Greece 5 The Great Wars
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Greece 5 The Great Wars

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This session is deliberately long. Will require two 1 1/2 hour sessions. Not for the faint hearted! But the next session, The 5th century "Golden Age" is the payback for those who don't relish ...

This session is deliberately long. Will require two 1 1/2 hour sessions. Not for the faint hearted! But the next session, The 5th century "Golden Age" is the payback for those who don't relish military history.

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Greece 5 The Great Wars Greece 5 The Great Wars Presentation Transcript

  • ANCIENT GREECE v-The Great Wars, 490-404
  • ANCIENT GREECE v-The Great Wars, 490-404
  • πέντε ε´Τὀ Πέµπτον Μάθηµα View slide
  • PRINCIPAL TOPICSI. Persian Wars, 490-479II. Struggle for HegemonyIII. Peloponnesian War, 431-404IV.Archidamian War, 431-421V. Sicilian Expedition, 415-413VI. Athens’ Final Agony, 412-404 View slide
  • ΠΟΛΕΜΟΣ ΜΕΝ ΠΑΝΤΩΝ ΠΑΤΗΡ ΕΣΤΙ (Polemos men pantōn pater esti)War is the father of all things--Heraclitus
  • ΠΟΛΕΜΟΣ ΜΕΝ ΠΑΝΤΩΝ ΠΑΤΗΡ ΕΣΤΙ Heraclitus (Polemos men pantōn Hendrick ter Brugghen, 1628 pater esti)War is the father of all things--Heraclitus
  • The complete text of this fragment by Heraclitus is: πόλεμος πάντων μὲν πατήρ ἐστι, πάντων δὲ βασιλεύς, καὶ τοὺς μὲν θεοὺς ἔδειξε τοὺς δὲ ἀνθρώπους, τοὺς μὲν δούλους ἐποίησε τοὺς δὲ ἐλευθέρους (War is the father of all and the king of all; and some he has made gods and some men, some bond [slave] and some free). Wikipedia, List of Greek phrases http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Greek_phrasesThis proverb is a wonderful example of the beauty of the Greek language.It is a series of “men...de” phrases. “On the one hand...on the other hand”War’s a father, he’s a king...he made some gods, some men; some slave, some free.
  • PERSIAN WARS
  • FORMER SOVIET BULGARIA MACEDONIA CENTRAL ASIA ARMENIA TURKEYLIBYA PERSIAN WARS IRAN AFGHANISTAN IRAQ EGYPT PAKISTAN THE GREATEST EMPIRE THE WORLD HAD EVER SEEN UP TO THAT TIME
  • GREEK STATES area 40,000 sq. mi pop c. 1,000,000PERSIAN EMPIREarea 2,900,000 sq. mipop c. 20,000,000
  • Achaemenid Persia--like Ottoman Turkey or Montezuma’s Aztecs--was avast two-tiered society in which millions were ruled by autocrats, auditedby theocrats, and coerced by generals. Hanson. Carnage & Culture, p.39
  • A great god is Ahura Mazda, who created this earth, who createdman, who created peace for man, who made Xerxes king, one king ofmany, one lord of many. I am Xerxes, the great king, king of kings,king of lands containing many men, king in this great earth far andwide, son of Darius the king, an Achaemenid, a Persian, so of aPersian, an Aryan, of Aryan seed. (A. Olmstead, History of thePersian Empire, 231) quoted in Hanson, Carnage and Culture, p. 37
  • Most of this unprecedented expansion takes place during one mans lifetime,the lifetime of Cyrus. In the year 550 B.C. there were the Kingdom of Medea,the Kingdom of Babylonia, which is the most powerful one in the TigrisEuphrates Valley, what is now Iraq, the Kingdom of Lydia occupying thewestern portion of Asia Minor, excluding at first the coast, which wasoccupied by Greeks. But the Lydians conquered the Greeks in the 540s —thats the situation. Then there are the the Persians themselves who are notvery powerful. Cyrus becomes king in 559. He is a member of the AchaemenidDynasty. He conquers his fellow Aryans, the Medes in about 550, and veryswiftly conquers Babylonia, Armenia, Syria, Cappadocia (another kingdom incentral Asia Minor), and has already expanded this kingdom to somethingunparalleled up to that time. Kagan
  • Most of this unprecedented expansion takes place during one mans lifetime,the lifetime of Cyrus. In the year 550 B.C. there were the Kingdom of Medea,the Kingdom of Babylonia, which is the most powerful one in the TigrisEuphrates Valley, what is now Iraq, the Kingdom of Lydia occupying thewestern portion of Asia Minor, excluding at first the coast, which wasoccupied by Greeks. But the Lydians conquered the Greeks in the 540s —thats the situation. Then there are the the Persians themselves who are notvery powerful. Cyrus becomes king in 559. He is a member of the AchaemenidDynasty. He conquers his fellow Aryans, the Medes in about 550, and veryswiftly conquers Babylonia, Armenia, Syria, Cappadocia (another kingdom incentral Asia Minor), and has already expanded this kingdom to somethingunparalleled up to that time. Kagan
  • The Persians unified their empire.“Communication was facilitated by constructing roads andcreating a postal system staffed by royal messengers on horseback.Herodotus reported that ‘Neither rain, nor snow, nor sleet, norhail stays these couriers from the swift completion of theirappointed rounds.’ “ Pomeroy & al. Ancient Greece, p.202
  • The Achaemenid king Darius I, whoinvaded Greece in 490, sits on histhrone in this relief from Persepolis.The Greeks were fascinated with theabsolute power of the Great King ofPersia, especially when hoplites andsailors spied Xerxes at bothThermopylae and Salamis perched onhis majestic throne in the hills abovethe battles. In fact, the Persian empirewas a loosely knit conglomeration ofoften independent satrapies….Nevertheless, the combinedpopulation, agricultural production,and minted capital [wealth incoinage] of all the city-states on theGreek mainland were probably lessthan those of a single satrapy. Hanson, Wars of Ancient Greece, pp. 178-179
  • Herodotus sings an aria about the wonders of freedom, in which he says theAthenians were no better than any other Greeks at warfare before they became free.But once having liberated themselves from tyranny and establishing this newCleisthenic regime, they were able to defeat all of their opponents.As you read his history, you will realize that it is a paean to the wonders of freedomthe greatness of freedom, and the centrality of freedom in the story of the Greeks.He praises not just freedom (eleutheria is the Greek word) but in the case of Athenshe praises its isegoria (equality of speech).He characterizes this new Cleisthenic regime not by the word democracy.Apparently it has not been coined yet. But rather by what characterizes it; that is,that all citizens are free, equally able to address the populace in the assembly, andthereby to take an active role in their own government. Kagan lecture transcript, edited
  • Herodotus first book begins with the story of King Croesus, and his decision toattack the Persian Empire which is now on his frontier. You all remember the storyof how Croesus consults the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi to see how hes going tomake out; the oracle gives a characteristically enigmatic answer, but he doesntunderstand it.He asks, "What will happen if I cross the Halys River?" [the boundary betweenLydia and the Persian territory]The oracle answers, "A great empire will be destroyed,"Of course Croesus had in mind the destruction of the Persian Empire. Instead thePersians destroyed his empire! Well, Croesus attacks in 547; his capital of Sardisfalls into the hands of the Persians in the next year. Now the Persians are in controlof the Lydian Empire and on the frontiers of the Greek cities on the coast of AsiaMinor. The conquest of those cities takes place in the years 546 to 539.539 is a very big year for the Persians, because in that year they conquer the city ofBabylon, and thereby gain control of all of Mesopotamia. Another of the majorexpansions of this vast empire. Kagan
  • The successor to Cyrus is Cambyses. In the years 530-522, he conquers theKingdom of Egypt, fantastically wealthy, and formerly a great empire itself. In 522,when Cambyses dies, the Persian Empire extends from the Aegean Sea and theMediterranean Sea to the west, all the way to the Indus River in what is nowPakistan. From the south really to what is now Sudan at the southern end of theNile River, and up north to include the European coast of the Hellespont and theregion and the waters of the straits, and the European coast of the Aegean Sea andcomes right up as far as the Danube River, nor is that the end of what he would liketo do.Cambyses launches an invasion of the territory beyond the Danube, which was nota national kingdom yet, just a region filled with different tribes which the Greekscalled Scythians, all the way north into Russia, all the way east to the CaucusesMountains and perhaps beyond. These horse-riding, tribal people called theScythians, didnt even engage in agriculture, but still lived off herds of animals.One of the generals of the Persian army is a certain Miltiades. Miltiades wasoriginally an Athenian, but his family had been sent to govern the GallipoliPeninsula. So, he lived there, and then when the Persians came and took thatterritory, he became a subject of the Great King and he became a general in theGreat Kings army. Kagan
  • The successor to Cyrus is Cambyses. In the years 530-522, he conquers theKingdom of Egypt, fantastically wealthy, and formerly a great empire itself. In 522,when Cambyses dies, the Persian Empire extends from the Aegean Sea and theMediterranean Sea to the west, all the way to the Indus River in what is nowPakistan. From the south really to what is now Sudan at the southern end of theNile River, and up north to include the European coast of the Hellespont and theregion and the waters of the straits, and the European coast of the Aegean Sea andcomes right up as far as the Danube River, nor is that the end of what he would liketo do.Cambyses launches an invasion of the territory beyond the Danube, which was nota national kingdom yet, just a region filled with different tribes which the Greekscalled Scythians, all the way north into Russia, all the way east to the CaucusesMountains and perhaps beyond. These horse-riding, tribal people called theScythians, didnt even engage in agriculture, but still lived off herds of animals.One of the generals of the Persian army is a certain Miltiades. Miltiades wasoriginally an Athenian, but his family had been sent to govern the GallipoliPeninsula. So, he lived there, and then when the Persians came and took thatterritory, he became a subject of the Great King and he became a general in theGreat Kings army. Kagan
  • The successor to Cyrus is Cambyses. In the years 530-522, he conquers theKingdom of Egypt, fantastically wealthy, and formerly a great empire itself. In 522,when Cambyses dies, the Persian Empire extends from the Aegean Sea and theMediterranean Sea to the west, all the way to the Indus River in what is nowPakistan. From the south really to what is now Sudan at the southern end of theNile River, and up north to include the European coast of the Hellespont and theregion and the waters of the straits, and the European coast of the Aegean Sea andcomes right up as far as the Danube River, nor is that the end of what he would liketo do.Cambyses launches an invasion of the territory beyond the Danube, which was nota national kingdom yet, just a region filled with different tribes which the Greekscalled Scythians, all the way north into Russia, all the way east to the CaucusesMountains and perhaps beyond. These horse-riding, tribal people called theScythians, didnt even engage in agriculture, but still lived off herds of animals.One of the generals of the Persian army is a certain Miltiades. Miltiades wasoriginally an Athenian, but his family had been sent to govern the GallipoliPeninsula. So, he lived there, and then when the Persians came and took thatterritory, he became a subject of the Great King and he became a general in theGreat Kings army. Kagan
  • The successor to Cyrus is Cambyses. In the years 530-522, he conquers theKingdom of Egypt, fantastically wealthy, and formerly a great empire itself. In 522,when Cambyses dies, the Persian Empire extends from the Aegean Sea and theMediterranean Sea to the west, all the way to the Indus River in what is nowPakistan. From the south really to what is now Sudan at the southern end of theNile River, and up north to include the European coast of the Hellespont and theregion and the waters of the straits, and the European coast of the Aegean Sea andcomes right up as far as the Danube River, nor is that the end of what he would liketo do.Cambyses launches an invasion of the territory beyond the Danube, which was nota national kingdom yet, just a region filled with different tribes which the Greekscalled Scythians, all the way north into Russia, all the way east to the CaucusesMountains and perhaps beyond. These horse-riding, tribal people called theScythians, didnt even engage in agriculture, but still lived off herds of animals.One of the generals of the Persian army is a certain Miltiades. Miltiades wasoriginally an Athenian, but his family had been sent to govern the GallipoliPeninsula. So, he lived there, and then when the Persians came and took thatterritory, he became a subject of the Great King and he became a general in theGreat Kings army. Kagan
  • Miltiades became the tyrant of the Greek colonies on the Thracian Chersonese (modern Gallipoli)Μιλτιάδης ὁ Νεώτερος(Miltiadēs the Younger) c. 550 BCE – 489 BCE
  • Miltiades became the tyrant of the Greek colonies on the Thracian Chersonese (modern Gallipoli) 513 BC-as a vassal of Darius I, he joined the Persian expedition against the Scythians. The Great King learned that he planned to destroy the Danube bridges, leaving him to die in the Steppes 499 BC-as an enemy of the Persians, he sided with the Ionian Revolt 492 BC when the revolt collapsed, he fled to Athens he became their resident general with expertiseΜιλτιάδης ὁ Νεώτερος on Persian military policy(Miltiadēs the Younger) c. 550 BCE – 489 BCE
  • So that is the situation at the beginning of the fifth century. The Persians havegained mastery of all the Greek states of Asia Minor. The relationship betweenthose cities and the King of Persia was the same as all of his subjects. He insistedthat the defeated states should give earth and water to him as a symbol of theirsubjection. There was no other relationship to the Great King, except of one ofcomplete subjugation.The Greeks considered this to be slavery. But the Persians were not unusually harshrulers. All that the king required was for the subject peoples to pay tribute and to domilitary or naval service under his command. If you did that, you were left alone.The characteristic regime was to have a tyrant appointed by the Great King in eachGreek city. Called satraps, they represented the king in the region. They hadabsolute control. Still we dont hear about any specially harsh treatment ofanybody. Thats the situation at the beginning of conflict between the Greeks of themainland and the Persian Empire---when the Ionian rebellion breaks out in AsiaMinor. Kagan
  • The Athenians vote to send a fleet and soldiers to assist Miletus and the other citiesin their rebellion.Herodotus has this wonderful phrase to describe the Athenian decision. “Theseships were the beginning of evils to the Greeks and the barbarians.” What hessaying is, here we have the beginning of the Persian Wars, my subject.The Ionian rebellion is one thing. Theoretically, if the Athenians had minded theirown business and not assisted the rebels, there need not have been a Persian War.But Herodotus is saying once the Athenians decided to participate---assist therebellion of their relatives in Ionia---this was the beginning of the Persian Wars forAthens. Kagan
