicalsculpture from Archaic. Thetorso shows no muscularstrain, however, even thoughthe limbs are outflung. Wikipedia
  27. 27. The potential energyexpressed in this sculpturestightly-wound pose,expressing the moment ofstasis just before the release, isan example of theadvancement of Classicalsculpture from Archaic. Thetorso shows no muscularstrain, however, even thoughthe limbs are outflung. Wikipedia
  28. 28. The potential energyexpressed in this sculpturestightly-wound pose,expressing the moment ofstasis just before the release, isan example of theadvancement of Classicalsculpture from Archaic. Thetorso shows no muscularstrain, however, even thoughthe limbs are outflung. Wikipedia
  29. 29. Exekias (Εξηκίας, a Greek name)was an ancient Greek vase-painterand potter, who worked betweenapproximately 550 BC - 525 BC atAthens. Most of his vases, however,were exported to other regions ofthe Mediterranean, such as Etruria,while some of his other worksremained in Athens. Exekiasworked mainly with a techniquecalled black-figure. This techniqueinvolves figures and ornamentspainted in black silhouette (usingclay slip) with details added bylinear incisions and the occasionaluse of red and white paint beforefiring. Exekias is considered themost original and most detail-orientated painter and potter usingthe black-figure technique.
  30. 30. It shows Achilleus and Ajax, both identified by their names added in genitive. Theyare sitting across from each other, looking at a block situated between them. Thegame, which might be compared to modern backgammon, was played with dice.According to the words written next to the two players Achilleus has thrown a fourwhile Ajax threw a three. Although the two of them are pictured playing a game, theyare clearly depicted as being on duty, wearing their body-armor and both holding aspear. The rest of their weapons are situated in close proximity, suggesting that theymight head back into battle any moment. Apart from the selection of this veryintimate scene as a symbol for Trojan war, this vase-painting also shows the talent ofExekias as an artist. The figures of both Achilleus and Ajax are decorated with fineincised details, showing almost every hair. Wikipedia
  31. 31. Exekias signature as potter: ΕΧΣΕΚΙΑΣ ΕΠΟΙΕΣΕ (“Exekias made [me]”), ca. 550–540 BCE, Louvre F 53
  32. 32. THE CURSE OF THEHOUSE OF ATREUS
  33. 33. THE CURSE OF THEHOUSE OF ATREUS Aegisthus murders Agamemnon krater by the Dokmasia painter
  34. 34. THE CURSE OF THEHOUSE OF ATREUS Orestes murders Aegisthus krater by the Dokmasia painter
  35. 35. III. DRAMA
  36. 36. III. DRAMA
  37. 37. LITERATURE AND ARTIn nearly every respect we know more about life in the bustling city of Athens than we doabout how people lived in the other Greek poleis; but energy and talent were dispersed widelythroughout the Greek world, and much of it went into literature and the arts….During thisvigorous era of transition [from Archaic to Classical] talented poets, painters, architects, andsculptors carried the traditions of the sixth century throughout the Greek world, while inAthens the defeat of Persia was marked by innovations in tragic drama so striking as toconstitute a new art form.Lyric poetry was a necessary precursor of tragedy….Simonides (c. 556-468 BC) isremembered as the unofficial poet laureate of the Persian wars….his epitaphs for the wardead became to Greek literature what the Declaration of Independence and the GettysburgAddress are to Americans (only easier to remember, since they were in verse). Pomeroy & al., Ancient Greece, p. 242
  38. 38. THE GREAT tragic artists of the world are four, and three of them are Greek. It is intragedy that the pre-eminence of the Greeks can be seen most clearly. Except forShakespeare, the great three, Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, stand alone.Tragedy is an achievement peculiarly Greek. They were the first to perceive it andthey lifted it to its supreme height. Nor is it a matter that directly touches only thegreat artists who wrote tragedies; it concerns the entire people as well, who felt theappeal of the tragic to such a degree that they would gather thirty thousand strongto see a performance. In tragedy the Greek genius penetrated farthest and it is therevelation of what was most profound in them. Hamilton, The Greek Way, p. 165
  39. 39. The Tragic Trinity AIΣΧΥΛΟΣ ΑESCHYLUSc. 525/524 BC – c. 456/455 BC ΣΟΦΟΚΛΗΣ SOPHOCLES c. 497/6 BC – winter 406/5 BC ΕΥΡΙΠΙΔΗΣ EURIPIDES ca. 480 – 406 BC
