ANCIENT GREECE   v-The Great Wars, 490-404
ANCIENT GREECE   v-The Great Wars, 490-404
πέντε ε´Τὀ Πέµπτον Μάθηµα
PRINCIPAL TOPICSI. Persian Wars, 490-479II. Struggle for HegemonyIII. Peloponnesian War, 431-404IV.Archidamian War, 431-42...
ΠΟΛΕΜΟΣ ΜΕΝ ΠΑΝΤΩΝ           ΠΑΤΗΡ ΕΣΤΙ      (Polemos men pantōn              pater esti)War is the father of all things--...
ΠΟΛΕΜΟΣ ΜΕΝ ΠΑΝΤΩΝ           ΠΑΤΗΡ ΕΣΤΙ                                               Heraclitus      (Polemos men pantōn ...
The complete text of this fragment by Heraclitus is:          πόλεμος πάντων μὲν πατήρ ἐστι, πάντων δὲ          βασιλεύς, ...
PERSIAN WARS
FORMER SOVIET           BULGARIA    MACEDONIA                                                     CENTRAL ASIA            ...
GREEK STATES area 40,000 sq. mi pop c. 1,000,000PERSIAN EMPIREarea 2,900,000 sq. mipop c. 20,000,000
Achaemenid Persia--like Ottoman Turkey or Montezuma’s Aztecs--was avast two-tiered society in which millions were ruled by...
A great god is Ahura Mazda, who created this earth, who createdman, who created peace for man, who made Xerxes king, one k...
Most of this unprecedented expansion takes place during one mans lifetime,the lifetime of Cyrus. In the year 550 B.C. ther...
Most of this unprecedented expansion takes place during one mans lifetime,the lifetime of Cyrus. In the year 550 B.C. ther...
The Persians unified their empire.“Communication was facilitated by constructing roads andcreating a postal system staffed...
The Achaemenid king Darius I, whoinvaded Greece in 490, sits on histhrone in this relief from Persepolis.The Greeks were f...
Herodotus sings an aria about the wonders of freedom, in which he says theAthenians were no better than any other Greeks a...
Herodotus first book begins with the story of King Croesus, and his decision toattack the Persian Empire which is now on h...
The successor to Cyrus is Cambyses. In the years 530-522, he conquers theKingdom of Egypt, fantastically wealthy, and form...
The successor to Cyrus is Cambyses. In the years 530-522, he conquers theKingdom of Egypt, fantastically wealthy, and form...
The successor to Cyrus is Cambyses. In the years 530-522, he conquers theKingdom of Egypt, fantastically wealthy, and form...
The successor to Cyrus is Cambyses. In the years 530-522, he conquers theKingdom of Egypt, fantastically wealthy, and form...
Miltiades became the tyrant of the Greek colonies                          on the Thracian Chersonese (modern Gallipoli)Μι...
Miltiades became the tyrant of the Greek colonies                          on the Thracian Chersonese (modern Gallipoli)  ...
So that is the situation at the beginning of the fifth century. The Persians havegained mastery of all the Greek states of...
The Athenians vote to send a fleet and soldiers to assist Miletus and the other citiesin their rebellion.Herodotus has thi...
Ionian Revolt, 499-98 BC
Ionian Revolt, 499-98 BC
In the year 493-2 Themistocles is elected the eponymous archon. He will play avery large role in the great Persian invasio...
In the year 493-2 Themistocles is elected the eponymous archon. He will play avery large role in the great Persian invasio...
In the year 493-2 Themistocles is elected the eponymous archon. He will play avery large role in the great Persian invasio...
In the year 493-2 Themistocles is elected the eponymous archon. He will play avery large role in the great Persian invasio...
In the year 493-2 Themistocles is elected the eponymous archon. He will play avery large role in the great Persian invasio...
In the year 493-2 Themistocles is elected the eponymous archon. He will play avery large role in the great Persian invasio...
The Persian invasion culminates in the battle of Marathon. The purpose is very simple, topunish those cities that have ins...
Its time for the invasion. The site of the battle, where did they go? Well, theypicked Marathon. First, as Herodotus says,...
Some [in Athens]favored remaining there, defending the city.But to defend Athens means to allow the Persians to run all ar...
Miltiades now emerges as the leading figure. Everybody knows Miltiades is theresident Persian expert. He has been a genera...
Miltiades now emerges as the leading figure. Everybody knows Miltiades is theresident Persian expert. He has been a genera...
Marathon, 490 BC
Marathon, 490 BC
Marathon, 490 BC
Marathon, 490 BC
On a cup from Athens,probably painted shortlyafter the Persian defeat atMarathon, a Greek hoplitefinishes off his Persiana...
Miltiades plan is this, there are something like 10,000 Greeks, about 9,000Athenians, about 1,000 Eretrians against let us...
The Persians realize we cant sit here forever. For one thing were going to run outof food and water. For another thing, th...
Now, Miltiades has the problem that they have 5,000 moretroops than he has. Hes worried about being outflanked. So,what he...
The Persians send a force by sea toMARATHON PHASE I   attack Athens, leaving Datis to hold                   the Athenian ...
Miltiades, the Athenian                                                     The Persians send a force by sea toMARATHON PH...
MARATHON PHASE II                                                            Sensing impending defeat                     ...
...the old Athenian hoplite veterans of the running [unique for that battle] charge atMarathon. Much later, to remind a yo...
The battle was seen throughout the rest of Greek history, first of all, as a greatvictory for hoplites as opposed to their...