  • Ionian Revolt, 499-98 BC
  • Ionian Revolt, 499-98 BC
  • In the year 493-2 Themistocles is elected the eponymous archon. He will play avery large role in the great Persian invasion of 480. He will be a participant in theBattle of Marathon too. Themistocles is a great champion of the navy. He hasconcluded for varieties of reasons, that Athens must have a much larger navy.Obviously,he is a member of that faction which thinks the Persians will attack. Hewishes to be ready and is eager to fight them. Themistocles wants to move the navalbase of Athens from Phaleron Bay, which is just an unfortified beach. The Athenianfleet, drawn up on the beach at Phaleron, should a Persian fleet come sailing up,theyre stuck.He begins to make Piraeus, about five miles up the coast, into the port of Athens,the naval base of Athens. It has three harbors, easily protected. If you fortify thePiraeus, then you have a secure port. Themistocles demonstrates what will be hispolicy for the rest of his life. The fact that hes chosen archon may be indicative ofthe mood in Athens, which is increasingly unwilling to accept the idea of a return ofHippeis and of Persian rule.The Spartans and the Athenians are allies. That doesnt mean that the Athenianshave joined the Peloponnesian League; they just established friendly relations afterbeing at odds for such a period of time. Kagan
  • In the year 493-2 Themistocles is elected the eponymous archon. He will play avery large role in the great Persian invasion of 480. He will be a participant in theBattle of Marathon too. Themistocles is a great champion of the navy. He hasconcluded for varieties of reasons, that Athens must have a much larger navy.Obviously,he is a member of that faction which thinks the Persians will attack. Hewishes to be ready and is eager to fight them. Themistocles wants to move the navalbase of Athens from Phaleron Bay, which is just an unfortified beach. The Athenianfleet, drawn up on the beach at Phaleron, should a Persian fleet come sailing up,theyre stuck.He begins to make Piraeus, about five miles up the coast, into the port of Athens,the naval base of Athens. It has three harbors, easily protected. If you fortify thePiraeus, then you have a secure port. Themistocles demonstrates what will be hispolicy for the rest of his life. The fact that hes chosen archon may be indicative ofthe mood in Athens, which is increasingly unwilling to accept the idea of a return ofHippeis and of Persian rule.The Spartans and the Athenians are allies. That doesnt mean that the Athenianshave joined the Peloponnesian League; they just established friendly relations afterbeing at odds for such a period of time. Kagan
  • In the year 493-2 Themistocles is elected the eponymous archon. He will play avery large role in the great Persian invasion of 480. He will be a participant in theBattle of Marathon too. Themistocles is a great champion of the navy. He hasconcluded for varieties of reasons, that Athens must have a much larger navy.Obviously,he is a member of that faction which thinks the Persians will attack. Hewishes to be ready and is eager to fight them. Themistocles wants to move the navalbase of Athens from Phaleron Bay, which is just an unfortified beach. The Athenianfleet, drawn up on the beach at Phaleron, should a Persian fleet come sailing up,theyre stuck.He begins to make Piraeus, about five miles up the coast, into the port of Athens,the naval base of Athens. It has three harbors, easily protected. If you fortify thePiraeus, then you have a secure port. Themistocles demonstrates what will be hispolicy for the rest of his life. The fact that hes chosen archon may be indicative ofthe mood in Athens, which is increasingly unwilling to accept the idea of a return ofHippeis and of Persian rule.The Spartans and the Athenians are allies. That doesnt mean that the Athenianshave joined the Peloponnesian League; they just established friendly relations afterbeing at odds for such a period of time. Kagan
  • In the year 493-2 Themistocles is elected the eponymous archon. He will play avery large role in the great Persian invasion of 480. He will be a participant in theBattle of Marathon too. Themistocles is a great champion of the navy. He hasconcluded for varieties of reasons, that Athens must have a much larger navy.Obviously,he is a member of that faction which thinks the Persians will attack. Hewishes to be ready and is eager to fight them. Themistocles wants to move the navalbase of Athens from Phaleron Bay, which is just an unfortified beach. The Athenianfleet, drawn up on the beach at Phaleron, should a Persian fleet come sailing up,theyre stuck.He begins to make Piraeus, about five miles up the coast, into the port of Athens,the naval base of Athens. It has three harbors, easily protected. If you fortify thePiraeus, then you have a secure port. Themistocles demonstrates what will be hispolicy for the rest of his life. The fact that hes chosen archon may be indicative ofthe mood in Athens, which is increasingly unwilling to accept the idea of a return ofHippeis and of Persian rule.The Spartans and the Athenians are allies. That doesnt mean that the Athenianshave joined the Peloponnesian League; they just established friendly relations afterbeing at odds for such a period of time. Kagan
  • In the year 493-2 Themistocles is elected the eponymous archon. He will play avery large role in the great Persian invasion of 480. He will be a participant in theBattle of Marathon too. Themistocles is a great champion of the navy. He hasconcluded for varieties of reasons, that Athens must have a much larger navy.Obviously,he is a member of that faction which thinks the Persians will attack. Hewishes to be ready and is eager to fight them. Themistocles wants to move the navalbase of Athens from Phaleron Bay, which is just an unfortified beach. The Athenianfleet, drawn up on the beach at Phaleron, should a Persian fleet come sailing up,theyre stuck.He begins to make Piraeus, about five miles up the coast, into the port of Athens,the naval base of Athens. It has three harbors, easily protected. If you fortify thePiraeus, then you have a secure port. Themistocles demonstrates what will be hispolicy for the rest of his life. The fact that hes chosen archon may be indicative ofthe mood in Athens, which is increasingly unwilling to accept the idea of a return ofHippeis and of Persian rule.The Spartans and the Athenians are allies. That doesnt mean that the Athenianshave joined the Peloponnesian League; they just established friendly relations afterbeing at odds for such a period of time. Kagan
  • In the year 493-2 Themistocles is elected the eponymous archon. He will play avery large role in the great Persian invasion of 480. He will be a participant in theBattle of Marathon too. Themistocles is a great champion of the navy. He hasconcluded for varieties of reasons, that Athens must have a much larger navy.Obviously,he is a member of that faction which thinks the Persians will attack. Hewishes to be ready and is eager to fight them. Themistocles wants to move the navalbase of Athens from Phaleron Bay, which is just an unfortified beach. The Athenianfleet, drawn up on the beach at Phaleron, should a Persian fleet come sailing up,theyre stuck.He begins to make Piraeus, about five miles up the coast, into the port of Athens,the naval base of Athens. It has three harbors, easily protected. If you fortify thePiraeus, then you have a secure port. Themistocles demonstrates what will be hispolicy for the rest of his life. The fact that hes chosen archon may be indicative ofthe mood in Athens, which is increasingly unwilling to accept the idea of a return ofHippeis and of Persian rule.The Spartans and the Athenians are allies. That doesnt mean that the Athenianshave joined the Peloponnesian League; they just established friendly relations afterbeing at odds for such a period of time. Kagan
  • The Persian invasion culminates in the battle of Marathon. The purpose is very simple, topunish those cities that have insulted and damaged the Great King, Athens and Eretria, torestore Hippeis to the tyranny in Athens from where he can serve as the kings satrap, andsurely also, to gain a foothold in Greece on the way to conquering all of Greece. Why shouldhe want to conquer all of Greece?Herodotus tells the story about his relative, he tells him, for Gods sake why do you want to goGreece? Theres nothing there but a lot rocks. What is the point of conquering the place? Itsone thing to conquer all of these rich places Egypt, Babylonia — thats fine, theres wealththere, theres huge populations, theres a lot of good stuff. Its just Greeks and rocks, why inthe world do you want to go there? The answer is that conquest is good. Its good to be strong,its good to be rich, its good to be powerful. Therefore, its good to be stronger, richer, andmore powerful. If theres somebody on your frontier, take them over, and that by the way willmake you still more glorious, because conquest is glory.Now, we in the West — thats not our natural attitude; our natural attitude is shaped inconsiderable part, whatever your religious association may be, by Christianity, which has beenthe dominant force in shaping peoples thinking in the West, as I say, whatever religion youbelong to, and that aspect of Christianity that it violates is the one thats increasingly the onethats emphasized by Christians, and that is the Sermon on the Mount. The one that says themeek shall inherit the earth, not the strong, and the tough, and so on. The one that says ifyour enemy strikes you, turn the other cheek so he can strike you there too. Now, if the Greekshad heard that, they would have said these people are lunatics. Send them away. Greekmorality said, be good to your friend, do good to your friend and harm to your enemies andthe second part is just as important as the first part. Kagan, unedited!
  • Its time for the invasion. The site of the battle, where did they go? Well, theypicked Marathon. First, as Herodotus says, because its a good place for cavalry;secondly, because its the stronghold of Peisistratus, the place which would benatural for an army trying to establish Hippeis on the throne of Athens; and thatswhy theyre there.Their plan is to go to Marathon. If the Athenians come out and challenge them to afight, they will crush the Athenians. But they didnt expect that. They thought theAthenians would be afraid, and that what would happen is they would stay there inMarathon, until they got the news that there was a revolution in Athens prepared toturn the city over to them. Thats what Hippeis, led them to believe, and thats whatthey hoped for.
  • Some [in Athens]favored remaining there, defending the city.But to defend Athens means to allow the Persians to run all around Attica doinganything they want, causing all the harm they could. Remember, something overseventy five percent, maybe as many as ninety percent of the Athenian citizens hadfarms out in the country, had houses out in the country that would have beenexposed to the Persians.That was good reason for them to think that was not a great idea.
  • Miltiades now emerges as the leading figure. Everybody knows Miltiades is theresident Persian expert. He has been a general in the Persian army. That gives hima reason to be listened to. His position was to go out and meet the Persians wherethey land.You dont let your enemy ravage your countryside. This goes all the way back toHomer, the notion of arêtē, a man must have courage, you must stand up againstan enemy who invades your country. After that, in the world of the hoplite, youretalking about defending your homestead. All of that argued for going out there.So the Athenian strategy was to contain the beachhead, go confront the Persians.They have landed at Marathon with about 25,000 infantry. Remember, theirinfantry are not hoplites. They do not have heavy armor. There are vases that showthe Persian soldiers at Marathon, and they are wearing pants, theyre not wearingany armor. Their shield is a kind of wicker shield, so that their armament is muchinferior to the hoplites. Keep in mind too, that the Persian army has always beenmade up of a collection of subject peoples. Kagan
  • Miltiades now emerges as the leading figure. Everybody knows Miltiades is theresident Persian expert. He has been a general in the Persian army. That gives hima reason to be listened to. His position was to go out and meet the Persians wherethey land.You dont let your enemy ravage your countryside. This goes all the way back toHomer, the notion of arêtē, a man must have courage, you must stand up againstan enemy who invades your country. After that, in the world of the hoplite, youretalking about defending your homestead. All of that argued for going out there.So the Athenian strategy was to contain the beachhead, go confront the Persians.They have landed at Marathon with about 25,000 infantry. Remember, theirinfantry are not hoplites. They do not have heavy armor. There are vases that showthe Persian soldiers at Marathon, and they are wearing pants, theyre not wearingany armor. Their shield is a kind of wicker shield, so that their armament is muchinferior to the hoplites. Keep in mind too, that the Persian army has always beenmade up of a collection of subject peoples. Kagan
  • Marathon, 490 BC
  • Marathon, 490 BC
  • Marathon, 490 BC
  • Marathon, 490 BC
  • On a cup from Athens,probably painted shortlyafter the Persian defeat atMarathon, a Greek hoplitefinishes off his Persianadversary. Fabric andleather protected Persianwarriors from head to toe,but they offered littlesafety from the spear andsword attacks of thearmored Greek hoplite. Hanson, The Wars, p. 82
  • Miltiades plan is this, there are something like 10,000 Greeks, about 9,000Athenians, about 1,000 Eretrians against let us say 25,000 Persians.The Greeks have the high ground. If the Persians want to start a fight, then they willhave to come running up the hill. Not a very attractive proposition. So the Greeksfeel, let them come for us. Its our country. So, theyre sitting here.Theyve got to do something; we dont.Meanwhile, the Persians are waiting for treason, so that the city will be surrenderedto them. A week goes by with the two sides looking at each other and doing nothing. Kagan
  • The Persians realize we cant sit here forever. For one thing were going to run outof food and water. For another thing, the Great King will want to hear something.Well, what do we do?So, here’s the plan the Persians made. They would take — let us say for the sake ofargument-- 10,000 troops, put them on the ships, load up the cavalry onto theships too and send those ships around Attica to come up to Phaleron Bay, thenstraight into Athens. Meanwhile take the 15,000 that are left, march them up asclose as they could get to the Greeks and fix the Greeks there, so that they cant goback to defend Athens. So if we come sailing into the harbor, get off the ships, walkup to town, its ours.If the Athenians are crazy enough to come running down the hill to beoutnumbered three to two by us, then let them do it! Anyway were Persians wealways beat Greeks, weve got nothing to worry about.So they come.