  40. 40. Tragedy had a central role in the spiritual and intellectual life of Athens. Wealthycitizens vied for honor and acclaim by undertaking the expense of training choruses,and during the festival of Dionysus in March actors and audience alike neededenormous stamina. Groups of actors performed four dramas in a day, and spectatorshad not only to follow the intricate poetry of the choruses but to turn up the next dayand the day after that to compare the work of the different playwrights, to helpdetermine who should receive the prize. A significant proportion of the men--andperhaps the women as well though this is uncertain--attended the plays and no doubtcontinued among themselves a lively dialogue about the painful issues the dramas hadraised. Even in eras of comparatively high literacy, ancient cultures remained oral to aconsiderable degree, and absorbing the complex imagery of tragic choruses was not asdifficult for people trained to listen and remember as it would be for most people today.Nevertheless, the popularity of performances that demanded serious intellectual workon the part of the audience tells us something about the richness of Athenian culture. Pomeroy & al., Ancient Greece, pp. 244-245
  41. 41. Tragedy had a central role in the spiritual and intellectual life of Athens. Wealthycitizens vied for honor and acclaim by undertaking the expense of training choruses,and during the festival of Dionysus in March actors and audience alike neededenormous stamina. Groups of actors performed four dramas in a day, and spectatorshad not only to follow the intricate poetry of the choruses but to turn up the next dayand the day after that to compare the work of the different playwrights, to helpdetermine who should receive the prize. A significant proportion of the men--andperhaps the women as well though this is uncertain--attended the plays and no doubtcontinued among themselves a lively dialogue about the painful issues the dramas hadraised. Even in eras of comparatively high literacy, ancient cultures remained oral to aconsiderable degree, and absorbing the complex imagery of tragic choruses was not asdifficult for people trained to listen and remember as it would be for most people today.Nevertheless, the popularity of performances that demanded serious intellectual workon the part of the audience tells us something about the richness of Athenian culture. Pomeroy & al., Ancient Greece, pp. 244-245
  42. 42. Tragedy had a central role in the spiritual and intellectual life of Athens. Wealthycitizens vied for honor and acclaim by undertaking the expense of training choruses,and during the festival of Dionysus in March actors and audience alike neededenormous stamina. Groups of actors performed four dramas in a day, and spectatorshad not only to follow the intricate poetry of the choruses but to turn up the next dayand the day after that to compare the work of the different playwrights, to helpdetermine who should receive the prize. A significant proportion of the men--andperhaps the women as well though this is uncertain--attended the plays and no doubtcontinued among themselves a lively dialogue about the painful issues the dramas hadraised. Even in eras of comparatively high literacy, ancient cultures remained oral to aconsiderable degree, and absorbing the complex imagery of tragic choruses was not asdifficult for people trained to listen and remember as it would be for most people today.Nevertheless, the popularity of performances that demanded serious intellectual workon the part of the audience tells us something about the richness of Athenian culture. Pomeroy & al., Ancient Greece, pp. 244-245
  43. 43. 490- Marathonomachos-he fought at Marathon he died in Sicily after a long life, during which he wrote perhaps seventy plays--seven have survived! he famously added the second actor “This innovation made possible real conflict and moved tragedy beyond tableau into the realm of drama.” Pomeroy, p. 254 AIΣΧΥΛΟΣ his three famous plays, the Oresteia, “ is the ΑESCHYLUS only Attic trilogy that escaped destruction.”c. 525/524 BC – c. 456/455 BC Ibid.
  44. 44. ...he was first and foremost the born dramatist, a man who saw life so dramaticallythat to express himself he had to invent the drama. For that is what he did. Until hecame there was only a chorus with a leader. [The leader had been added by Thespisat the time of Peisistratus.] He added a second character, thus contriving the actionof character upon character which is the essence of the drama….not only thefounder of [drama], but an actor and a practical producer as well. He designed thedress all Greek actors wore; he developed stage scenery and stage machinery [theθεος εκ µηχανης/deus ex machina, a god introduced by means of a crane in ancientGreek and Roman drama to decide the final outcome]; he laid down the lines forthe Attic theater. Hamilton, pp. 181-182
  45. 45. FORMALITIES OF SEVERAL KINDSthe classical unities: action-no subplots time-”one revolution of the sun” Aristotle, Poetics place-a single physical spaceno violence on stage
  46. 46. FORMALITIES OF SEVERAL KINDSthe classical unities: action-no subplots time-”one revolution of the sun” Aristotle, Poetics place-a single physical spaceno violence on stagethe masks“Finally, the author had to contend with the challenges posed by theintricate meters of tragic verse” Pomeroy, op. cit.