The Athenians won the battle, very large casualties for the Persians. Only192 Greeks killed in the battle and allowed the ...
One English statesman said war wins nothing, cures nothing, settles nothing; thespeaker was Neville Chamberlain. In 1936 B...
Xerxes, Mardonius (480 BC)
Black Sea                                                              Bosphorus                                      Sea ...
According to Herodotus,Xerxes first attempt tobridge the Hellespontended in failure when astorm destroyed the flaxand papy...
Xerxes’ crossing of the Hellespont in the summer of 480, with a pontoon bridge formed byconnected boats, was famous in ant...
Leonidas marched into Thermopylae with about seven thousand men….Hedismissed the bulk of his forces….perhaps he knew his p...
Leonidas marched into Thermopylae with about seven thousand men….Hedismissed the bulk of his forces….perhaps he knew his p...
the terrain of Greece favoredthe defenderspasses in northern Thessaly,and at Thermopylae, togetherwith narrow entries into...
the terrain of Greece favoredthe defenderspasses in northern Thessaly,and at Thermopylae, togetherwith narrow entries into...
Some have suggested that [the 2007 film] 300 is juvenile in its black-and-white plot and character depiction---and glorifi...
Some have suggested that [the 2007 film] 300 is juvenile in its black-and-white plot and character depiction---and glorifi...
300 was released in both conventional and IMAX theaters in the United States on March 9, 2007, and onDVD, Blu-ray, and HD ...
παπαί, Μαρδόνιε, κοίους ἐπ ἄνδρας ἤγαγες µαχησοµένους ἡµέας, οἳ οὐπερὶ χρηµάτων τὸν ἀγῶνα ποιεῦνται ἀλλὰ περὶ ἀρετῆς.Papaí...
Not long before the Persian invasion, in the year 482, the silver mines in the south of Attica[at Laurion] had yielded an ...
Not long before the Persian invasion, in the year 482, the silver mines in the south of Attica[at Laurion] had yielded an ...
Not long before the Persian invasion, in the year 482, the silver mines in the south of Attica[at Laurion] had yielded an ...
Not long before the Persian invasion, in the year 482, the silver mines in the south of Attica[at Laurion] had yielded an ...
Not long before the Persian invasion, in the year 482, the silver mines in the south of Attica[at Laurion] had yielded an ...
Not long before the Persian invasion, in the year 482, the silver mines in the south of Attica[at Laurion] had yielded an ...
Not long before the Persian invasion, in the year 482, the silver mines in the south of Attica[at Laurion] had yielded an ...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7da52cJLwW8
The last hope of Hellenic civilization to defeat an empire twenty times larger thanits own was to force a battle at Salami...
“When Xerxes’ remaining 800 ships entered theBay of Phalerum, the Peloponnesians were forwithdrawing“Themistocles used all...
“When Xerxes’ remaining 800 ships entered theBay of Phalerum, the Peloponnesians were forwithdrawing“Themistocles used all...
“When Xerxes’ remaining 800 ships entered theBay of Phalerum, the Peloponnesians were forwithdrawing“Themistocles used all...
A king sate on the rocky brow  Which looks oer sea-born Salamis And ships, by thousands, lay below,  And men in nations;—a...
the battle of Plataea, 479 BC
Plataea, fought in a small valley about ten miles south of Thebes almost a year afterthe Greeks’ mastery at Salamis, was a...
Two great battles decided the outcome of the war finally.On land, the battle of Plataea in southern Boeotia, in which a gr...
Although Greek historical sources tend to depict Persian history as the gradualdegeneration of the mighty empire establish...
STRUGGLE FOR  HEGEMONY
TheAthenian Empire
Hegemony         (UK: /hɨˈɡɛməni/; US: /ˈhɛdʒɨmoʊni/, /hɨˈdʒɛməni/; Greek:ἡγεµονία hēgemonía, leadership, rule) is an indi...
CHRONOLOGY OF THEπεντηκονταετία (FIFTY YEARS) 481-the second Persian invasion 459-so-called “First Peloponnesian War” begi...
One thing we need to understand or we wont comprehend the situation at all.We know that the Persian wars are over. We know...
Now, after Mycale, a very important event took place... There was a conference heldon the island of Samos, ... one of the ...
Now, after Mycale, a very important event took place... There was a conference heldon the island of Samos, ... one of the ...
Now, after Mycale, a very important event took place... There was a conference heldon the island of Samos, ... one of the ...
Now, after Mycale, a very important event took place... There was a conference heldon the island of Samos, ... one of the ...
Now, after Mycale, a very important event took place... There was a conference heldon the island of Samos, ... one of the ...
Chios, Samos, and Lesbos wanted to be sure that they would be protected by thisGreek Leaguebasically the Spartans said no....
But most strikingly, the Athenians understood the Persians have to be kept awayfrom the Aegean Sea and the Athenians also ...
But most strikingly, the Athenians understood the Persians have to be kept awayfrom the Aegean Sea and the Athenians also ...
But most strikingly, the Athenians understood the Persians have to be kept awayfrom the Aegean Sea and the Athenians also ...
But most strikingly, the Athenians understood the Persians have to be kept awayfrom the Aegean Sea and the Athenians also ...
The point of all this is that there is something new in the Greek world, a bigAthenian navy, an extraordinarily capable na...
PANHELLENISMpreviously there had been some sense of Greek unity and identity at thePanhellenic games and religious festiva...