  • Now, Miltiades has the problem that they have 5,000 moretroops than he has. Hes worried about being outflanked. So,what he decides to do is to weaken the depth of his linebecause he must cover the length of the Persian line.
  • The Persians send a force by sea toMARATHON PHASE I attack Athens, leaving Datis to hold the Athenian forces on the plain of Marathon.
  • Miltiades, the Athenian The Persians send a force by sea toMARATHON PHASE I Commander, guessing the Persians’ attack Athens, leaving Datis to hold plan, urged an immediate attack. the Athenian forces on the plain of The Athenian force advance and Marathon. take position on the plain.
  • MARATHON PHASE II Sensing impending defeat the Persians begin to flee and embark on the transports just offshore. The Persians succeed in pushing back the Athenian center. It has been suggested that Datis organized a rear guard, allowing his defeated force to escape. However, he still lost almost 7,000The Plataeans on the left and the Athenians on the right men whilst the Greeks lost a mere 192.flank drive back the Persians and wheel inward,beginning to encircle the Persian force.
  • ...the old Athenian hoplite veterans of the running [unique for that battle] charge atMarathon. Much later, to remind a younger audience of that legendary sharedbattle experience, they needed to say simply, “We ran.” (Aristophanes,Acharnanians, 700) Hanson, The Western Way of War, p. 125
  • The battle was seen throughout the rest of Greek history, first of all, as a greatvictory for hoplites as opposed to their opponents. In later Greek history, when thenavy becomes a big thing, it is the old fashioned and more conservative party thatthinks about Marathon as the great victory, the day that those hoplite farmerssaved Greece. The navy guys, the poor, like to point to Salamis, the naval battle in480. It was seen as a victory for democracy; the Athenian democrat rowers. It wasthe first Greek defeat of the Persians. As Herodotus says, up until then even thename Persians was a fearful thing to the Greeks.It was a source of tremendous national pride and glory for Athens, and scholarshave compared the impact of the Battle of Marathon on the Athenian image ofthemselves with the defeat of the Spanish Armada by Elizabeths English fleet, thebeginning of the glory of the Elizabethan Era. It was seen as a victory for freedom,because the price of defeat would have been slavery in every sense, as theyunderstood it. Greek civilization, could have been strangled in its infancy; it is in itsinfancy!Still, we ought to pay attention to those people who suggest that people like me areover-embellishing the significance of all this. Kagan
  • The Athenians won the battle, very large casualties for the Persians. Only192 Greeks killed in the battle and allowed the extraordinary honor ofbeing buried on the field where they fought.Next day 2,000 Spartans come marching into Attica [too late for thebattle]. They ask permission — can we go to the battlefield and look at it?There they saw all these dead Persians. No one had ever seen anything likethat. No Greeks had ever beaten Persians before. Great was the glory of theAthenians.So what?What is the significance of this silly little battle 10,000 Greeks against15,000 Persians back a billion years ago? What does it matter? Lots of folkswill say that, especially these days.But I remember in 1936 there was a wonderful conference of pacifists, whomet in England, at which the dominant theme of the speakers was, no warever made any difference. What I like about that was that the place of themeeting was Hastings. [What happened there in 1066?--jbp] Kagan
  • One English statesman said war wins nothing, cures nothing, settles nothing; thespeaker was Neville Chamberlain. In 1936 Bertrand Russell would declare,disarmament and complete pacifism is indisputably the wisest policy, and he urgedthe gradual disbanding of the British Army, Navy and Air Force, as Hitler wasmoving into the Rhineland. Does victory in war make a difference?I would say ask the losers, the victims, and the survivors of the Holocaust. Ask thedescendants of the slaves in the American south. Remember this, if the Athenianshad lost at Marathon — Aeschylus had just begun his career as a playwright,Sophocles hadnt written a play, Euripides of course hadnt either, nor hadAristophanes. Socrates wasnt born yet, much less Plato, Aristotle, Phidias. Therewas no Parthenon, none of those glorious buildings that make us think about thegreatness that was Greece had been constructed.There would be no democracy, because this was the only place where it had anyexistence. The scientific revolution would have been wiped out.There would be no memory; there would be no record of any of this. Therefore, noWestern civilization, no political freedom, for none of these have occurred in anyother culture in all the years since that time. Thats why I wanted you to know alittle bit about the battle of Marathon. I think all of us alive today here owe a verygreat debt to the 10,000 marathonomachoi, the fighters of Marathon who foughtfor Greek freedom and for ours too. Thank you. Kagan
  • Xerxes, Mardonius (480 BC)
  • Black Sea Bosphorus Sea of MarmaraAegean SeaDardanelles orHellespont As the population of Athens grew in the 7th and 6th centuries, the Athenians became more and more dependent on this narrow waterway connecting them with the Black or Euxine Sea. Here were the wheat and metal exports so vital to their economy, their very survival.
  • According to Herodotus,Xerxes first attempt tobridge the Hellespontended in failure when astorm destroyed the flaxand papyrus cables of thebridges; Xerxes orderedthe Hellespont (the straititself) whipped threehundred times and hadfetters thrown into thewater. Xerxes secondattempt to bridge theHellespont wassuccessful.
  • Xerxes’ crossing of the Hellespont in the summer of 480, with a pontoon bridge formed byconnected boats, was famous in antiquity. Seen as a symbol of the vast resources of the Persianempire and its ability to conquer natural obstacles. This horde subsequently descended throughnorthern Greece to Thermopylae--a variegated force of Persians, Phoenicians, Lydians, Medes,Egyptians, and dozens more contingents of the Persian empire, joined by Ionian and mainlandGreeks. After Xerxes’ defeat at Salamis (September 480), a great part of the army rushed home inparanoid fear that the Greeks would destroy the bridge and trap them in Europe.
  • Leonidas marched into Thermopylae with about seven thousand men….Hedismissed the bulk of his forces….perhaps he knew his position was hopelessand wished to save as many soldiers as he could for future battles while stillinflicting damage and delay on the enemy. Only a small force of four hundredmen sent by the Thebans, the Thespians, and three hundred Spartansremained. Leonidas and his men defended the pass heroically and fellfighting, having slain many “immortals” including two brothers of Xerxes. OnXerxes’ orders the body of Leonidas was decapitated and displayed on a cross.The holding operation at Thermopylae not only bought time but went down inhistory as an extraordinary act of heroism. Pomeroy et.al., p 219
  • Leonidas marched into Thermopylae with about seven thousand men….Hedismissed the bulk of his forces….perhaps he knew his position was hopelessand wished to save as many soldiers as he could for future battles while stillinflicting damage and delay on the enemy. Only a small force of four hundredmen sent by the Thebans, the Thespians, and three hundred Spartansremained. Leonidas and his men defended the pass heroically and fellfighting, having slain many “immortals” including two brothers of Xerxes. OnXerxes’ orders the body of Leonidas was decapitated and displayed on a cross.The holding operation at Thermopylae not only bought time but went down inhistory as an extraordinary act of heroism. Pomeroy et.al., p 219
  • the terrain of Greece favoredthe defenderspasses in northern Thessaly,and at Thermopylae, togetherwith narrow entries into Boeotiaand along the Attic border couldbe garrisoned or blocked byhoplitesthe seacoast was irregularand the mountains of westernGreece made that region nearlyimpassable
  • the terrain of Greece favoredthe defenderspasses in northern Thessaly,and at Thermopylae, togetherwith narrow entries into Boeotiaand along the Attic border couldbe garrisoned or blocked byhoplitesthe seacoast was irregularand the mountains of westernGreece made that region nearly MOLON LABEimpassable COME, TAKE THEM!