  47. 47. “He is direct, lucid, simple, reasonable.“...the quintessential Greek….”-Hamiltonthe Theban plays, each from a different tetralogy Oedipus Antigonehis addition of of a third actor further reducedthe importance of the chorushe also developed his characters to a greater ΣΟΦΟΚΛΗΣextent than earlier playwrights such as Aeschylus SOPHOCLES c. 497/6 BC – winter 406/5 BC
  48. 48. Such times [the Peloponnesian War] as those he lived in test the temper of men. Tothe weaker spirits they bring the despair of all things. The starry heavens aredarkened and truth and justice are no more. But to men like Sophocles outsidechange does not bring the loss of inner steadfastness. The strong can keep thetransient and the eternal separate. Sophocles despaired for the city he loved…; but,as he saw life, outside circumstance was in the ultimate sense powerless; withinhimself, he held, no man is helpless. There is an inner citadel where we may ruleour own spirits; live as free men; die without dishonoring humanity. A man canalways live nobly or die nobly, Ajax says. Antigone goes to her death notuncomforted: death was her choice, and she dies, the chorus tells her, “mistress ofher own fate.” Sophocles saw life hard but he could bear it hard. Hamilton, p. 189
  49. 49. of more than ninety plays eighteen survive there are also substantial fragments of most of the rest more of his work survived than that of the other two together partly by accident, partly because his popularity grew as theirs declined in the Hellenistic age, he became aΕΥΡΙΠΙΔΗΣ cornerstone of ancient literary educationEURIPIDES along with Homer, Demosthenes, andca. 480 – 406 BC Menander Wikipedia
  50. 50. The years of his manhood were the years of the great war between Athens andSparta….He looked at war and he saw through all the sham glory to the awful evilbeneath and he wrote the Trojan Women [415]--war as it appears to a handful ofcaptive women waiting for the victors to carry them away to all that slavery meansfor women. The fall of Troy, the theme of the most glorious martial poetry everwritten, ends in his play with one old broken-hearted woman, sitting on theground, holding a dead child in her arms. Hamilton, p. 200Euripides soon found a new direction in his wartime tragedies---perhaps startingwith the horrific bloodletting in his Medea (431)---that for nearly three decadeswould serve as moral commentary on the ongoing and increasingly barbaric war. Hanson, A War Like No Other, p. 132
  51. 51. Aeschylus disregarded the current religion; Euripides directly attacked it. Againand again he shows up the gods...as lustful, jealous, moved by the meanestmotives, utterly inferior to the human beings they bring disaster upon, and he willhave none of them: Say not there are adulterers in Heaven, Long since my heart has known it false. God if he be God lacks in nothing. All these are dead unhappy tales.His final rejection, “If gods do evil then they are not gods,”….Aristophanes’indictment of him in the Frogs [405] is summed up in the charge that he taughtthe Athenians “to think, see, understand, suspect, question, everything.” Hamilton, pp. 204-205
  52. 52. IV. PHILOSOPHY
  53. 53. IV. PHILOSOPHY ΣΩΚΡΑΤΗΣ SOCRATES
  54. 54. 1: Zeno of Citium 2: Epicurus 3: (Federico II of Mantua?) 4: Boethius or Anaximander orEmpedocles? 5: Averroes 6: Pythagoras 7: Alcibiades or Alexander the Great? 8: Antisthenesor Xenophon? 9: unknown [12] (Francesco Maria della Rovere?) 10: Aeschines or Xenophon?11: Parmenides? 12: Socrates 13: Heraclitus (Michelangelo) 14: Plato (Leonardo da Vinci)15: Aristotle 16: Diogenes 17: Plotinus (Donatello?) 18: Euclid or ArchimedesPre-Socratics Socratics Post-Socratics non-philosophers “moderns”
  55. 55. ΘΑΛΗΣTHALES
  56. 56. Some scholars refer to the Archaic Period as the GreekRenaissance, analogous to the Renaissance in Italy.Theres something to [this], because things happened then that arerevolutionary--in the arts, in the thinking of people. Philosophy isgoing to be invented in Miletus probably in this sixth century.Miletus was on the main routes to all of the places where advancedknowledge could be found, Mesopotamia, Egypt. Anybody wholooks at Greek mythology and Greek poetry, and Greek stories seesthere is a powerful influence from the Mesopotamian direction.Anybody who looks at the earliest Greek art---sculpture and templebuilding---will see the influence of Egypt, enormous powerful.The Greeks are sopping up tremendously useful information,talented immigrants, skills, all sorts of things that help explainwhats going to be coming. Kagan, drastically revised
  57. 57. Thales of Miletus late 7th-mid 6th c WikipediaRelationships Among the Pre-Socratic Philosophers
  58. 58. Thales of Miletus late 7th-mid 6th c WikipediaRelationships Among the Pre-Socratic Philosophers
  59. 59. Thales of Miletus late 7th-mid 6th c Pythagoras of Croton early 6th c WikipediaRelationships Among the Pre-Socratic Philosophers