PANHELLENISMpreviously there had been some sense of Greek unity and identity at thePanhellenic games and religious festiva...
Another consequence of the war was a division within the Greek world that was inpart based upon the fact that Athens had b...
It soon became clear that the Athenians would indeed challenge them. The major theme inHellenic relations for the next fif...
THE LEAGUE OF 481                                  BCa league of equals, but with both Sparta and Athens being “more equal...
TENSIONS OVER ATHENIANDEFENSE PLANS478-Athens began to rebuild her walls which the Persians had destroyed in 480. Sparta i...
480-479--after fighting at Salamis he was madestrategos (general, here admiral)                                           ...
480-479--after fighting at Salamis he was madestrategos (general, here admiral)466-his greatest exploit was the destructio...
480-479--after fighting at Salamis he was madestrategos (general, here admiral)466-his greatest exploit was the destructio...
480-479--after fighting at Salamis he was madestrategos (general, here admiral)466-his greatest exploit was the destructio...
...this [joint military policy] shows that the league was working, as it was supposedto. Then (if the dates are right) in ...
That was not the view taken by the Athenians, or by most of the allies, but we canimagine that there were some of the alli...
KAGAN’S ANALOGY OF THE THREELEAGUESGreek League of 481=United Nations OrganizationDelian League of 478=NATOPeloponnesian L...
The Athenians certainly had no plan of abandoning the league, of abandoning theirleadership, of giving up their assaults o...
Thasos did not object to doing the duty which the members of the leaguehad to do. It was not about not wanting to take par...
PangaeanThasos did not object to doing the duty which the members of the leaguehad to do. It was not about not wanting to ...
Strymon                   River                     PangaeanThasos did not object to doing the duty which the members of t...
Strymon                   River                     PangaeanThasos did not object to doing the duty which the members of t...
Thasos did not object to doing the duty which the members of the league had to do. It was not about not wanting totake par...
THEY MADE THEM TAKE DOWN THEIR WALLSTHEY TOOK THEIR SHIPSOF COURSE THE ATHENIANS TOOK OVER THE MINESTHE THASIANS HAD TO PA...
That wasnt the first time such a thing had happened to one of the members of theleague. What made it different was that th...
ONE ANCIENTOPINION“In general, Athenians were making great gains in powerand no longer treated their allies with decency a...
BUT, ON THE OTHERHAND“Now, while there were other causes of revolts, the principal ones were thefailures in bringing in th...
So, Thucydides certainly agrees with what Diodorus says about the high handedmanner in which the Athenians had become accu...
Greece 5 The Great Wars
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Greece 5 The Great Wars

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This session is deliberately long. Will require two 1 1/2 hour sessions. Not for the faint hearted! But the next session, The 5th century "Golden Age" is the payback for those who don't relish military history.

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Greece 5 The Great Wars

  1. 1. ANCIENT GREECE v-The Great Wars, 490-404
  2. 2. ANCIENT GREECE v-The Great Wars, 490-404
  3. 3. πέντε ε´Τὀ Πέµπτον Μάθηµα
  4. 4. PRINCIPAL TOPICSI. Persian Wars, 490-479II. Struggle for HegemonyIII. Peloponnesian War, 431-404IV.Archidamian War, 431-421V. Sicilian Expedition, 415-413VI. Athens’ Final Agony, 412-404
  5. 5. ΠΟΛΕΜΟΣ ΜΕΝ ΠΑΝΤΩΝ ΠΑΤΗΡ ΕΣΤΙ (Polemos men pantōn pater esti)War is the father of all things--Heraclitus
  6. 6. ΠΟΛΕΜΟΣ ΜΕΝ ΠΑΝΤΩΝ ΠΑΤΗΡ ΕΣΤΙ Heraclitus (Polemos men pantōn Hendrick ter Brugghen, 1628 pater esti)War is the father of all things--Heraclitus
  7. 7. The complete text of this fragment by Heraclitus is: πόλεμος πάντων μὲν πατήρ ἐστι, πάντων δὲ βασιλεύς, καὶ τοὺς μὲν θεοὺς ἔδειξε τοὺς δὲ ἀνθρώπους, τοὺς μὲν δούλους ἐποίησε τοὺς δὲ ἐλευθέρους (War is the father of all and the king of all; and some he has made gods and some men, some bond [slave] and some free). Wikipedia, List of Greek phrases http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Greek_phrasesThis proverb is a wonderful example of the beauty of the Greek language.It is a series of “men...de” phrases. “On the one hand...on the other hand”War’s a father, he’s a king...he made some gods, some men; some slave, some free.