  • Some have suggested that [the 2007 film] 300 is juvenile in its black-and-white plot and character depiction---and glorification---of free Greeks versusimperious Persians. Yet that good-bad contrast comes not entirely fromSnyder or Miller, but again is based on accounts from the Greeks themselves,who saw their own society as antithetical to the monarchy of imperial Persia Hanson, The Father of Us All, p. 54
  • Some have suggested that [the 2007 film] 300 is juvenile in its black-and-white plot and character depiction---and glorification---of free Greeks versusimperious Persians. Yet that good-bad contrast comes not entirely fromSnyder or Miller, but again is based on accounts from the Greeks themselves,who saw their own society as antithetical to the monarchy of imperial Persia Hanson, The Father of Us All, p. 54
  • 300 was released in both conventional and IMAX theaters in the United States on March 9, 2007, and onDVD, Blu-ray, and HD DVD on July 31, 2007. The films opening was the 24th largest in box officehistory… Wikipedia
  • παπαί, Μαρδόνιε, κοίους ἐπ ἄνδρας ἤγαγες µαχησοµένους ἡµέας, οἳ οὐπερὶ χρηµάτων τὸν ἀγῶνα ποιεῦνται ἀλλὰ περὶ ἀρετῆς.Papaí, Mardónie, koíous ep ándras ḗgages makhēsoménous hēméas, hoì ouperì khrēmátōn tòn agôna poieûntai allà perì aretês."Good heavens! Mardonius, what kind of men have you brought us to fightagainst? Men who do not compete for possessions, but for honour."Spontaneous response of Tigranes, a Persian general while Xerxes wasinterrogating some Arcadians after the Battle of Thermopylae. Xerxes asked whythere were so few Greek men defending the Thermopylae. The answer was "Allthe other men are participating in the Olympic Games". And when asked "What isthe prize for the winner?", "An olive-wreath" came the answer. — Herodotus, The Histories, quoted in Wikipedia, “List of Greek Phrases”
  • Not long before the Persian invasion, in the year 482, the silver mines in the south of Attica[at Laurion] had yielded an unusual strike. A vein of silver had been discovered,much morethan normal. So much so that something had to be decided by the Athenian assembly. Whatshould we do with the silver? Its a wonderful insight into the way Greeks thought about theirpolis. The first thought, the one that was most popular, was well, lets take the silver anddivide it up equally among ourselves. That in some sense the polis was a kind of joint stockcompany and when there was a nice dividend you just dole it out to the investors.Themistocles thought otherwise. Themistocles was — its evident — constantly aware of thethreat from Persia and of the importance of getting ready to fight the Persians, and heunderstood before most other Greeks that the navy was going to be really critical in thisoperation. So, he made the suggestion that the silver strike be used to build a whole fleet ofnew ships for the Athenians, and they end up with two hundred triremes (the trireme is thebattleship of the ancient Greeks). So, that is the core of the fleet which is the one that defeatsthe Persians at Salamis and defeats them again at Mycale.The Spartans were given command of the war against Persia, both on land and sea, but theSpartans didnt have any great skill or experience in naval matters, and the Athenians hadmore than they, and it was the Athenian portion of the fleet, which was the largest and themost effective in fighting those naval battles. And, of course, the battle of Salamis was foughtin Athenian waters and Themistocles, with his clever devices, had come up with the way ofwinning victory. First of all, compelling the Greeks to fight at Salamis and then winning thevictory at Salamis. Kagan
  • Not long before the Persian invasion, in the year 482, the silver mines in the south of Attica[at Laurion] had yielded an unusual strike. A vein of silver had been discovered,much morethan normal. So much so that something had to be decided by the Athenian assembly. Whatshould we do with the silver? Its a wonderful insight into the way Greeks thought about theirpolis. The first thought, the one that was most popular, was well, lets take the silver anddivide it up equally among ourselves. That in some sense the polis was a kind of joint stockcompany and when there was a nice dividend you just dole it out to the investors.Themistocles thought otherwise. Themistocles was — its evident — constantly aware of thethreat from Persia and of the importance of getting ready to fight the Persians, and heunderstood before most other Greeks that the navy was going to be really critical in thisoperation. So, he made the suggestion that the silver strike be used to build a whole fleet ofnew ships for the Athenians, and they end up with two hundred triremes (the trireme is thebattleship of the ancient Greeks). So, that is the core of the fleet which is the one that defeatsthe Persians at Salamis and defeats them again at Mycale.The Spartans were given command of the war against Persia, both on land and sea, but theSpartans didnt have any great skill or experience in naval matters, and the Athenians hadmore than they, and it was the Athenian portion of the fleet, which was the largest and themost effective in fighting those naval battles. And, of course, the battle of Salamis was foughtin Athenian waters and Themistocles, with his clever devices, had come up with the way ofwinning victory. First of all, compelling the Greeks to fight at Salamis and then winning thevictory at Salamis. Kagan
  • Not long before the Persian invasion, in the year 482, the silver mines in the south of Attica[at Laurion] had yielded an unusual strike. A vein of silver had been discovered,much morethan normal. So much so that something had to be decided by the Athenian assembly. Whatshould we do with the silver? Its a wonderful insight into the way Greeks thought about theirpolis. The first thought, the one that was most popular, was well, lets take the silver anddivide it up equally among ourselves. That in some sense the polis was a kind of joint stockcompany and when there was a nice dividend you just dole it out to the investors.Themistocles thought otherwise. Themistocles was — its evident — constantly aware of thethreat from Persia and of the importance of getting ready to fight the Persians, and heunderstood before most other Greeks that the navy was going to be really critical in thisoperation. So, he made the suggestion that the silver strike be used to build a whole fleet ofnew ships for the Athenians, and they end up with two hundred triremes (the trireme is thebattleship of the ancient Greeks). So, that is the core of the fleet which is the one that defeatsthe Persians at Salamis and defeats them again at Mycale.The Spartans were given command of the war against Persia, both on land and sea, but theSpartans didnt have any great skill or experience in naval matters, and the Athenians hadmore than they, and it was the Athenian portion of the fleet, which was the largest and themost effective in fighting those naval battles. And, of course, the battle of Salamis was foughtin Athenian waters and Themistocles, with his clever devices, had come up with the way ofwinning victory. First of all, compelling the Greeks to fight at Salamis and then winning thevictory at Salamis. Kagan
  • Not long before the Persian invasion, in the year 482, the silver mines in the south of Attica[at Laurion] had yielded an unusual strike. A vein of silver had been discovered,much morethan normal. So much so that something had to be decided by the Athenian assembly. Whatshould we do with the silver? Its a wonderful insight into the way Greeks thought about theirpolis. The first thought, the one that was most popular, was well, lets take the silver anddivide it up equally among ourselves. That in some sense the polis was a kind of joint stockcompany and when there was a nice dividend you just dole it out to the investors.Themistocles thought otherwise. Themistocles was — its evident — constantly aware of thethreat from Persia and of the importance of getting ready to fight the Persians, and heunderstood before most other Greeks that the navy was going to be really critical in thisoperation. So, he made the suggestion that the silver strike be used to build a whole fleet ofnew ships for the Athenians, and they end up with two hundred triremes (the trireme is thebattleship of the ancient Greeks). So, that is the core of the fleet which is the one that defeatsthe Persians at Salamis and defeats them again at Mycale.The Spartans were given command of the war against Persia, both on land and sea, but theSpartans didnt have any great skill or experience in naval matters, and the Athenians hadmore than they, and it was the Athenian portion of the fleet, which was the largest and themost effective in fighting those naval battles. And, of course, the battle of Salamis was foughtin Athenian waters and Themistocles, with his clever devices, had come up with the way ofwinning victory. First of all, compelling the Greeks to fight at Salamis and then winning thevictory at Salamis. Kagan
  • Not long before the Persian invasion, in the year 482, the silver mines in the south of Attica[at Laurion] had yielded an unusual strike. A vein of silver had been discovered,much morethan normal. So much so that something had to be decided by the Athenian assembly. Whatshould we do with the silver? Its a wonderful insight into the way Greeks thought about theirpolis. The first thought, the one that was most popular, was well, lets take the silver anddivide it up equally among ourselves. That in some sense the polis was a kind of joint stockcompany and when there was a nice dividend you just dole it out to the investors.Themistocles thought otherwise. Themistocles was — its evident — constantly aware of thethreat from Persia and of the importance of getting ready to fight the Persians, and heunderstood before most other Greeks that the navy was going to be really critical in thisoperation. So, he made the suggestion that the silver strike be used to build a whole fleet ofnew ships for the Athenians, and they end up with two hundred triremes (the trireme is thebattleship of the ancient Greeks). So, that is the core of the fleet which is the one that defeatsthe Persians at Salamis and defeats them again at Mycale.The Spartans were given command of the war against Persia, both on land and sea, but theSpartans didnt have any great skill or experience in naval matters, and the Athenians hadmore than they, and it was the Athenian portion of the fleet, which was the largest and themost effective in fighting those naval battles. And, of course, the battle of Salamis was foughtin Athenian waters and Themistocles, with his clever devices, had come up with the way ofwinning victory. First of all, compelling the Greeks to fight at Salamis and then winning thevictory at Salamis. Kagan
  • Not long before the Persian invasion, in the year 482, the silver mines in the south of Attica[at Laurion] had yielded an unusual strike. A vein of silver had been discovered,much morethan normal. So much so that something had to be decided by the Athenian assembly. Whatshould we do with the silver? Its a wonderful insight into the way Greeks thought about theirpolis. The first thought, the one that was most popular, was well, lets take the silver anddivide it up equally among ourselves. That in some sense the polis was a kind of joint stockcompany and when there was a nice dividend you just dole it out to the investors.Themistocles thought otherwise. Themistocles was — its evident — constantly aware of thethreat from Persia and of the importance of getting ready to fight the Persians, and heunderstood before most other Greeks that the navy was going to be really critical in thisoperation. So, he made the suggestion that the silver strike be used to build a whole fleet ofnew ships for the Athenians, and they end up with two hundred triremes (the trireme is thebattleship of the ancient Greeks). So, that is the core of the fleet which is the one that defeatsthe Persians at Salamis and defeats them again at Mycale.The Spartans were given command of the war against Persia, both on land and sea, but theSpartans didnt have any great skill or experience in naval matters, and the Athenians hadmore than they, and it was the Athenian portion of the fleet, which was the largest and themost effective in fighting those naval battles. And, of course, the battle of Salamis was foughtin Athenian waters and Themistocles, with his clever devices, had come up with the way ofwinning victory. First of all, compelling the Greeks to fight at Salamis and then winning thevictory at Salamis. Kagan
  • Not long before the Persian invasion, in the year 482, the silver mines in the south of Attica[at Laurion] had yielded an unusual strike. A vein of silver had been discovered,much morethan normal. So much so that something had to be decided by the Athenian assembly. Whatshould we do with the silver? Its a wonderful insight into the way Greeks thought about theirpolis. The first thought, the one that was most popular, was well, lets take the silver anddivide it up equally among ourselves. That in some sense the polis was a kind of joint stockcompany and when there was a nice dividend you just dole it out to the investors.Themistocles thought otherwise. Themistocles was — its evident — constantly aware of thethreat from Persia and of the importance of getting ready to fight the Persians, and heunderstood before most other Greeks that the navy was going to be really critical in thisoperation. So, he made the suggestion that the silver strike be used to build a whole fleet ofnew ships for the Athenians, and they end up with two hundred triremes (the trireme is thebattleship of the ancient Greeks). So, that is the core of the fleet which is the one that defeatsthe Persians at Salamis and defeats them again at Mycale.The Spartans were given command of the war against Persia, both on land and sea, but theSpartans didnt have any great skill or experience in naval matters, and the Athenians hadmore than they, and it was the Athenian portion of the fleet, which was the largest and themost effective in fighting those naval battles. And, of course, the battle of Salamis was foughtin Athenian waters and Themistocles, with his clever devices, had come up with the way ofwinning victory. First of all, compelling the Greeks to fight at Salamis and then winning thevictory at Salamis. Kagan
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7da52cJLwW8
  • The last hope of Hellenic civilization to defeat an empire twenty times larger thanits own was to force a battle at Salamis….The Athenian refugees were huddled in makeshift quarters on the nearby islands ofSalamis and Aegina and on the coast of the Argolid, their very culture [and WesternCivilization] on the verge of extinction. We must remember that when Salamis wasfought, the Athenians had already lost their homeland. The battle was an effort notto save, but to reclaim, their ancestral ground. Hanson, Carnage, p. 43
  • “When Xerxes’ remaining 800 ships entered theBay of Phalerum, the Peloponnesians were forwithdrawing“Themistocles used all his powers of persuasion,arguing to stand and fight there“the shores of Salamis and the mainland nullifiedthe Persian numerical advantage
  • “When Xerxes’ remaining 800 ships entered theBay of Phalerum, the Peloponnesians were forwithdrawing“Themistocles used all his powers of persuasion,arguing to stand and fight there“the shores of Salamis and the mainland nullifiedthe Persian numerical advantage
  • “When Xerxes’ remaining 800 ships entered theBay of Phalerum, the Peloponnesians were forwithdrawing“Themistocles used all his powers of persuasion,arguing to stand and fight there“the shores of Salamis and the mainland nullifiedthe Persian numerical advantage“Moreover, there were no unwilling levies amongthe Greeks but men fighting for their lives andhomes, whereas the Persians were mostlyconscripts and mercenaries“Lastly, the Greeks wore metal breastplates andthe Persians did not.” Potter, ed. Sea Power, p. 9
  • A king sate on the rocky brow Which looks oer sea-born Salamis And ships, by thousands, lay below, And men in nations;—all were his! He counted them at break of day—And when the sun set where were they? the philhellene Lord Byron Don Juan, Canto iii, 1819
  • the battle of Plataea, 479 BC
  • Plataea, fought in a small valley about ten miles south of Thebes almost a year afterthe Greeks’ mastery at Salamis, was a magnificent Greek triumph, resulting in thedestruction of the remaining Persian infantry in the field and marking the finalexpulsion of the king’s infantry forces from Greece. Yet that landmark battle--where the Persian general Mardonius was killed and most of the remainingPersians slaughtered or scattered--is understood only in the context of the tactical,strategic and spiritual success of Salamis the September before, which energizedthe Greeks to press on with the war. Hanson, op. cit., p. 40
  • Two great battles decided the outcome of the war finally.On land, the battle of Plataea in southern Boeotia, in which a great Greek army,which included the [31] major cities including especially Sparta and Athens, tookon a powerful Persian army and defeated them.Herodotus says on the very same day a sea battle was fought off the coast of AsiaMinor at Mycale. Again, the Greek fleet destroyed the Persian fleet. At that pointthe Persians had no choice but simply to flee, to try to escape the Greeks, who werepursuing them, doing their best to kill as many of them as they could. Kagan
  • Although Greek historical sources tend to depict Persian history as the gradualdegeneration of the mighty empire established by Cyrus the Great...the Persianswere not decisively defeated by European forces until their conquest by Alexanderthe Great (334-323 BC). They continued to play an influential in Greek politics,both in civic disputes and in rivalries between Greek states, favoring now one side,now another, providing refuge for exiles and soldiers of fortune including theAthenians Hippias, Themistocles, Alcibiades, and Xenophon and the SpartansDemaratus and Pausanias. The Spartan victory in the Peloponnesian War of thelate fifth century would have been impossible without Persian backing…. Pomeroy & al., op. cit., p. 223
  • STRUGGLE FOR HEGEMONY
  • TheAthenian Empire
  • Hegemony (UK: /hɨˈɡɛməni/; US: /ˈhɛdʒɨmoʊni/, /hɨˈdʒɛməni/; Greek:ἡγεµονία hēgemonía, leadership, rule) is an indirect form of imperial dominance inwhich the hegemon (leader state) rules sub-ordinate states by the implied means ofpower rather than direct military force.[1] In Ancient Greece (8th c. BC – AD 6thc.), hegemony denoted the politico–military dominance of a city-state over othercity-states.[2]__________ 1. Ross Hassig, Mexico and the Spanish Conquest (1994), pp. 23–24. 2. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition (1994) p. 1215. Wikipedia
  • CHRONOLOGY OF THEπεντηκονταετία (FIFTY YEARS) 481-the second Persian invasion 459-so-called “First Peloponnesian War” begins winter 445/46-the “Thirty Years Peace” 431-the Peloponnesian War begins (only 13 years later!)