  60. 60. Thales of Miletus late 7th-mid 6th c Pythagoras of Croton early 6th c WikipediaRelationships Among the Pre-Socratic Philosophers
  61. 61. Thales of Miletus late 7th-mid 6th c Pythagoras of Croton early 6th c Heraclitus of Ephesus late 6th-early 5th c WikipediaRelationships Among the Pre-Socratic Philosophers
  62. 62. Thales of Miletus late 7th-mid 6th c Pythagoras of Croton early 6th c Heraclitus of Ephesus late 6th-early 5th c WikipediaRelationships Among the Pre-Socratic Philosophers
  63. 63. Thales of Miletus late 7th-mid 6th c Pythagoras of Croton early 6th c Parmenides of Elea Heraclitus early 5th c of Ephesus late 6th-early 5th c WikipediaRelationships Among the Pre-Socratic Philosophers
  64. 64. Thales of Miletus late 7th-mid 6th c Pythagoras of Croton early 6th c Parmenides of Elea Heraclitus early 5th c of Ephesus late 6th-early 5th c WikipediaRelationships Among the Pre-Socratic Philosophers
  65. 65. Thales of Miletus late 7th-mid 6th c Pythagoras of Croton early 6th c Parmenides of Elea Heraclitus early 5th c of Ephesus late 6th-early 5th c Socrates of Athens Wikipedia late 5th c -399 BCRelationships Among the Pre-Socratic Philosophers
  66. 66. Thales of Miletus late 7th-mid 6th c Pythagoras of Croton early 6th c Parmenides of Elea Heraclitus early 5th c of Ephesus late 6th-early 5th c Socrates of Athens Wikipedia late 5th c -399 BCRelationships Among the Pre-Socratic Philosophers
  67. 67. Thales--science and philosophy vs. religion-σκεπσις vs belief “the Cosmos is water”Anaximander--he doubts the doubter! “the Cosmos is air”and so the dialogue begins“There are indeed two attitudes that might be adopted towards the unknown. One is toaccept the pronouncements of people who say they know, on the basis of books, mysteriesor other sources of inspiration. The other way is to go out and look for oneself, and this isthe way of science and philosophy.” Bertrand Russell, Wisdom of the West, p. 6
  68. 68. Pythagoras and his followers salute the sunrise-Fyodor Bronnikov, 1869
  69. 69. little reliable is known about his life c. 530-having travelled (to Egypt?) he settled at Croton and founded an ascetic religious sect did he teach “ the Cosmos is number”? most famous for his Pythagorean theorem said to be the first to call himself a philosopher, φιλοσοφς (φιλειν to love & σοφια wisdom)Πυθαγόρας ὁ Σάµιος Pythagorean ideas had a marked influence onPythagóras ho Sámios"Pythagoras the Samian" Plato and through him on Western Philosophy about 570 – about 495 BC
  70. 70. It is the Pythagorean preoccupation with mathematics that gave rise to what weshall later meet as the [Platonic] theory of ideas, or as the theory of universals.When a mathematician proves a proposition about triangles, it is not about anyfigure drawn somewhere that he is talking; rather, it is something he sees in themind’s eye. Thus arises the distinction between the intelligible and the sensible.Moreover, the proposition established is true without reservation and for all time.It is only a step from this to the view that the intelligible alone is the real, perfectand eternal, whereas the sensible is apparent, defective and transient. These aredirect consequences of Pythagoreanism that have dominated philosophicalthought as well as theology ever since.We must remember too that the chief god of the Pythagoreans was Apollo….It isthe Apollonian strain which distinguishes the rationalistic theology of Europe fromthe mysticism of the East. Russell, p. 23
  71. 71. “THE BIG THREE” Socrates c.469-399 BC Plato 427-387 BC Aristotle 384-322 BC
  72. 72. THE “SOCRATICQUESTION”[Socrates] can never be separated from Plato. Almost all Plato wroteprofesses to be a report of what Socrates said, a faithful pupil’s record ofhis master’s words; and it is impossible to decide just what part belongsto each. Together they shaped the idea of the excellent which the classicalworld lived by for hundreds of years and which the modern world hasnever forgotten. Hamilton, The Greek Way, pp. 217-218
  73. 73. tradition has assigned thirty-six dialogues and thirteen letters as written by Platothe first of nine tetralogies are the biographical dialogues: Euthyphro, Apology, Critoand Phaedo. Their themes are: what is piety? Socrates’ defense against the charges (1) impiety & (2) corrupting the youth;
  74. 74. How can the oracle of Delphi say that Socrates is the wisest man ofAthens? He tries to solve the riddle......in the strongest description he gives of his mission, he is a stinginggadfly and the state a lazy horse, "and all day long I will never cease tosettle here, there and everywhere, rousing, persuading and reprovingevery one of you." Wikipedia