  8. 8. PERSIAN WARS
  9. 9. FORMER SOVIET BULGARIA MACEDONIA CENTRAL ASIA ARMENIA TURKEYLIBYA PERSIAN WARS IRAN AFGHANISTAN IRAQ EGYPT PAKISTAN THE GREATEST EMPIRE THE WORLD HAD EVER SEEN UP TO THAT TIME
  10. 10. GREEK STATES area 40,000 sq. mi pop c. 1,000,000PERSIAN EMPIREarea 2,900,000 sq. mipop c. 20,000,000
  11. 11. Achaemenid Persia--like Ottoman Turkey or Montezuma’s Aztecs--was avast two-tiered society in which millions were ruled by autocrats, auditedby theocrats, and coerced by generals. Hanson. Carnage & Culture, p.39
  12. 12. A great god is Ahura Mazda, who created this earth, who createdman, who created peace for man, who made Xerxes king, one king ofmany, one lord of many. I am Xerxes, the great king, king of kings,king of lands containing many men, king in this great earth far andwide, son of Darius the king, an Achaemenid, a Persian, so of aPersian, an Aryan, of Aryan seed. (A. Olmstead, History of thePersian Empire, 231) quoted in Hanson, Carnage and Culture, p. 37
  13. 13. Most of this unprecedented expansion takes place during one mans lifetime,the lifetime of Cyrus. In the year 550 B.C. there were the Kingdom of Medea,the Kingdom of Babylonia, which is the most powerful one in the TigrisEuphrates Valley, what is now Iraq, the Kingdom of Lydia occupying thewestern portion of Asia Minor, excluding at first the coast, which wasoccupied by Greeks. But the Lydians conquered the Greeks in the 540s —thats the situation. Then there are the the Persians themselves who are notvery powerful. Cyrus becomes king in 559. He is a member of the AchaemenidDynasty. He conquers his fellow Aryans, the Medes in about 550, and veryswiftly conquers Babylonia, Armenia, Syria, Cappadocia (another kingdom incentral Asia Minor), and has already expanded this kingdom to somethingunparalleled up to that time. Kagan
  14. 14. Most of this unprecedented expansion takes place during one mans lifetime,the lifetime of Cyrus. In the year 550 B.C. there were the Kingdom of Medea,the Kingdom of Babylonia, which is the most powerful one in the TigrisEuphrates Valley, what is now Iraq, the Kingdom of Lydia occupying thewestern portion of Asia Minor, excluding at first the coast, which wasoccupied by Greeks. But the Lydians conquered the Greeks in the 540s —thats the situation. Then there are the the Persians themselves who are notvery powerful. Cyrus becomes king in 559. He is a member of the AchaemenidDynasty. He conquers his fellow Aryans, the Medes in about 550, and veryswiftly conquers Babylonia, Armenia, Syria, Cappadocia (another kingdom incentral Asia Minor), and has already expanded this kingdom to somethingunparalleled up to that time. Kagan
  15. 15. The Persians unified their empire.“Communication was facilitated by constructing roads andcreating a postal system staffed by royal messengers on horseback.Herodotus reported that ‘Neither rain, nor snow, nor sleet, norhail stays these couriers from the swift completion of theirappointed rounds.’ “ Pomeroy & al. Ancient Greece, p.202
  16. 16. The Achaemenid king Darius I, whoinvaded Greece in 490, sits on histhrone in this relief from Persepolis.The Greeks were fascinated with theabsolute power of the Great King ofPersia, especially when hoplites andsailors spied Xerxes at bothThermopylae and Salamis perched onhis majestic throne in the hills abovethe battles. In fact, the Persian empirewas a loosely knit conglomeration ofoften independent satrapies….Nevertheless, the combinedpopulation, agricultural production,and minted capital [wealth incoinage] of all the city-states on theGreek mainland were probably lessthan those of a single satrapy. Hanson, Wars of Ancient Greece, pp. 178-179
  17. 17. Herodotus sings an aria about the wonders of freedom, in which he says theAthenians were no better than any other Greeks at warfare before they became free.But once having liberated themselves from tyranny and establishing this newCleisthenic regime, they were able to defeat all of their opponents.As you read his history, you will realize that it is a paean to the wonders of freedomthe greatness of freedom, and the centrality of freedom in the story of the Greeks.He praises not just freedom (eleutheria is the Greek word) but in the case of Athenshe praises its isegoria (equality of speech).He characterizes this new Cleisthenic regime not by the word democracy.Apparently it has not been coined yet. But rather by what characterizes it; that is,that all citizens are free, equally able to address the populace in the assembly, andthereby to take an active role in their own government. Kagan lecture transcript, edited
  18. 18. Herodotus first book begins with the story of King Croesus, and his decision toattack the Persian Empire which is now on his frontier. You all remember the storyof how Croesus consults the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi to see how hes going tomake out; the oracle gives a characteristically enigmatic answer, but he doesntunderstand it.He asks, "What will happen if I cross the Halys River?" [the boundary betweenLydia and the Persian territory]The oracle answers, "A great empire will be destroyed,"Of course Croesus had in mind the destruction of the Persian Empire. Instead thePersians destroyed his empire! Well, Croesus attacks in 547; his capital of Sardisfalls into the hands of the Persians in the next year. Now the Persians are in controlof the Lydian Empire and on the frontiers of the Greek cities on the coast of AsiaMinor. The conquest of those cities takes place in the years 546 to 539.539 is a very big year for the Persians, because in that year they conquer the city ofBabylon, and thereby gain control of all of Mesopotamia. Another of the majorexpansions of this vast empire. Kagan