  • One thing we need to understand or we wont comprehend the situation at all.We know that the Persian wars are over. We know that the Persians just ran awayand werent going to come back and challenge this Greek victory for the longest time,but the Greeks didnt know it.The Persian Empire was still intact; it was still an extraordinarily extensive, rich, andpowerful empire. There was no reason why the Greeks should not believe that thePersians would be coming again.If we dont grasp that, then all of what they do now makes no sense. Kagan
  • Now, after Mycale, a very important event took place... There was a conference heldon the island of Samos, ... one of the most important of the Ionian islands ... TheGreek council that had been conducting the war [met there.] The island states ofChios, Lesbos, and Samos...the three largest, most important islands off the coastof Asia Minor. All of them had taken advantage of the presence of the Greek forcesin that region to rebel against the Persians. Now they wanted to be admitted to theleague that the Greeks had formed in 481 to resist the Persian invasion.Now, this might seem like a simple thing to do. Why not accept these three Greekstates, all of them potentially powerful and important, who want join the GreekLeague. Kagan
  • Now, after Mycale, a very important event took place... There was a conference heldon the island of Samos, ... one of the most important of the Ionian islands ... TheGreek council that had been conducting the war [met there.] The island states ofChios, Lesbos, and Samos...the three largest, most important islands off the coastof Asia Minor. All of them had taken advantage of the presence of the Greek forcesin that region to rebel against the Persians. Now they wanted to be admitted to theleague that the Greeks had formed in 481 to resist the Persian invasion.Now, this might seem like a simple thing to do. Why not accept these three Greekstates, all of them potentially powerful and important, who want join the GreekLeague. Kagan
  • Now, after Mycale, a very important event took place... There was a conference heldon the island of Samos, ... one of the most important of the Ionian islands ... TheGreek council that had been conducting the war [met there.] The island states ofChios, Lesbos, and Samos...the three largest, most important islands off the coastof Asia Minor. All of them had taken advantage of the presence of the Greek forcesin that region to rebel against the Persians. Now they wanted to be admitted to theleague that the Greeks had formed in 481 to resist the Persian invasion.Now, this might seem like a simple thing to do. Why not accept these three Greekstates, all of them potentially powerful and important, who want join the GreekLeague. Kagan
  • Now, after Mycale, a very important event took place... There was a conference heldon the island of Samos, ... one of the most important of the Ionian islands ... TheGreek council that had been conducting the war [met there.] The island states ofChios, Lesbos, and Samos...the three largest, most important islands off the coastof Asia Minor. All of them had taken advantage of the presence of the Greek forcesin that region to rebel against the Persians. Now they wanted to be admitted to theleague that the Greeks had formed in 481 to resist the Persian invasion.Now, this might seem like a simple thing to do. Why not accept these three Greekstates, all of them potentially powerful and important, who want join the GreekLeague. Kagan
  • Now, after Mycale, a very important event took place... There was a conference heldon the island of Samos, ... one of the most important of the Ionian islands ... TheGreek council that had been conducting the war [met there.] The island states ofChios, Lesbos, and Samos...the three largest, most important islands off the coastof Asia Minor. All of them had taken advantage of the presence of the Greek forcesin that region to rebel against the Persians. Now they wanted to be admitted to theleague that the Greeks had formed in 481 to resist the Persian invasion.Now, this might seem like a simple thing to do. Why not accept these three Greekstates, all of them potentially powerful and important, who want join the GreekLeague. Kagan
  • Chios, Samos, and Lesbos wanted to be sure that they would be protected by thisGreek Leaguebasically the Spartans said no. There wasnt much danger that the Persians wouldpresent a threat to the Spartan predominance in the Peloponnesusthe Athenians held the opposite view, their situation was quite different. They wereaccustomed to the sea. Moreover they had very important supply lines. In order tofeed themselves they needed to have freedom of the seasfor those reasons alone, the Athenians would have had to take seriously this requestby the islanders. But its also true that the islanders, Samos particularly, wereIonians, kinsmen of the Athenians. The Athenians were recognized as the leader ofthe Ionian people Kagan
  • But most strikingly, the Athenians understood the Persians have to be kept awayfrom the Aegean Sea and the Athenians also wanted very much to liberate theGreeks of Asia Minor from the Persian rule. So, the Athenians won the argument; itwas agreed to take these three island states into the Greek League and that meantthat the Greeks would be committed to protect them.In accordance with these decisions, the commander of the Spartan fleet, KingLeotychidas sailed home and took his Spartans, and his Peloponnesians with him.On the other hand, the commander of the Athenian fleet, Xanthippus stayed, andcarried on the war against the Persians in the area. Xanthippus has a son in theyear 479 whose name is Pericles, and we will be hearing a lot about him later on.The Persians have fled but there are a few places in Europe that, along the route oftheir escape, where the Persians still had control of a town or a city here and there,and one of the most important was the town of Sestos, located on the Europeanside of the Dardanelles. So Xanthippus took the city by siege. Kagan
  • But most strikingly, the Athenians understood the Persians have to be kept awayfrom the Aegean Sea and the Athenians also wanted very much to liberate theGreeks of Asia Minor from the Persian rule. So, the Athenians won the argument; itwas agreed to take these three island states into the Greek League and that meantthat the Greeks would be committed to protect them.In accordance with these decisions, the commander of the Spartan fleet, KingLeotychidas sailed home and took his Spartans, and his Peloponnesians with him.On the other hand, the commander of the Athenian fleet, Xanthippus stayed, andcarried on the war against the Persians in the area. Xanthippus has a son in theyear 479 whose name is Pericles, and we will be hearing a lot about him later on.The Persians have fled but there are a few places in Europe that, along the route oftheir escape, where the Persians still had control of a town or a city here and there,and one of the most important was the town of Sestos, located on the Europeanside of the Dardanelles. So Xanthippus took the city by siege. Kagan
  • But most strikingly, the Athenians understood the Persians have to be kept awayfrom the Aegean Sea and the Athenians also wanted very much to liberate theGreeks of Asia Minor from the Persian rule. So, the Athenians won the argument; itwas agreed to take these three island states into the Greek League and that meantthat the Greeks would be committed to protect them.In accordance with these decisions, the commander of the Spartan fleet, KingLeotychidas sailed home and took his Spartans, and his Peloponnesians with him.On the other hand, the commander of the Athenian fleet, Xanthippus stayed, andcarried on the war against the Persians in the area. Xanthippus has a son in theyear 479 whose name is Pericles, and we will be hearing a lot about him later on.The Persians have fled but there are a few places in Europe that, along the route oftheir escape, where the Persians still had control of a town or a city here and there,and one of the most important was the town of Sestos, located on the Europeanside of the Dardanelles. So Xanthippus took the city by siege. Kagan
  • But most strikingly, the Athenians understood the Persians have to be kept awayfrom the Aegean Sea and the Athenians also wanted very much to liberate theGreeks of Asia Minor from the Persian rule. So, the Athenians won the argument; itwas agreed to take these three island states into the Greek League and that meantthat the Greeks would be committed to protect them.In accordance with these decisions, the commander of the Spartan fleet, KingLeotychidas sailed home and took his Spartans, and his Peloponnesians with him.On the other hand, the commander of the Athenian fleet, Xanthippus stayed, andcarried on the war against the Persians in the area. Xanthippus has a son in theyear 479 whose name is Pericles, and we will be hearing a lot about him later on.The Persians have fled but there are a few places in Europe that, along the route oftheir escape, where the Persians still had control of a town or a city here and there,and one of the most important was the town of Sestos, located on the Europeanside of the Dardanelles. So Xanthippus took the city by siege. Kagan
  • The point of all this is that there is something new in the Greek world, a bigAthenian navy, an extraordinarily capable navy. The whole idea of naval powerbeing decisive in Greek affairs is a new idea. Were really at another level after theAthenians have built this fleet and had the success that they had.Another consequence of the war was the tremendous boost to Greek self-confidence. What an incredible upset this victory was! No one would have imaginedthat, if the Great King got really serious and sent over an army of a hundred or twohundred thousand (?)—it is widely agreed Herodotus numbers are exaggerated--but its a very big army, a very big navy. Certainly both outnumbered the Greeks.Anybody would have thought it was going to be an easy victory for the Persians.To defeat them was enormous. The Greeks came away feeling that their belief intheir own superiority over everybody else had been justified. The Athenians,especially, because of the central role which they had played. Kagan
  • PANHELLENISMpreviously there had been some sense of Greek unity and identity at thePanhellenic games and religious festivalsbut this couldn’t match the tremendous boost which this victory imparted tothese thirty-one states that had banded together to defeat the Persians“I dont mean to say that the Greeks are formed now into a single people,have retreated from their localism and their love for their polis; nothingcould be further from the truth. But alongside of their love of autonomy andlove of their polis, there was the idea that Panhellenism was a good thingKagan’s analogies of the League and the UN, post-war idealismVenizelos’ Μεγάλη Ιδέα
  • PANHELLENISMpreviously there had been some sense of Greek unity and identity at thePanhellenic games and religious festivalsbut this couldn’t match the tremendous boost which this victory imparted tothese thirty-one states that had banded together to defeat the Persians“I dont mean to say that the Greeks are formed now into a single people,have retreated from their localism and their love for their polis; nothingcould be further from the truth. But alongside of their love of autonomy andlove of their polis, there was the idea that Panhellenism was a good thingKagan’s analogies of the League and the UN, post-war idealismVenizelos’ Μεγάλη Ιδέα
  • Another consequence of the war was a division within the Greek world that was inpart based upon the fact that Athens had become a great power and had played oneof the leading roles in the victory. Now, the Spartans had too; the Spartans were theofficial leaders, and their regent [Pausanias] had been the commander at the greatland battle at Plataea and their general was in charge of the navy, but Athens hadbecome so important, so big, so successful that there was now a question — wasSparta really the leader of the Greeks? Was the future going to be one in which theSpartans would maintain the unique leadership of the Greeks or would theAthenians challenge them? Kagan
  • It soon became clear that the Athenians would indeed challenge them. The major theme inHellenic relations for the next fifty years [481-431, the πεντηκονταετία--Thucydides] will be theconflict between Athens and Sparta. A cold war, because there is no fighting between themfrom 479 until 457. And when that war ends there is a another period of peace until the greatPeloponnesian War which dominates the last third of the century. Whats clear now is thatthere must be some new alignment to reflect the change in power.Behind it all stood the question was Persia going to be a threat once again. The Spartans andthe Peloponnesians were more likely to take the view that the threat was over. The Athenians,the islanders, and the Asiatic Greeks, would take the view that there is an imminent dangerfrom the Persians.Now, let me describe the way in which a new plan for dealing with the Persians arose. [Kagangoes back in time!] It’s 481, the year when Xerxes starts his march from the Persian empireagainst the Greeks. Aware that this was happening, the Greeks met at Corinth where thirty-one cities swore that they would fight together to defeat the Persians. They appointed Spartaofficially as the hegemon, the leader of that league. This meant the Spartans would be incommand on land and sea once the battles commenced. But, prior to that, the decisions as towhat to do, where to go to fight, when to fight and so on, were made by the council of theGreeks. Kagan
  • THE LEAGUE OF 481 BCa league of equals, but with both Sparta and Athens being “more equal”still, as hegemon, Sparta was not the dominant partner as she was in the PeloponnesianLeague. The membership of the two leagues is different as are their ground rulesthey swear this common oath; the members will fight for the common freedom, to free theGreeks in the islands, in Asia Minorit is to be perpetual. They agree to put aside the quarrels which they may have had, to havethe same friends and enemies, the famous clause that means a common foreign policya symmachia (lit. “fight alongside”), a defensive-offensive alliance. Each state would fundits own forces. No scheduled meetings--”when necessary”the first Pan-Hellenic expedition since the Trojan War!