  75. 75. How can the oracle of Delphi say that Socrates is the wisest man ofAthens? He tries to solve the riddle......in the strongest description he gives of his mission, he is a stinginggadfly and the state a lazy horse, "and all day long I will never cease tosettle here, there and everywhere, rousing, persuading and reprovingevery one of you." Wikipedia[to his jury] “Be of good cheer and know of a certainty that no evil canhappen to a good man either in life or after death. I see clearly that thetime has come when it is better for me to die and my accusers have doneme no harm. Still, they did not mean to do me good---and for this I maygently blame them. And now we go our ways, you to live and I to die.Which is better God only knows. Plato, Apology, quoted in Hamilton, The Greek Way, p. 218
  76. 76. tradition has assigned thirty-six dialogues and thirteen letters as written by Platothe first of nine tetralogies are the biographical dialogues: Euthyphro, Apology, Critoand Phaedo. Their themes are: what is piety? Socrates’ defense against the charge; why he would not escape; what happens after death
  77. 77. tradition has assigned thirty-six dialogues and thirteen letters as written by Platothe first of nine tetralogies are the biographical dialogues: Euthyphro, Apology, Critoand Phaedo. Their themes are: what is piety? Socrates’ defense against the charge; why he would not escape; what happens after death
  78. 78. tradition has assigned thirty-six dialogues and thirteen letters as written by Platothe first of nine tetralogies are the biographical dialogues: Euthyphro, Apology, Critoand Phaedo. Their themes are: what is piety? Socrates’ defense against the charge; why he would not escape; what happens after deathamong the other thirty-two, two examine political questions:
  79. 79. tradition has assigned thirty-six dialogues and thirteen letters as written by Platothe first of nine tetralogies are the biographical dialogues: Euthyphro, Apology, Critoand Phaedo. Their themes are: what is piety? Socrates’ defense against the charge; why he would not escape; what happens after deathamong the other thirty-two, two examine political questions: ΠΟΛΙΤΕΙΑ (The) Republic--what is justice? how can it be developed in the individual? the state? ΝΟΜΟI (The) Laws--musings on the ethics of government and law, the longest, written in his old age
  80. 80. tradition has assigned thirty-six dialogues and thirteen letters as written by Platothe first of nine tetralogies are the biographical dialogues: Euthyphro, Apology, Critoand Phaedo. Their themes are: what is piety? Socrates’ defense against the charge; why he would not escape; what happens after deathamong the other thirty-two, two examine political questions: ΠΟΛΙΤΕΙΑ (The) Republic--what is justice? how can it be developed in the individual? the state? ΝΟΜΟI (The) Laws--musings on the ethics of government and law, the longest, written in his old ageothers ask, what is beauty? truth? friendship? are words arbitrary symbols or do theyhave intrinsic relationship to what they signify? what is knowledge? what is real? &c
  81. 81. Athenian aristocrat, founder of theAcademy, the first institution of higherlearning in the Western world Πλάτων, Plátōn 428/27 BC – 348/347 BC
  82. 82. The Academy was located to the northwest of the city
  83. 83. The Academy was located to the northwest of the city
  84. 84. The Academy was located to the northwest of the city
  85. 85. Athenian aristocrat, founder of theAcademy, the first institution of higherlearning in the Western world“The safest general characterization of theEuropean philosophical tradition is that itconsists of a series of footnotes to Plato. I donot mean the systematic scheme of thoughtwhich scholars have doubtfully extracted fromhis writings. I allude to the wealth of generalideas scattered through them.”--A.N. WhiteheadPlatos dialogues have been used to teacha range of subjects, including philosophy,logic, ethics, rhetoric, and mathematicsknowledge passes between teacher and Πλάτων, Plátōnpupil like a spark of electricity--Socratic 428/27 BC – 348/347 BCmethod of teaching, dialogue
  86. 86. Platonic Idealism--theory of Forms
  87. 87. Platonic Idealism--theory of Forms
  88. 88. Platonic Idealism--theory of Forms
  89. 89. The relationship of appearance to reality in Plato’s worldview can perhapsbe best grasped in the context of mathematics. A ring...or the perimeter ofa hoplite shield might seem to the casual observer to be a circle, but theseround objects are not circles in the same sense that the locus of all pointsin a given plane equidistant from a given point is a circle. They only looklike circles; if you were to put them under a magnifying glass you wouldsee that they were not circles at all, merely objects vaguely circular inappearance that bring to mind the Form of the circle. Only the circledepicted in the mathematical definition is a circle. Some people might saythat these concrete objects are real circles whereas the geometrical conceptis imaginary, but Plato is not one of these people. For Plato, only theconcept is real. The tangible objects are debased copies, feeble imitationsof the ideal Form. Pomeroy et al. Ancient Greece, pp. 389-390