  19. 19. The successor to Cyrus is Cambyses. In the years 530-522, he conquers theKingdom of Egypt, fantastically wealthy, and formerly a great empire itself. In 522,when Cambyses dies, the Persian Empire extends from the Aegean Sea and theMediterranean Sea to the west, all the way to the Indus River in what is nowPakistan. From the south really to what is now Sudan at the southern end of theNile River, and up north to include the European coast of the Hellespont and theregion and the waters of the straits, and the European coast of the Aegean Sea andcomes right up as far as the Danube River, nor is that the end of what he would liketo do.Cambyses launches an invasion of the territory beyond the Danube, which was nota national kingdom yet, just a region filled with different tribes which the Greekscalled Scythians, all the way north into Russia, all the way east to the CaucusesMountains and perhaps beyond. These horse-riding, tribal people called theScythians, didnt even engage in agriculture, but still lived off herds of animals.One of the generals of the Persian army is a certain Miltiades. Miltiades wasoriginally an Athenian, but his family had been sent to govern the GallipoliPeninsula. So, he lived there, and then when the Persians came and took thatterritory, he became a subject of the Great King and he became a general in theGreat Kings army. Kagan
  20. 20. The successor to Cyrus is Cambyses. In the years 530-522, he conquers theKingdom of Egypt, fantastically wealthy, and formerly a great empire itself. In 522,when Cambyses dies, the Persian Empire extends from the Aegean Sea and theMediterranean Sea to the west, all the way to the Indus River in what is nowPakistan. From the south really to what is now Sudan at the southern end of theNile River, and up north to include the European coast of the Hellespont and theregion and the waters of the straits, and the European coast of the Aegean Sea andcomes right up as far as the Danube River, nor is that the end of what he would liketo do.Cambyses launches an invasion of the territory beyond the Danube, which was nota national kingdom yet, just a region filled with different tribes which the Greekscalled Scythians, all the way north into Russia, all the way east to the CaucusesMountains and perhaps beyond. These horse-riding, tribal people called theScythians, didnt even engage in agriculture, but still lived off herds of animals.One of the generals of the Persian army is a certain Miltiades. Miltiades wasoriginally an Athenian, but his family had been sent to govern the GallipoliPeninsula. So, he lived there, and then when the Persians came and took thatterritory, he became a subject of the Great King and he became a general in theGreat Kings army. Kagan
  21. 21. The successor to Cyrus is Cambyses. In the years 530-522, he conquers theKingdom of Egypt, fantastically wealthy, and formerly a great empire itself. In 522,when Cambyses dies, the Persian Empire extends from the Aegean Sea and theMediterranean Sea to the west, all the way to the Indus River in what is nowPakistan. From the south really to what is now Sudan at the southern end of theNile River, and up north to include the European coast of the Hellespont and theregion and the waters of the straits, and the European coast of the Aegean Sea andcomes right up as far as the Danube River, nor is that the end of what he would liketo do.Cambyses launches an invasion of the territory beyond the Danube, which was nota national kingdom yet, just a region filled with different tribes which the Greekscalled Scythians, all the way north into Russia, all the way east to the CaucusesMountains and perhaps beyond. These horse-riding, tribal people called theScythians, didnt even engage in agriculture, but still lived off herds of animals.One of the generals of the Persian army is a certain Miltiades. Miltiades wasoriginally an Athenian, but his family had been sent to govern the GallipoliPeninsula. So, he lived there, and then when the Persians came and took thatterritory, he became a subject of the Great King and he became a general in theGreat Kings army. Kagan
  22. 22. The successor to Cyrus is Cambyses. In the years 530-522, he conquers theKingdom of Egypt, fantastically wealthy, and formerly a great empire itself. In 522,when Cambyses dies, the Persian Empire extends from the Aegean Sea and theMediterranean Sea to the west, all the way to the Indus River in what is nowPakistan. From the south really to what is now Sudan at the southern end of theNile River, and up north to include the European coast of the Hellespont and theregion and the waters of the straits, and the European coast of the Aegean Sea andcomes right up as far as the Danube River, nor is that the end of what he would liketo do.Cambyses launches an invasion of the territory beyond the Danube, which was nota national kingdom yet, just a region filled with different tribes which the Greekscalled Scythians, all the way north into Russia, all the way east to the CaucusesMountains and perhaps beyond. These horse-riding, tribal people called theScythians, didnt even engage in agriculture, but still lived off herds of animals.One of the generals of the Persian army is a certain Miltiades. Miltiades wasoriginally an Athenian, but his family had been sent to govern the GallipoliPeninsula. So, he lived there, and then when the Persians came and took thatterritory, he became a subject of the Great King and he became a general in theGreat Kings army. Kagan
  23. 23. Miltiades became the tyrant of the Greek colonies on the Thracian Chersonese (modern Gallipoli)Μιλτιάδης ὁ Νεώτερος(Miltiadēs the Younger) c. 550 BCE – 489 BCE
  24. 24. Miltiades became the tyrant of the Greek colonies on the Thracian Chersonese (modern Gallipoli) 513 BC-as a vassal of Darius I, he joined the Persian expedition against the Scythians. The Great King learned that he planned to destroy the Danube bridges, leaving him to die in the Steppes 499 BC-as an enemy of the Persians, he sided with the Ionian Revolt 492 BC when the revolt collapsed, he fled to Athens he became their resident general with expertiseΜιλτιάδης ὁ Νεώτερος on Persian military policy(Miltiadēs the Younger) c. 550 BCE – 489 BCE