  • TENSIONS OVER ATHENIANDEFENSE PLANS478-Athens began to rebuild her walls which the Persians had destroyed in 480. Sparta isconcerned. Themistocles says that it’s none of their business477-representatives from Athens and dozens of other Greek states met at Delos to form ananti-Persian league [soon called the Delian League]ultimately some 150 states, small and large will joinSparta proves uninterested in this largely maritime enterprise, but jealous of the prestigeAthens gains as its leadermembers contributed either ships or money which Athens administeredMiltiades’ son Kimon (Κίµων — Kimōn) commanded the Greek force which fought thePersians and their satellite states on both sea and land for the next quarter century
  • 480-479--after fighting at Salamis he was madestrategos (general, here admiral) Κίµων — Kimōn 510, Athens – 450 BC, Citium, Cyprus Bust of Kimon in Larnaca, Cyprus
  • 480-479--after fighting at Salamis he was madestrategos (general, here admiral)466-his greatest exploit was the destruction of aPersian fleet and army at the battle of theEurymedon (200 Phoenician triremes werecaptured) Κίµων — Kimōn 510, Athens – 450 BC, Citium, Cyprus Bust of Kimon in Larnaca, Cyprus
  • 480-479--after fighting at Salamis he was madestrategos (general, here admiral)466-his greatest exploit was the destruction of aPersian fleet and army at the battle of theEurymedon (200 Phoenician triremes werecaptured)465-463-he conducted the difficult campaignagainst Thasos, a rebelling island member of theDelian League462-he led an unsuccessful expedition to supportSparta during a helot uprising Κίµων — Kimōn 510, Athens – 450 BC, Citium, Cyprus Bust of Kimon in Larnaca, Cyprus
  • 480-479--after fighting at Salamis he was madestrategos (general, here admiral)466-his greatest exploit was the destruction of aPersian fleet and army at the battle of theEurymedon (200 Phoenician triremes werecaptured)465-463-he conducted the difficult campaignagainst Thasos, a rebelling island member of theDelian League462-he led an unsuccessful expedition to supportSparta during a helot uprising461-ostracism-the “democratic party” under Κίµων — KimōnEphialtes and Pericles were critical of his 510, Athens – 450 BC, Citium, Cyprus Bust of Kimon in Larnaca, Cyprusaristocratic, pro-Spartan policy
  • ...this [joint military policy] shows that the league was working, as it was supposedto. Then (if the dates are right) in the next year 469 [Wikipedia gives 466], comes avery important turning point in the history of the league.The Persians had a fleet in the in the eastern Mediterranean on the southern coastof Asia Minor, the Eurymedon river flows out there. They had a fleet and an armyinland. The league forces went there under the command of Kimon, crushed thePersian fleet at sea, landed and defeated the Persian army on land. A terrible blowto the Persian position. Apparently the Persians had to pull back from that entirearea.Now, it would not have been at all unreasonable for people to think: well, thePersian threat really is over. This went far beyond what happened in 479. Its notjust that weve driven them out of Europe. Weve driven them away from theMediterranean. You could imagine that thats the end of the Persian threat. Kagan
  • That was not the view taken by the Athenians, or by most of the allies, but we canimagine that there were some of the allies, who were restless about the need tocontinue to contribute to the league when they didnt feel that there was anypurpose to the league anymore. General Grunther, a commander of NATO, obviously a West Point man,educated, he knew all about Thucydides and the Peloponnesian War. He made theanalogy between NATO and the Delian League. At a period when he felt that theAmerican allies in Europe were more and more reluctant to make the kinds ofcontributions that he thought they should make, he bewailed his situation. Everytime the Russians looked like they were going to behave, then the allies decidedthey didnt want to make any contributions, and then when the Russians lookedscary, everybody came running and said, sure well contribute. He suggested thatsthe way it was in the Delian League too.[After 466] there are real questions as to whether the league should persist. Kagan
  • KAGAN’S ANALOGY OF THE THREELEAGUESGreek League of 481=United Nations OrganizationDelian League of 478=NATOPeloponnesian League=Warsaw PactNotice how he goes beyond General Grunther’s analogy. Now the hostileSpartans (USSR) and their allies (Warsaw Pact, ”brotherly socialistcountries”) have become Athens’ enemies. Not the Persians!
  • The Athenians certainly had no plan of abandoning the league, of abandoning theirleadership, of giving up their assaults on the Persians. [If league members shouldattempt to break] away, the Athenians would [respond].A very important turning point in the character of the league occurred in 465 whenthe Island of Thasos in the northern Aegean Sea rebelled. Kagan
  • Thasos did not object to doing the duty which the members of the leaguehad to do. It was not about not wanting to take part in campaigns, notwanting to make payments. No nothing like that. There was a quarrelbetween the Athenians and the Thasians about some mines that wereworked on the mainland north of Thasos. Gold and silver, very rich preciousmetal sources for the ancient Greek world, of which there were not many,located on Mount Pangaean. Both states claimed those mines. It was aquarrel that was really just about money.There was also a trading post up there which both sides claimed.TheAthenians had established a colony at a place on the Strymon River in thatregion called ennea-hodoi, the nine roads, which would later, when theAthenians established it as the colony would be called Amphipolis.
  • PangaeanThasos did not object to doing the duty which the members of the leaguehad to do. It was not about not wanting to take part in campaigns, notwanting to make payments. No nothing like that. There was a quarrelbetween the Athenians and the Thasians about some mines that wereworked on the mainland north of Thasos. Gold and silver, very rich preciousmetal sources for the ancient Greek world, of which there were not many,located on Mount Pangaean. Both states claimed those mines. It was aquarrel that was really just about money.There was also a trading post up there which both sides claimed.TheAthenians had established a colony at a place on the Strymon River in thatregion called ennea-hodoi, the nine roads, which would later, when theAthenians established it as the colony would be called Amphipolis.
  • Strymon River PangaeanThasos did not object to doing the duty which the members of the leaguehad to do. It was not about not wanting to take part in campaigns, notwanting to make payments. No nothing like that. There was a quarrelbetween the Athenians and the Thasians about some mines that wereworked on the mainland north of Thasos. Gold and silver, very rich preciousmetal sources for the ancient Greek world, of which there were not many,located on Mount Pangaean. Both states claimed those mines. It was aquarrel that was really just about money.There was also a trading post up there which both sides claimed.TheAthenians had established a colony at a place on the Strymon River in thatregion called ennea-hodoi, the nine roads, which would later, when theAthenians established it as the colony would be called Amphipolis.
  • Strymon River PangaeanThasos did not object to doing the duty which the members of the leaguehad to do. It was not about not wanting to take part in campaigns, notwanting to make payments. No nothing like that. There was a quarrelbetween the Athenians and the Thasians about some mines that wereworked on the mainland north of Thasos. Gold and silver, very rich preciousmetal sources for the ancient Greek world, of which there were not many,located on Mount Pangaean. Both states claimed those mines. It was aquarrel that was really just about money.There was also a trading post up there which both sides claimed.TheAthenians had established a colony at a place on the Strymon River in thatregion called ennea-hodoi, the nine roads, which would later, when theAthenians established it as the colony would be called Amphipolis.
  • Thasos did not object to doing the duty which the members of the league had to do. It was not about not wanting totake part in campaigns, not wanting to make payments. No nothing like that. There was a quarrel between theAthenians and the Thasians about some mines that were worked on the mainland north of Thasos. Gold and silver,very rich precious metal sources for the ancient Greek world, of which there were not many, located on MountPangaean. Both states claimed those mines and it was a quarrel that was really just about money.There was also a trading post up there which both sides claimed.The Athenians had established a colony at a placeon the Strymon River in that region called ennea-hodoi, the nine roads, which would later, when the Atheniansestablished it as the colony would be called Amphipolis.These were all issues which the Thasians didnt like. The Athenians were movinginto their sphere of influence and giving them trouble. So Thasos, as a consequenceof all of these quarrels, rebelled. It was a very difficult siege for the Athenians.Thasos is a relatively big island. The Thasians were a pretty tough group to putdown, and the siege, actually the war, between Athens and Thasos took two years,which is quite a long stretch for any Greek combat and certainly had not beentypical of what the Athenians had been able to do against other rebellions. Whenthe Thasians were finally forced to surrender, the Athenians gave them the usualtreatment to rebellious states. Kagan
  • THEY MADE THEM TAKE DOWN THEIR WALLSTHEY TOOK THEIR SHIPSOF COURSE THE ATHENIANS TOOK OVER THE MINESTHE THASIANS HAD TO PAY AN INDEMNITY, THE COST TO ATHENSOF THE WARTHEN, THE ANNUAL TRIBUTE WHICH MEMBERS OF THE LEAGUEWERE REQUIRED TO PAY
  • That wasnt the first time such a thing had happened to one of the members of theleague. What made it different was that the quarrel was not over anything that had todo with the league.It could easily be seen that the Athenians used the forces and the funds of the leagueto achieve strictly Athenian advantages. After all, there was no way that the league[had a stake in whether] Athens or Thasos exploited those mines. It was not an issuefor the league at all, and yet the Athenians had used their position as leaders of theleague to gain an economic advantage.The Thasian rebellion is a critical moment. That is a good place for us to look at theevaluation that the ancient writers made of this transition. Kagan
  • ONE ANCIENTOPINION“In general, Athenians were making great gains in powerand no longer treated their allies with decency as they haddone before. Instead, they ruled with arrogance andviolence. For this reason, most of their allies could not beartheir harshness and spoke to one another of rebellion. Someof them even disdained the league council and actedaccording to their own wishes.” Diodorus Siculis [of Sicily], quoted by Kagan
  • BUT, ON THE OTHERHAND“Now, while there were other causes of revolts, the principal ones were thefailures in bringing in the tribute or their quota of ships, and in some cases,refusal of military service. For the Athenians exacted the tribute strictly andgave offense by applying coercive measures to any who were accustomed orunwilling to bear the hardships of service. In some other respects too, theAthenians were no longer equally agreeable as leaders. They would not takepart in expeditions on terms of equality and they found it easy to reducethose who had revolted."[Now, heres where Thucydides differs from Diodorus,] "For all this, the allies themselves were responsible for most of them onaccount of their aversion to military service, in order to avoid being awayfrom home got themselves rated in sums of money instead of ships, whichthey should pay in as their proportion of contribution. Consequently, thefleet of the Athenians was increased by the funds which they contributed,while they themselves, whenever they revolted entered on the war withoutpreparation and without experience." Thucydides, quoted by Kagan
  • So, Thucydides certainly agrees with what Diodorus says about the high handedmanner in which the Athenians had become accustomed to behave and theoffense they gave to their allies.[But] he points out that the allies had gotten themselves into that fix, becausemany of them — and this is an element Diodorus doesnt mention --- voluntarilysaid, okay, were not going to do this service anymore. Instead of supplying ships,manning them, doing the service ourselves, well pay the equivalent sum into theleague treasury. When they did so, the Athenians took that money and used it topay for Athenian ships with Athenian rowers. As the league forces grew smaller,the Athenian navy grew bigger. Kagan
  • KIMON AND THE HELOT REVOLT OF465he was Sparta’s proxenos (ambassador, of sorts) at Athens. He strongly supported closeties with Sparta465-Sparta called on all her allies (League of 481) to help her subjugate the helots463-Kimon commands the Athenian detachment of 4,000 hoplites to Mt. IthomeSparta became concerned about “revolutionary tendencies” from this democraticpresence and dismissed the Athenians in a humiliating fashion461-this blow to Kimon’s pro-Spartan policy led his democratic opponents (includingPericles) in Athens to bring about his ostracism
  • DOMESTIC POLITICS SPILLS INTOTHE ATHENS-SPARTA RIVALRYearly 470s-Themistocles, the leader of the anti-Sparta faction, is ostracisedby Kimon’s pro-Sparta factionafter 463-the democratic faction brings an unsuccessful bribery trial againstKimon. It is alleged that the reason it took two years to conquer Thasos wasbecause Kimon was bribed by the king of Macedon. Pericles is theunsuccessful prosecutorThucydides reports that Sparta had been on the verge of invading Atticaduring the Thasian revolt. They only stopped because of the helot revolt461-after Kimon’s ostracism Athens seeks allies against Sparta: Thessaly,Argos, Megara
  • “FIRST PELOPONNESIAN WAR”459-445 BC459 BC- Athens took advantage of a war between its neighbors Megara and Corinth,both Spartan allies, to conclude an alliance with Megara, giving the Athenians acritical foothold on the Isthmus of Corinth457-conflict ensued, in which Athens fought intermittently against Sparta, Corinth,Aegina, and a number of other statesFor a time Athens controlled not only Megara but also Boeotia; at its end, however, inthe face of a massive Spartan invasion of Attica, the Athenians ceded the lands theyhad won on the Greek mainland, and Athens and Sparta recognized each others rightto control their respective alliance systemswinter of 446/5 BC-the war was officially ended by the Thirty Years Peace
  • THE LONG WALLSTHESE WERE BUILT DURING THE 450 S Kagan believes that Pericles is responsible for this brilliant strategy. The polis is connected to her naval base. Now Athens can function as an “island,” getting her food and commercial wealth from overseas. Sparta can ravage Attica, but Athens is now like Britain, an island sea power.
  • THE LONG WALLSTHESE WERE BUILT DURING THE 450 S Kagan believes that Pericles is responsible for this brilliant strategy. The polis is connected to her naval base. Now Athens can function as an “island,” getting her food and commercial wealth from overseas. Sparta can ravage Attica, but Athens is now like Britain, an island sea power.