  90. 90. Some people might say that these concrete objects are real circles whereasthe geometrical concept is imaginary, but Plato is not one of these people.For Plato, only the concept is real. The tangible objects are debased copies,feeble imitations of the ideal Form. Plato, in other words, was an idealistand a dualist. He believed in an opposition between the physical world ofappearances, which are deceptive, and the intellectual universe of ideas,which represent reality and provide the only reliable basis for moral andpolitical action The first is tawdry and serves only to distract people fromultimate truth; the second is noble, and to contemplate it ennobling.Plato was a revolutionary….For most Greek men, reputation [τιµη], power[κρασις], and material success [πλουτος] were central to happiness. LikeSocrates before him, who preferred being right to being alive, Platoidentified values that were more important than being well liked or envied. Ibid, p. 390
  91. 91. In The Republic, his dialogue on government and education, he raised akey question about justice….if you had a magic ring [the ring of Gyges] thatwould make you invisible, would you practice justice, or would you takethe opportunity to grab as much as you could?...Socrates decides to...explore justice in the state in order to discoverjustice in the individual writ large….an ideal state of Plato’s imagining. It isa state divided into three classes, corresponding to Plato’s conception ofthe tripartite nature of the soul. Ibid.
  92. 92. Passion SilverReason Appetite Gold baser metalIn The Republic, his dialogue on government and education, he raised akey question about justice….if you had a magic ring [the ring of Gyges] thatwould make you invisible, would you practice justice, or would you takethe opportunity to grab as much as you could?...Socrates decides to...explore justice in the state in order to discoverjustice in the individual writ large….an ideal state of Plato’s imagining. It isa state divided into three classes, corresponding to Plato’s conception ofthe tripartite nature of the soul. Ibid.
  93. 93. At the top are the guardians, who represent reason. Their supreme rationality,inculcated by years of education, qualifies them to govern. After them come theauxiliaries, who are characterized by a spirited temperament that suits them for theduties of soldiers. Lats come the majority [hoi polloi, the many], who correspond todesire in the soul: they are not especially bright or brave and live only to satisfy theirown material yearnings. They will do all the jobs in the state other than governing andfighting….The only classes that require much education are the top two, and the education andlives of the guardians soon become the focus of Plato’s attention. They will study formany years, approaching the understanding of the Forms by applying themselves tomathematics. Plato...and other Socratics believed the soul has no sex: women and menhave the same potential. In the society envisioned in The Republic, the guardians will beof both genders, and Plato advocates a unisex education for them. Ibid, p. 390
  94. 94. At the top are the guardians, who represent reason. Their supreme rationality,inculcated by years of education, qualifies them to govern. After them come theauxiliaries, who are characterized by a spirited temperament that suits them for theduties of soldiers. Lats come the majority [hoi polloi, the many], who correspond todesire in the soul: they are not especially bright or brave and live only to satisfy theirown material yearnings. They will do all the jobs in the state other than governing andfighting….The only classes that require much education are the top two, and the education andlives of the guardians soon become the focus of Plato’s attention. They will study formany years, approaching the understanding of the Forms by applying themselves tomathematics. Plato...and other Socratics believed the soul has no sex: women and menhave the same potential. In the society envisioned in The Republic, the guardians will beof both genders, and Plato advocates a unisex education for them. Ibid, p. 390
  95. 95. SOME CONCLUDINGOBSERVATIONSPlato’s social origin is apparent in his distain for hoi polloionly the Many in the Republic have conventional families. The Guardiansand Auxiliaries mate in periodic festivals to produce “superior” offspringwhich are then raised by the statehis admiration for aristocracy and a state which resembles Sparta is at leastpartly in reaction to the democracy which lost the war and executed hisbeloved teacherhe practiced what he preached about women. Axiothea of Phlius read theRepublic and presented herself at the Academy. She was admitted to study,but she did have to wear men’s clothing!