  25. 25. So that is the situation at the beginning of the fifth century. The Persians havegained mastery of all the Greek states of Asia Minor. The relationship betweenthose cities and the King of Persia was the same as all of his subjects. He insistedthat the defeated states should give earth and water to him as a symbol of theirsubjection. There was no other relationship to the Great King, except of one ofcomplete subjugation.The Greeks considered this to be slavery. But the Persians were not unusually harshrulers. All that the king required was for the subject peoples to pay tribute and to domilitary or naval service under his command. If you did that, you were left alone.The characteristic regime was to have a tyrant appointed by the Great King in eachGreek city. Called satraps, they represented the king in the region. They hadabsolute control. Still we dont hear about any specially harsh treatment ofanybody. Thats the situation at the beginning of conflict between the Greeks of themainland and the Persian Empire---when the Ionian rebellion breaks out in AsiaMinor. Kagan
  26. 26. The Athenians vote to send a fleet and soldiers to assist Miletus and the other citiesin their rebellion.Herodotus has this wonderful phrase to describe the Athenian decision. “Theseships were the beginning of evils to the Greeks and the barbarians.” What hessaying is, here we have the beginning of the Persian Wars, my subject.The Ionian rebellion is one thing. Theoretically, if the Athenians had minded theirown business and not assisted the rebels, there need not have been a Persian War.But Herodotus is saying once the Athenians decided to participate---assist therebellion of their relatives in Ionia---this was the beginning of the Persian Wars forAthens. Kagan
  27. 27. Ionian Revolt, 499-98 BC
  28. 28. Ionian Revolt, 499-98 BC
  29. 29. In the year 493-2 Themistocles is elected the eponymous archon. He will play avery large role in the great Persian invasion of 480. He will be a participant in theBattle of Marathon too. Themistocles is a great champion of the navy. He hasconcluded for varieties of reasons, that Athens must have a much larger navy.Obviously,he is a member of that faction which thinks the Persians will attack. Hewishes to be ready and is eager to fight them. Themistocles wants to move the navalbase of Athens from Phaleron Bay, which is just an unfortified beach. The Athenianfleet, drawn up on the beach at Phaleron, should a Persian fleet come sailing up,theyre stuck.He begins to make Piraeus, about five miles up the coast, into the port of Athens,the naval base of Athens. It has three harbors, easily protected. If you fortify thePiraeus, then you have a secure port. Themistocles demonstrates what will be hispolicy for the rest of his life. The fact that hes chosen archon may be indicative ofthe mood in Athens, which is increasingly unwilling to accept the idea of a return ofHippeis and of Persian rule.The Spartans and the Athenians are allies. That doesnt mean that the Athenianshave joined the Peloponnesian League; they just established friendly relations afterbeing at odds for such a period of time. Kagan
  30. 30. In the year 493-2 Themistocles is elected the eponymous archon. He will play avery large role in the great Persian invasion of 480. He will be a participant in theBattle of Marathon too. Themistocles is a great champion of the navy. He hasconcluded for varieties of reasons, that Athens must have a much larger navy.Obviously,he is a member of that faction which thinks the Persians will attack. Hewishes to be ready and is eager to fight them. Themistocles wants to move the navalbase of Athens from Phaleron Bay, which is just an unfortified beach. The Athenianfleet, drawn up on the beach at Phaleron, should a Persian fleet come sailing up,theyre stuck.He begins to make Piraeus, about five miles up the coast, into the port of Athens,the naval base of Athens. It has three harbors, easily protected. If you fortify thePiraeus, then you have a secure port. Themistocles demonstrates what will be hispolicy for the rest of his life. The fact that hes chosen archon may be indicative ofthe mood in Athens, which is increasingly unwilling to accept the idea of a return ofHippeis and of Persian rule.The Spartans and the Athenians are allies. That doesnt mean that the Athenianshave joined the Peloponnesian League; they just established friendly relations afterbeing at odds for such a period of time. Kagan
  31. 31. In the year 493-2 Themistocles is elected the eponymous archon. He will play avery large role in the great Persian invasion of 480. He will be a participant in theBattle of Marathon too. Themistocles is a great champion of the navy. He hasconcluded for varieties of reasons, that Athens must have a much larger navy.Obviously,he is a member of that faction which thinks the Persians will attack. Hewishes to be ready and is eager to fight them. Themistocles wants to move the navalbase of Athens from Phaleron Bay, which is just an unfortified beach. The Athenianfleet, drawn up on the beach at Phaleron, should a Persian fleet come sailing up,theyre stuck.He begins to make Piraeus, about five miles up the coast, into the port of Athens,the naval base of Athens. It has three harbors, easily protected. If you fortify thePiraeus, then you have a secure port. Themistocles demonstrates what will be hispolicy for the rest of his life. The fact that hes chosen archon may be indicative ofthe mood in Athens, which is increasingly unwilling to accept the idea of a return ofHippeis and of Persian rule.The Spartans and the Athenians are allies. That doesnt mean that the Athenianshave joined the Peloponnesian League; they just established friendly relations afterbeing at odds for such a period of time. Kagan
  32. 32. In the year 493-2 Themistocles is elected the eponymous archon. He will play avery large role in the great Persian invasion of 480. He will be a participant in theBattle of Marathon too. Themistocles is a great champion of the navy. He hasconcluded for varieties of reasons, that Athens must have a much larger navy.Obviously,he is a member of that faction which thinks the Persians will attack. Hewishes to be ready and is eager to fight them. Themistocles wants to move the navalbase of Athens from Phaleron Bay, which is just an unfortified beach. The Athenianfleet, drawn up on the beach at Phaleron, should a Persian fleet come sailing up,theyre stuck.He begins to make Piraeus, about five miles up the coast, into the port of Athens,the naval base of Athens. It has three harbors, easily protected. If you fortify thePiraeus, then you have a secure port. Themistocles demonstrates what will be hispolicy for the rest of his life. The fact that hes chosen archon may be indicative ofthe mood in Athens, which is increasingly unwilling to accept the idea of a return ofHippeis and of Persian rule.The Spartans and the Athenians are allies. That doesnt mean that the Athenianshave joined the Peloponnesian League; they just established friendly relations afterbeing at odds for such a period of time. Kagan