  • THE LONG WALLSTHESE WERE BUILT DURING THE 450 S Kagan believes that Pericles is responsible for this brilliant strategy. The polis is connected to her naval base. Now Athens can function as an “island,” getting her food and commercial wealth from overseas. Sparta can ravage Attica, but Athens is now like Britain, an island sea power. a vast circuit of > 17 miles
  • PELOPONNESIAN WAR
  • Thucydides,PELOPONNESIAN History of the WAR Peloponnesian War
  • Thucydides, History of thePeloponnesian War
  • In the late fifth century before Christ, ancient Greece was rent by a series ofterrible wars. For ten years (431-421 BC), the Athenians and Spartans, and theirrespective allies, strove against each other. After these hostilities were ended by acovenant, Sparta’s old rival Argos tried to seize from her weakened enemy thelordship of the peninsula that they shared, the Peloponnese (421-418 BC). TheSpartans prevailed in the resulting war. Then in 415 BC, Athens launched a greatexpedition against Syracuse in Sicily, an expedition that ended in a cataclysm in413. Even as those distant battles unfolded, a second ten year war broke outbetween Athens and Sparta (414-404 BC), which ended in a starving Athensprostrate and at Sparta’s mercy. To our eyes, this is a disquieting result, for Athenswas a cheerful democracy, and Sparta, a grim totalitarian state. But, ultimately,Sparta was stronger. Lendon, Song of Wrath, p. 13
  • These wars between 431 and 404 BC were given their unity by the man who firstnarrated them, a high-born Athenian by the name of Thucydides, son of Olorus. Itwas he who decided that the entire twenty-seven year span, comprising four majorwars and any number of petty ones, should be regarded as a single great war---what he called the “war of the Peloponnesians and the Athenians,” and what we,following the lead of later Greeks, call the Peloponnesian War…. Lendon, Ibid.
  • Eternal Challenge and Response...During most of the early fifth century B.C., the Hellenic city-states preferred tosettle their border disputes by means of conventional collisions betweenphalanxes of hoplites.But during the almost-three-decades-long cauldron of the Peloponnesian War(431-404), such traditional warfare fell by the wayside. Both conservative,landlocked Sparta and imperial, maritime Athens turned to other avenues andmethods---triremes rowed by mercenary and slave oarsmen, innovativetechniques in siege-craft, the use of light cavalry, even terrorism. This set off acycle of challenge and response like nothing seen before in Greek history. Hanson, The Father of Us All, p. 132
  • Eternal Challenge and Response (cont.)By the time of Athens’s defeat in 404 B.C., this early RMA [Revolution in MilitaryAffairs] had changed Western warfare seemingly for good. Just as states could nolonger envision armed conflict as a series of pitched battles among ranks ofhoplites, so the old social classifications of the battlefield---with the wealthy onponies, small property-owners in the phalanx, and the landless poor asskirmishers and rowers---no longer prescribed how and where men would fight.Moral philosophers and conservative generals decried these changes. Thesereactionaries complained that the rabble, war machines, and money were now thedecisive factors in war---but to no avail. Hanson, The Father of Us All, pp. 132-133
  • Behind the contradictions of politics and philosophy, and the hypocrisies of theHellenic world’s greatest generation, remain the thousands of ordinary Greeks…who were slaughtered for nearly three decades for the designs of fickle men,shifting alliances, and contradictory causes. No war of the ancient world---notXerxes’ earlier invasion of Greece, the later grandiose invasions of Alexander theGreat, or Hannibal’s romp into Italy---is more riveting and yet contradictory thanthe three decades of intramural fighting between Athens and Sparta. Hanson, A War Like No Other, p.18
  • “I am not one of the gods to tell of all these things.” Homer, Iliad, bk. xii
  • LONG RANGE CAUSESLendon’s schema: timē (honor), hybris, anger, revengeThucydides’ (according to Hanson): “[Spartans] feared the Athenians lest they mightgrow still more powerful, seeing most of Greece was already subject to them”Thucydides’ (according to Kagan): fear, honor, [economic] interestcompare Thucydides’ trinity to that of Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) in his famousbook Leviathan (1651). He wrote that men, in a state of nature, had three “causes ofquarrels”: competition (economic rivalry), diffidence (lack of trust-->fear), and glory
  • IMMEDIATE CAUSES(TRIGGERING EVENTS)434/3--Corcyra vs. Corinth433--revolt at Potidea433/2--the Megaran decree
  • ΚόρκυραCorcyra Corinth
  • • 730 BC Corcyra was founded by Corinth as a way station to Magna GraeciaMagnaGraecia Corinth
  • • 730 BC Corcyra was founded by Corinth as a way station to Magna Graecia • 665 BC hostility with the mētērpolis led to the first naval battle in Greek history • Corinthian tyrant Periander defeated the Corcyrans and compelled their cooperation in founding Apollonia and Anactorion • the Corcyrians founded their own apoikia at Epidamnus “among the barbarians”Magna sometime thereafterGraecia Corinth
  • • 730 BC Corcyra was founded by Corinth as a way station to Magna Graecia • 665 BC hostility with the mētērpolis led to the first naval battle in Greek history • Corinthian tyrant Periander defeated the Corcyrans and compelled their cooperation in founding Apollonia and Anactorion • the Corcyrians founded their own apoikia at Epidamnus “among the barbarians”Magna sometime thereafterGraecia • 434 BC a civil war breaks out between the oligarchic and democratic factions in Epidamnus • the exiled losers get help from the local barbarians and begin a civil war which flames out of control Corinth
  • ATHENS BECOMES INVOLVED434-after suffering a defeat at the hands of their colony of Corcyra, a sea power thatwas not allied to either Sparta or Athens, Corinth began to build an allied naval forcealarmed, Corcyra sought an alliance with Athens, which after debate and input fromboth Corcyra and Corinth, decided to swear to a defensive alliance with Corcyra433-at the Battle of Sybota, a small contingent of Athenian ships played a critical rolein preventing a Corinthian fleet from capturing Corcyra. In order to uphold the ThirtyYears Peace, however, the Athenians were instructed not to intervene in the battleunless it was clear that Corinth was going to press onward to invade Corcyrathe presence of Athenian warships standing off from the engagement was enough todissuade the Corinthians from exploiting their victory, thus sparing much of therouted Corcyraean fleet.
  • REVOLT AT POTIDEA
  • REVOLT AT POTIDEA[As relations between Athens and Corinth worsened] Athens instructed Potidaea,a tributary ally of Athens but a colony of Corinth, to tear down its walls, sendhostages to Athens, dismiss the Corinthian magistrates from office, and refuse themagistrates that the city would send in the future. The Corinthians, outraged bythese actions, encouraged Potidaea to revolt and assured them that they wouldally with them should they revolt from Athens. Meanwhile, the Corinthians wereunofficially aiding Potidaea by sneaking contingents of men into the besieged cityto help defend it. This was a direct violation of the Thirty Years Peace, which had(among other things) stipulated that the Delian League and the PeloponnesianLeague would respect each others autonomy and internal affairs. Wikipedia
  • REVOLT AT POTIDEA “...THE MOST EXPENSIVE SIEGE IN CLASSICAL GREEK HISTORY”- HANSON432-in a complicated three-way battle, Athens fought the forces of Corinthand MacedoniaAthens prevailed and their defeated opponents retreated to the walledseaport of PotideaAdmiral/General Phormio brought an additional 1,600 hoplites and beganthe siege and naval blockade430/29-the city would not fall until after war began between Athens and thePeloponnesian League in 431Socrates was one of the Athenian soldiers. He had the opportunity to savethe life of one of his students, Alcibiades (about whom much more later)
  • THE MEGARIANDECREEA further source of provocation was an Athenian decree, issued in 433/2 BC, imposingstringent trade sanctions on Megarian citizens (once more a Spartan ally after theconclusion of the First Peloponnesian War). These sanctions, known as the Megariandecree, were largely ignored by Thucydides, but some modern economic historianshave noted that forbidding Megara to trade with the prosperous Athenian empirewould have been disastrous for the Megarans, and have accordingly considered thedecree to be a contributing factor in bringing about the war. Historians that attributeresponsibility for the war to Athens cite this event as the main cause for blame. Wikipedia
  • The transcendent cause of the Peloponnesian War was the culture of Greekforeign relations, which was deeply embedded in Greek competitiveness and theethics of a heroic past. The principle that created the Olympic Games, theprinciple that inspired potter to outdo potter and poet to surpass poet, thecompetitive principle that drove so much of what is memorable of Greekcivilization---that same principle drove Athens and Sparta to war. Lendon, Song of Wrath, p. 105
  • ARCHIDAMIAN WAR 431-421
  • ARCHIDAMIAN WAR 431-421
  • AVAILABLE BATTLE-READY HOPLITESATHENS/ATTICA 13,000ATHENIAN ALLIES 10,000 TOTAL 23,000THEBES/BOEOTIAN CONFEDERACY 10-12,000SPARTA/LACONIA 8-10,000PELOPONNESIAN ALLIES 20,000 TOTAL 40,000
  • NUMBER OF TRIREMESATHENS/ATTICA 300ATHENIAN ALLIES 100 TOTAL 400THEBES/BOEOTIAN CONFEDERACY 0SPARTA/LACONIA 0PELOPONNESIAN ALLIES 100 TOTAL 100
  • CITIZEN POPULATION (ADULT MALES, FREE WOMEN & CHILDREN) ATHENS/ATTICA 150,000 THEBES/BOEOTIAN CONFEDERACY approximate = 100,000 SPARTA/LACONIA 40,000SIZE OF TERRITORY ATHENS/ATTICA c. 1,000 mi2 THEBES/BOEOTIA Athens=1/3rd c. 1,000 mi2 SPARTA/LACONIA c. 2,000 mi2NUMBER OF SLAVES ATHENS/ATTICA 100,000 THEBES/BOEOTIA Athens=<1/2 10,000 SPARTA/LACONIA (HELOTS IN MESSENIA AND LACONIA) 250,000 Hanson, Wars of the Ancient Greeks, p. 218
  • Pericles, Thucydides says, had told the Athenians that “they would win through ifthey would keep quiet, take care of their fleet, make no attempts to expand theirempire during the war, and not place the city at risk.” In detail this meant “thatthey should prepare for the war, and bring their property in from the country.They should not go out to battle, but come into the city and protect it. They shouldmake ready their fleet, in which their strength lay, and keep control of their allies… because the strength of Athens depended on the revenue of money that camefrom the allies.” Lendon, Song of Wrath, p. 168
  • A WAR OF RANK (τιµη)“TIT FOR TAT”431-430-Sparta and Boetia ravage Attica while Athens and her allies raid thePeloponnesus with a 100-120 trireme fleet429-after a 2 ½ year siege Athens enters Sparta’s ally Potidea. strategosPhormio twice defeats a superior Peloponnesian fleet off Naupactus428-Sparta encourages Athenian ally Mytilene to rebel, promises aid427-Athens crushes Mytilene; Sparta and Boeotia capture Athens’ allyPlataea426-in Acarnania, Sparta and her allies first destroy an Athenian force, thensuffer two worse defeats
  • delivered shortly before the plague’s outbreak, 430 BC
  • Thucydides would make an astounding summation of conditions in Greece asa whole during the three decades of the war: “What caused the greatestsuffering and killed a considerable part of the population was the terribleplague (νοσος ).” Thucydides, 1.23.3, quoted in Hanson, A War Like No Other, p. 65
  • DISEASE PLAGUE AT ATHENS (430-426)THE RAVAGES OF THE...the Athenians... knew that their city had been irreparably damaged. Theycertainly saw their army and naval strength in terms of “before” and “after”the epidemic…. Pericles concluded of the first year of outbreak that it haddone more than any other calamity to ruin the spirit of Athens….For Thucydides, who survived the disease, the ripples of the plague were tobe felt everywhere, decreased military capability, political unrest, imperialrevolt, changed strategy, and worst of all, the death of the only Athenianleader who seemed to be able to keep the factious citizenry together duringthe dark hours of war. Hanson, A War Like No Other, p. 82
  • Perhaps a quarter to a third of the Athenian population alive at the startof the war was dead seven years later, but mostly because of the ravages ofthe plague rather than Spartan spears. op. cit., p. 123
  • SPHACTERIA 425 BCTHE GAME CHANGER Sphacteria
  • SPHACTERIA 425 BC THE GAME CHANGERDemosthenes and Cleon established a fort at Pylos to bea base for raiding the Peloponnesus and encouraging ahelot revoltSparta responded vigorously bringing a larger force tobesiege the fort and occupy the island of Sphacteria aswell as a large naval fleet in supportAthens brought even more ships from Naupactus andPiraeusSparta asked for a truce and offered peace, which Athensrejecteda force of several hundred Spartiates was trapped on theisland. They asked their commanders for instructions
  • The final edict of the Spartan authorities was laconic: “The Lacedaemonianscommand you to do as you will, but nothing disgraceful.” Since anything but deathwas disgraceful, the authorities were telling their comrades on the island to die. Butthe message did the men in the fort great honor, for it allowed them to die of theirown free will: to make, like Achilles in the Iliad, the heroic choice of an heroicdeath….The Spartans did their soldiers on Sphacteria the honor of letting themchoose the noble way, as well as the manner of their death: they might die fighting,then, or, as the Lacedaemonians so often did to save their honor, by their ownhands....The hoplites assembled, they deliberated, they decided, and they sent theiranswer to the waiting Athenians. Their resolution sent a shockwave of surpriserolling through Greece. “Of all the events of the war,” writes Thucydides, “ thiscame as the greatest surprise to the Hellenic World.” The Spartans surrendered. Lendon, pp. 274-275
  • Now, with Spartiate hostages in their hands, the Athenians issued an ultimatum;any invasion of Attica would lead to the execution of their prisoners. For the firsttime since the beginning of the war, the Athenians could farm their crops securely.At Pylos, a Messenian garrison was installed, and these men, launching raids intocountry that had once been their home, did significant damage to the Spartans andinstigated the desertion of numerous Helots.At Athens, Cleon, his seemingly mad promise fulfilled, was the man of the hour; hewas granted meals at the states expense in the prytaneum (the same rewardgranted to Olympic champions), and most scholars see his hand in the legislation ofthe following months, the most prominent item of which was an increased levy oftribute on the empire.Sphacteria had changed the nature of the war. The next few years would see a newlyaggressive Athens, and it would take a string of Athenian reverses to diffuse theimpetus that the surrenders had given and bring the two sides to the table tonegotiate the Peace of Nicias in 421 BC. Wikipedia
  • δελιονDelium 424 B.C.