  96. 96. “philosopher and polymath, student ofPlato and teacher of Alexander the Great“many subjects, including physics,metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic,rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government,ethics, biology, and zoology“together with Plato and Socrates ,Aristotle is one of the most importantfounding figures in Western philosophy“Aristotles writings were the first tocreate a comprehensive system ofWestern philosophy, encompassing Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēsmorality and aesthetics, logic and science, 384 BC – 322 BCpolitics and metaphysics” Wikipedia
  97. 97. Unlike Plato, Aristotle never leaves the tradition in which study of thenatural world, and its systematic explanation, are normal philosophicaltasks. The Physics, the De generatione et corruptione [About coming to beand passing away] and the De Caelo [About the heavens] explain naturalevents in terms of highly theoretical principles, and give an account of thestructure and physical constitution of the universe….Aristotle is a collector of facts; but he is far from being just that. In all hismajor works his treatment of the facts is informed by consciousness ofphilosophical issues, and it is here that he is most aware of belonging to along tradition of philosophy and developing it further.Julia Annas, ‘Classical Greek Philosophy,’ in Boardman et al. Greece and the Hellenistic World, pp.240-241,
  98. 98. ...it is standard for him to begin a discussion by running through previouspositions, and pointing out what in them is systematically promising ormistaken. He has been attacked as though this were arrogant cannibalizingof previous philosophy in the interest of his own ideas, but this ismistaken. His attitude in fact shows profound intellectual humility: No-one is able to attain the truth adequately, while, on the other hand, we do not collectively fail, but everyone says something true about the nature of things, and while individually we contribute little or nothing to the truth, by the union of all a considerable amount is amassed. (Metaphysics 993 31-34) Ibid. p. 241
  99. 99. Whereas Plato had developed a framework for discussing politics sotheoretical that scholars are often puzzled about what real states he mighthave had in mind, Aristotle approached the question of human communityby amassing and analyzing a tremendous amount of data. In this projecthe was assisted by his students at the Lyceum, where 158 essays onconstitutions of various poleis were drawn up. That all these havedisappeared except for The Athenian Constitution is an incalculable loss tothe study of Greek history. Pomeroy et al. Ancient Greece, p.p. 394-395
  100. 100. Aristotle’s political philosophy differed from Plato’s in two key respects.First, Aristotle believed in collective wisdom: a mass of people who areindividually unwise, he argues, may surpass the wisdom of the few bestmen, just as potluck dinners may prove to be tastier than those hosted by asingle individual….For this reason, he is open to a compromise similar tothat of Solon: poor people in his ideal state would be allowed to chooseofficials and hold them to account, but not to hold office. Second, Aristotlehad such a belief in natural hierarchies---free over slave, Greek over non-Greek, adult over child, male over female---that he reprised with somefrequency the theme of the inferiority of women to men. Ibid. p. 395
  101. 101. V. HISTORY
  102. 102. V. HISTORY ΗΡΟΔΟΤΟΣ HERODOTUS
  103. 103. HERODOTUSFATHER OF HISTORY
  104. 104. HERODOTUSFATHER OF HISTORYthe first Greek geographer and historian whose workshave survivedthe greatest traveler of his day; Egypt, Cyrene,Babylon, Susa (the Persian capital), the Black Sea447-he came to Athens, lectured for money, began hishistory from earliest times to the close of the PersianWarshe included much dubious material: “I am under obligation to tell what is reported, but I am not obliged to believe it; and let this hold for every narrative in this history.” Ἡρόδοτος (Hēródotos) born in Halicarnassus, Caria (modern day Bodrum, Turkey) 5th century BC (c. 484 BC – c. 425 BC)
  105. 105. “when Herodotus depends on his ownobservation, he is fairly reliable, although hispatriotism leads him to exaggerate thenumbers of the Persian army“ and probably to minimize the numbers andlosses of the Greeks who withstood them.“in Athens during the great period of Pericles’leadership, he visited the Acropolis manytimes while the work on the Parthenon wasgoing on.“he tells of a four-horse chariot group ofbronze that was set up on the Acropolis tocommemorate a victory of the Athenians overthe Boeotians and the people of Chalcis aboutsixty years before (506 BC)
  106. 106. “For the text [of the statue’s inscription] we aredependent on Herodotus, who is seen here, ona rainy day in autumn, studying it which he isto record later in his history. “Nearby is the base of the bronze statue ofAthena Promachos.” Everyday Life in Ancient Times, p.233