  33. 33. In the year 493-2 Themistocles is elected the eponymous archon. He will play avery large role in the great Persian invasion of 480. He will be a participant in theBattle of Marathon too. Themistocles is a great champion of the navy. He hasconcluded for varieties of reasons, that Athens must have a much larger navy.Obviously,he is a member of that faction which thinks the Persians will attack. Hewishes to be ready and is eager to fight them. Themistocles wants to move the navalbase of Athens from Phaleron Bay, which is just an unfortified beach. The Athenianfleet, drawn up on the beach at Phaleron, should a Persian fleet come sailing up,theyre stuck.He begins to make Piraeus, about five miles up the coast, into the port of Athens,the naval base of Athens. It has three harbors, easily protected. If you fortify thePiraeus, then you have a secure port. Themistocles demonstrates what will be hispolicy for the rest of his life. The fact that hes chosen archon may be indicative ofthe mood in Athens, which is increasingly unwilling to accept the idea of a return ofHippeis and of Persian rule.The Spartans and the Athenians are allies. That doesnt mean that the Athenianshave joined the Peloponnesian League; they just established friendly relations afterbeing at odds for such a period of time. Kagan
  34. 34. In the year 493-2 Themistocles is elected the eponymous archon. He will play avery large role in the great Persian invasion of 480. He will be a participant in theBattle of Marathon too. Themistocles is a great champion of the navy. He hasconcluded for varieties of reasons, that Athens must have a much larger navy.Obviously,he is a member of that faction which thinks the Persians will attack. Hewishes to be ready and is eager to fight them. Themistocles wants to move the navalbase of Athens from Phaleron Bay, which is just an unfortified beach. The Athenianfleet, drawn up on the beach at Phaleron, should a Persian fleet come sailing up,theyre stuck.He begins to make Piraeus, about five miles up the coast, into the port of Athens,the naval base of Athens. It has three harbors, easily protected. If you fortify thePiraeus, then you have a secure port. Themistocles demonstrates what will be hispolicy for the rest of his life. The fact that hes chosen archon may be indicative ofthe mood in Athens, which is increasingly unwilling to accept the idea of a return ofHippeis and of Persian rule.The Spartans and the Athenians are allies. That doesnt mean that the Athenianshave joined the Peloponnesian League; they just established friendly relations afterbeing at odds for such a period of time. Kagan
  35. 35. The Persian invasion culminates in the battle of Marathon. The purpose is very simple, topunish those cities that have insulted and damaged the Great King, Athens and Eretria, torestore Hippeis to the tyranny in Athens from where he can serve as the kings satrap, andsurely also, to gain a foothold in Greece on the way to conquering all of Greece. Why shouldhe want to conquer all of Greece?Herodotus tells the story about his relative, he tells him, for Gods sake why do you want to goGreece? Theres nothing there but a lot rocks. What is the point of conquering the place? Itsone thing to conquer all of these rich places Egypt, Babylonia — thats fine, theres wealththere, theres huge populations, theres a lot of good stuff. Its just Greeks and rocks, why inthe world do you want to go there? The answer is that conquest is good. Its good to be strong,its good to be rich, its good to be powerful. Therefore, its good to be stronger, richer, andmore powerful. If theres somebody on your frontier, take them over, and that by the way willmake you still more glorious, because conquest is glory.Now, we in the West — thats not our natural attitude; our natural attitude is shaped inconsiderable part, whatever your religious association may be, by Christianity, which has beenthe dominant force in shaping peoples thinking in the West, as I say, whatever religion youbelong to, and that aspect of Christianity that it violates is the one thats increasingly the onethats emphasized by Christians, and that is the Sermon on the Mount. The one that says themeek shall inherit the earth, not the strong, and the tough, and so on. The one that says ifyour enemy strikes you, turn the other cheek so he can strike you there too. Now, if the Greekshad heard that, they would have said these people are lunatics. Send them away. Greekmorality said, be good to your friend, do good to your friend and harm to your enemies andthe second part is just as important as the first part. Kagan, unedited!
  36. 36. Its time for the invasion. The site of the battle, where did they go? Well, theypicked Marathon. First, as Herodotus says, because its a good place for cavalry;secondly, because its the stronghold of Peisistratus, the place which would benatural for an army trying to establish Hippeis on the throne of Athens; and thatswhy theyre there.Their plan is to go to Marathon. If the Athenians come out and challenge them to afight, they will crush the Athenians. But they didnt expect that. They thought theAthenians would be afraid, and that what would happen is they would stay there inMarathon, until they got the news that there was a revolution in Athens prepared toturn the city over to them. Thats what Hippeis, led them to believe, and thats whatthey hoped for.
  37. 37. Some [in Athens]favored remaining there, defending the city.But to defend Athens means to allow the Persians to run all around Attica doinganything they want, causing all the harm they could. Remember, something overseventy five percent, maybe as many as ninety percent of the Athenian citizens hadfarms out in the country, had houses out in the country that would have beenexposed to the Persians.That was good reason for them to think that was not a great idea.