  • Demosthenes urges an attack onSparta’s ally Boeotiathe Boeotian right has a depth of 25men as opposed to the customary 8the right wing of both sides is originallyvictorious, but the Athenians commithistory’s first recorded fratricidePagondas uses his cavalry to rout thevictorious Athenian rightwith Hippocrates’ death, the Athenianscollapse V.D. Hanson, Ripples of Battle, p. 170
  • A 46-year-old Atheniansurvivor named Socratesdidn’t turn his back to theenemy. Rather , he madea fighting withdrawal andavoided the fate of most ofthe defeated. He wasaided by one of hisaristocratic disciplesnamed Alcibiades. op. cit., p. 173
  • Plato has Alcibiades report:"Furthermore, men, it was worthwhile to behold Socrates when the army retreatedin flight from Delium; for I happened to be there on horseback and he was ahoplite. The soldiers were then in rout, and while he and Laches were retreatingtogether, I came upon them by chance. And as soon as I saw them, I at once urgedthe two of them to take heart, and I said I would not leave them behind. I had aneven finer opportunity to observe Socrates there than I had had at Potidaea [in429], for I was less in fear because I was on horseback. First of all, how much moresensible he was than Laches; and secondly, it was my opinion, Aristophanes (andthis point is yours); that walking there just as he does here in Athens, stalking likea pelican, his eyes darting from side to side, quietly on the lookout for friends andfoes, he made it plain to everyone even at a great distance that if one touches thisreal man, he will defend himself vigorously. Consequently, he went away safely,both he and his comrade; for when you behave in war as he did, then they justabout do not even touch you; instead they pursue those who turn in headlongflight." Plato, Symposium, 220d–221c
  • AMPHIPOLIS, 424-22 ( Μάχη της Αµφίπολης )424-Spartan general Brasidas captured the Athenian colony. Thucydides arrived withsix ships too late to save the city. He was tried and exiled423-in response to the fall of the city, Athens and Sparta signed an armistice for oneyear. Athens hoped they could fortify more towns in preparation for future attacksfrom Brasidas, and the Spartans hoped Athens would finally return the prisonerstaken at the Battle of Sphacteria earlier in 425422-when the armistice expired, battle was joined. The Spartans won, but both Cleonand Brasidas died. As the two most hawkish leaders on their respective sides this ledeventually to the Peace of Nicias, a treaty which would be broken eventuallywhen Athens lost Thucydides as a strategos, history gained its ablest historian of theancient world
  • Of all the characters in Thucydides’ history Brasidas is the most intriguing,an ancient romantic version of Fidel Castro or Che Guevara who combinedostensible idealism and brutal guerrilla warfare in such a dazzling fashionthat most formerly enslaved soldiers forgot the nature of the harsh masterthey worked for. In the last analysis, Brasidas’ efforts counterbalancedPylos [Sphacteria] and achieved a rough stalemate, as he proved that theAthenians had just as much to lose to their own rear as did the Spartans.His ragtag mercenaries and few hundred freed helots did more damage toAthens than had King Archidamus’ enormous grand army of 60,000,which eight years earlier had trudged into Attica, convinced by its sheersize that it might bring the empire to its knees. Hanson, A War Like No Other, p. 120
  • After the Spartan failure of annual ravaging (431-425), after the Atheniantoll from the plague (430-426), after the Spartans had lost at Sphacteria(425), and some of their best warriors--among them high-rankingofficers--had shamefully surrendered and been taken hostage (425-421),after the Spartans became terrified that their helots might revolt en masse,after the defeat of the Athenians in Boeotia (424), and after Cleon andBrasidas both perished at Amphipolis (422), both sides acknowledged thatthe war had degenerated into a messy calamity that neither could winoutright.A breather was welcomed. After some failed brief truces, the conservativeAthenian statesman Nicias negotiated with the Spartans the peace thatbears his name and would prove to last about six years (421-415). Hanson, A War Like No Other, p. 151
  • SICILIANEXPEDITION 415-413
  • ...rarely do peace agreements last when the original conditionsfor hostilities have not ended. Ibid.
  • While the Athenians took care to maintain their truculent peace withSparta, they also began to look around for some mighty deed they couldperform that would raise their rank in the eyes of the Greeks withoutbreaking the treaty. Their eyes fell upon the third great power in the Greekworld, Syracuse in Sicily. Lendon, p. 374
  • June 415--the largest expeditionary force of the war sailed“...in a moment of zeal...134 ships (100 of them Athenian) including over 90triremes5,100 Athenian and imperial hoplites480 archers, 700 slingers, 30 horsemen and mounts30 cargo ships”--Hanson, p.205begun as another punitive raid, it was now refined as an attempt at conquestand annexation
  • June 415--the largest expeditionary force of the war sailed“...in a moment of zeal...134 ships (100 of them Athenian) including over 90triremes5,100 Athenian and imperial hoplites480 archers, 700 slingers, 30 horsemen and mounts30 cargo ships”--Hanson, p.205begun as another punitive raid, it was now refined as an attempt at conquestand annexation
  • What was stunning about the Athenian expeditionary force was its initialluck....in this first wave the Athenians had probably transported over25,000 combatants across the open seas without any real losses andarrived in good shape to the utter astonishment and terror of theirenemies. Yet almost immediately tragedy inexplicably began to unfold Hanson, p. 206
  • ALCIBIADES, Ἀλκιβιάδης Κλεινίου Σκαµβωνίδης Alkibiádēs Kleiníou Skambōnidēs; c. 450 – 404 “Aristocratic Ideal or Anti-social Personality Disorder?”--Kathleen Evans, 2006 450-born to an aristocratic Athenian family, on his mother’s side an Alcmaeonidae, nephew to Pericles 447-when his father died in the battle of Coronea, Pericles became his guardian well educated, but notably unruly “feared and reverenced Socrates alone, but despised the rest of his lovers”--Plutarch 430-at Potidea, age 20, saved by his teacher, Socrates 424-at Delium, age 26, returns the favor
  • his rakish reputation
  • his rakish reputation
  • his rakish reputation
  • his rakish reputation
  • after 421-his political career begins with plans for an anti-Spartan league inthe Peloponnesos headed by Argos418-the battle of Mantinea, a Spartan victory, wrecks this strategy416-he narrowly avoids an ostracism by his political enemies, instead getsone of them ostracized!415-on the eve of the departure for Sicily a group of youths mutilateAthenian religious figures called herms. Later Alcibiades is tried for thissacrilege in absentia by his enemies and condemned to deathhis reaction? He deserts the Athenians and offers his services to Sparta ifthey will give him sanctuary!
  • the Epipolae is a raised plateau north of415-in an initial battle, Athens and her allies the polis of Syracusedrove the Syracusans back into their cityduring the winter both sides appealed formore allies, started building wallsAlcibiades convinced Sparta to join theSyracusansspring 414-Sparta and Corinth join the fight.Athens sends reinforcementsAugust 414-in the second battle of Syracusethe Athenians suffered major losses413-Nicias tries to defend what remains ofhis forces. His ships are penned in. Noescape is possible
  • Nicias personally surrendered to Gylippus, hoping the Spartan would remember hisrole in the peace treaty of 421. The few who escaped found refuge in [the Sicilianpolis of] Catana.The prisoners, now numbering only 7,000, were held in the stone quarries nearSyracuse, as there was no other room for them. Demosthenes and Nicias wereexecuted, against the orders of Gylippus. The rest spent ten weeks in horribleconditions in their makeshift prison, until all but the Athenians, Italians, andSicilians were sold as slaves. The remaining Athenians were left to die slowly ofdisease and starvation in the quarry. In the end some of the very last survivorsmanaged to escape and eventually trickled to Athens, bringing first-hand news ofthe disaster. Wikipedia
  • ...the Athenians and their allies...lost nearly 45,000---many of themconsidered the best of the Athenian empire---in a vain effort to stormSyracuse. In fact, the greatest disasters of the Athenian empire were due totwo colossal failures at Memphis, Egypt, before the war (454) and on Sicily,both failed sieges that may have together cost over 90,000 Athenianimperial soldiers. Add in the plague, and in a mere forty years the empirelost nearly 200,000 of its resident population as a direct result of warringapart from the traditional [hoplite] battlefield. Hanson, pp. 176-177
  • ATHENS’ FINAL AGONY 412-404
  • 414-413--Alcibiades convinces several Ionian cities to revolt against Athensand the Persian Tissaphernes to aid the Spartan cause412-despite Alcibiades’ good offices during the last three years, the SpartanKing Agis II believes the rumor that the Athenian had fathered a child withhis queen. He dispatches an admiral with orders to capture and kill him411-warned in time, Alcibiades defects to the Persians and secretly intrigueswith the Athenian oligarchs to bring the Persians to their side. But heconcludes that the oligarchs are doomed to failin yet another amazing turn, he helps restore Athenian democracy. He alsopersuades the Athenian fleet to attack the Spartans at the battle of Cyzicus
  • The Athenians managed to survive for several reasons. First, their foes were lackingin initiative. Corinth and Syracuse were slow to bring their fleets into the Aegean,and Spartas other allies were also slow to furnish troops or ships. The Ionian statesthat rebelled expected protection, and many rejoined the Athenian side. ThePersians were slow to furnish promised funds and ships, frustrating battle plans.Perhaps most importantly, Spartan officers were not trained to be diplomats, andwere insensitive and politically inept.At the start of the war [in 431], the Athenians had prudently put aside some moneyand 100 ships that were to be used only as a last resort.These ships were then released, and served as the core of the Athenians fleetthroughout the rest of the war. Wikipedia
  • ATHENIAN NAVAL VICTORY AT CYZICUS, 410 BCCyzicus was a harbor in Mysia. In the battle, an Athenian fleet commanded by Alcibiades, Thrasybulus, and The rame ne s ro u t e d a nd completely destroyed a Spartan fleet commanded by Mindarus.
  • The Athenian strategy at Cyzicus. Left: Alcibiades decoy force (blue) lures theSpartan fleet (black) out to sea. Right: Thrasybulus and Theramenes bring theirsquadrons in behind the Spartans to cut off their retreat towards Cyzicus, whileAlcibiades turns to face the pursuing force.
  • The victory allowed Athens to recovercontrol over a number of cities in theHellespont over the next year. In thewake of their defeat, the Spartans madea peace offer, which the Atheniansrejected.
  • to finish off the amazing career of Alcibiades Led! Led! new material begins here! at the age of 46! Wikipedia
  • “...OF HECTOR AND LYSANDER AND SUCH GREAT NAMES AS THESE,” on his father’s side, “descended from Hercules,” but his mother, a helot. Therefore he was a mothax. He could fight, but not as a Spartiate, a homoiai 407-by sheer talent he rose to be a navarch (admiral) based at Ephesus. He defeated Alcibiades at Notium (406) Spartan law required his retirement and replacement October 405-following an Athenian victory at Argusinae, Lysander was re-appointed and won the decisive victory at Aegospotami (Goat River) in the HellespontΛύσανδρος, Lýsandros d. 395 BC 404-with her vital Black Sea grain supply cut off, Athens faced starvation as Sparta enclosed her with a land and sea blockade
  • Spartan men of all ages competed in their famous “Laconic” speaking, thetechnique of saying only what needed to be said, in as few words aspossible. “Athens taken” would be the whole of the message sent bySpartan admiral Lysander after the final surrender of of Athens [in March404] at the close of the Peloponnesian War. Whereupon the authoritiesback at Sparta (the story is told) frowned at his un-Spartan verbosity.“Taken” would have been sufficient. Lendon, p. 29
  • After more than a half-century of rivalryfor the hegemony of Hellas, Spartatriumphantly forced Athens to teardown the Long Walls to the sound offlute and lyre. Would her position ofhegemon endure?But that’s another story...