  107. 107. Herodotus is a shining instance of the strong Greek bent to examine and prove ordisprove. He had a passion for finding out. The task he set himself was nothingless than to find out all about everything in the world. He is always called the“father of history,” but he was quite as much the father of geography, ofarchaeology, of anthropology, of sociology, of whatever has to do with humanbeings and the places in which they live. He was as free from prejudice as it ispossible to be. The Greek contempt for foreigners--in Greek, “barbarians”--nevertouched him. He was passionately on Athens’ side in her struggle against Persia,yet he admired and praised the Persians. He found them brave and chivalrousand truthful. Much that he saw in Phoenicia and Egypt seemed admirable to him,and even in uncivilized Scythia and Libya he saw something to commend. He didnot go abroad to find Greek superiority. An occasional inferiority quite pleasedhim. He quotes with amusement Cyrus’ description of a Greek market as “a placeapart for people to go and cheat each other on oath.” Hamilton, pp. 121-122
  108. 108. His book is really a bridge from one era to another. He was born in an age of deepreligious feeling, just after the Persian Wars; he lived on into the scepticism of theage of Pericles; and by virtue of his kindly tolerance and keen intellectual interesthe was equally at home in both….Only the last part of the History has to do with the Persian Wars. Two-thirds ofthe book are taken up with Herodotus’ journeys and what he learned on them. Hamilton, pp. 125-126
  109. 109. “ Of the marvels to be recorded the land of Lydia has no great store as comparedto other lands…but one work it has to show which is larger than any other exceptonly those in Egypt and Babylon: for there is there the sepulchral mound ofAlyattes the father of Croesus, of which the base is made of larger stones and therest of the monument is of earth piled up. And this was built by contributions ofthose who practiced trade and of the artisans and the girls who plied their trafficthere; and still there existed to my own time boundary-stones five in numbererected upon the monument above, on which were carved inscriptions telling howmuch of the work was done by each class; and upon measurement it was foundthat the work of the girls was the greatest in amount. For the daughters of thecommon people in Lydia practice prostitution one and all, to gather forthemselves dowries, continuing this until the time when they marry; and the girlsgive themselves away in marriage [as opposed to the parents arrangingmarriage--the common custom]….Such is the nature of the monument.” Herodotus, History, bk i, section 93, 103-107
  110. 110. “...THE PROFUNDITY OF THOUGHT AND THE SOMBERMAGNIFICENCE OF THUCYDIDES.”- EDITH HAMILTON κτηµα ἐς ἀεί--a possession for all ages “The absence of romance in my history will, I fear, detract somewhat from its interest, but if it is judged worthy by those inquirers who desire an exact knowledge of the past as an aid to the understanding of the future, which in the course of human things must resemble if it does not reflect it, I shall be content. “In fine I have written my work not as an essay with which to win the applause of the moment but as a possession for all time.” -- The Peloponnesian War, Jowett translation
  111. 111. Mycalessus proved horrific precisely because the Thracian mercenariessought no real military objective other than the psychological terror ofslaughtering children at school--the ancient version of the Chechnyanterrorist assault on the Russian school at Beslan during early September2004, which shocked the modern world and confirmed Thucydides’prognosis that his history really was a possession for all time, inasmuchas human nature, as he saw, has remained constant across time andspace. Hanson, A War Like No Other, p. 179
  112. 112. His history is more than a narrative of now obscure battles andmassacres. Instead, as he predicted, it serves as a timeless guide to thetragic nature of war itself, inasmuch as human character is unchangingand thus its conduct in calamitous times is always predictable….Thucydides---and this is why he is a truly great historian---is toodiscerning a critic to reduce strife down simply to perceptions aboutpower and its manifestations. War itself is not a mere science but a morefickle sort of thing, often subject to fate or chance, being an entirelyhuman enterprise. The Peloponnesian War, then, is not a mere primerfor international relations studies, and the historian does not believe that“might makes right.” Tragedy, not melodrama, is his message. Hanson, A War Like No Other, p. 312
  113. 113. ΕΠΙΛΟΓΟΣ EPILOGOS EpilogueThe flowering of genius in Greece was due to the immense impetus given whenclarity and power of thought was added to great spiritual force. That union madethe Greek temples, statues, writings, all the plain expression of the significant; thetemple in its simplicity; the statue in its combination of reality and ideality; thepoetry in its dependence upon ideas; the tragedy in its union of the spirit ofinquiry with the spirit of poetry. It made the Athenians lovers of fact and ofbeauty; it enabled them to hold fast both to the things that are seen and to thethings that are not seen in all that they have left behind for us, science,philosophy, religion, art. Hamilton, p. 243

×