  38. 38. Miltiades now emerges as the leading figure. Everybody knows Miltiades is theresident Persian expert. He has been a general in the Persian army. That gives hima reason to be listened to. His position was to go out and meet the Persians wherethey land.You dont let your enemy ravage your countryside. This goes all the way back toHomer, the notion of arêtē, a man must have courage, you must stand up againstan enemy who invades your country. After that, in the world of the hoplite, youretalking about defending your homestead. All of that argued for going out there.So the Athenian strategy was to contain the beachhead, go confront the Persians.They have landed at Marathon with about 25,000 infantry. Remember, theirinfantry are not hoplites. They do not have heavy armor. There are vases that showthe Persian soldiers at Marathon, and they are wearing pants, theyre not wearingany armor. Their shield is a kind of wicker shield, so that their armament is muchinferior to the hoplites. Keep in mind too, that the Persian army has always beenmade up of a collection of subject peoples. Kagan
  39. 39. Miltiades now emerges as the leading figure. Everybody knows Miltiades is theresident Persian expert. He has been a general in the Persian army. That gives hima reason to be listened to. His position was to go out and meet the Persians wherethey land.You dont let your enemy ravage your countryside. This goes all the way back toHomer, the notion of arêtē, a man must have courage, you must stand up againstan enemy who invades your country. After that, in the world of the hoplite, youretalking about defending your homestead. All of that argued for going out there.So the Athenian strategy was to contain the beachhead, go confront the Persians.They have landed at Marathon with about 25,000 infantry. Remember, theirinfantry are not hoplites. They do not have heavy armor. There are vases that showthe Persian soldiers at Marathon, and they are wearing pants, theyre not wearingany armor. Their shield is a kind of wicker shield, so that their armament is muchinferior to the hoplites. Keep in mind too, that the Persian army has always beenmade up of a collection of subject peoples. Kagan
  40. 40. Marathon, 490 BC
  41. 41. Marathon, 490 BC
  42. 42. Marathon, 490 BC
  43. 43. Marathon, 490 BC
  44. 44. On a cup from Athens,probably painted shortlyafter the Persian defeat atMarathon, a Greek hoplitefinishes off his Persianadversary. Fabric andleather protected Persianwarriors from head to toe,but they offered littlesafety from the spear andsword attacks of thearmored Greek hoplite. Hanson, The Wars, p. 82
  45. 45. Miltiades plan is this, there are something like 10,000 Greeks, about 9,000Athenians, about 1,000 Eretrians against let us say 25,000 Persians.The Greeks have the high ground. If the Persians want to start a fight, then they willhave to come running up the hill. Not a very attractive proposition. So the Greeksfeel, let them come for us. Its our country. So, theyre sitting here.Theyve got to do something; we dont.Meanwhile, the Persians are waiting for treason, so that the city will be surrenderedto them. A week goes by with the two sides looking at each other and doing nothing. Kagan
  46. 46. The Persians realize we cant sit here forever. For one thing were going to run outof food and water. For another thing, the Great King will want to hear something.Well, what do we do?So, here’s the plan the Persians made. They would take — let us say for the sake ofargument-- 10,000 troops, put them on the ships, load up the cavalry onto theships too and send those ships around Attica to come up to Phaleron Bay, thenstraight into Athens. Meanwhile take the 15,000 that are left, march them up asclose as they could get to the Greeks and fix the Greeks there, so that they cant goback to defend Athens. So if we come sailing into the harbor, get off the ships, walkup to town, its ours.If the Athenians are crazy enough to come running down the hill to beoutnumbered three to two by us, then let them do it! Anyway were Persians wealways beat Greeks, weve got nothing to worry about.So they come.
  47. 47. Now, Miltiades has the problem that they have 5,000 moretroops than he has. Hes worried about being outflanked. So,what he decides to do is to weaken the depth of his linebecause he must cover the length of the Persian line.
  48. 48. The Persians send a force by sea toMARATHON PHASE I attack Athens, leaving Datis to hold the Athenian forces on the plain of Marathon.
  49. 49. Miltiades, the Athenian The Persians send a force by sea toMARATHON PHASE I Commander, guessing the Persians’ attack Athens, leaving Datis to hold plan, urged an immediate attack. the Athenian forces on the plain of The Athenian force advance and Marathon. take position on the plain.
  50. 50. MARATHON PHASE II Sensing impending defeat the Persians begin to flee and embark on the transports just offshore. The Persians succeed in pushing back the Athenian center. It has been suggested that Datis organized a rear guard, allowing his defeated force to escape. However, he still lost almost 7,000The Plataeans on the left and the Athenians on the right men whilst the Greeks lost a mere 192.flank drive back the Persians and wheel inward,beginning to encircle the Persian force.
  51. 51. ...the old Athenian hoplite veterans of the running [unique for that battle] charge atMarathon. Much later, to remind a younger audience of that legendary sharedbattle experience, they needed to say simply, “We ran.” (Aristophanes,Acharnanians, 700) Hanson, The Western Way of War, p. 125
  52. 52. The battle was seen throughout the rest of Greek history, first of all, as a greatvictory for hoplites as opposed to their opponents. In later Greek history, when thenavy becomes a big thing, it is the old fashioned and more conservative party thatthinks about Marathon as the great victory, the day that those hoplite farmerssaved Greece. The navy guys, the poor, like to point to Salamis, the naval battle in480. It was seen as a victory for democracy; the Athenian democrat rowers. It wasthe first Greek defeat of the Persians. As Herodotus says, up until then even thename Persians was a fearful thing to the Greeks.It was a source of tremendous national pride and glory for Athens, and scholarshave compared the impact of the Battle of Marathon on the Athenian image ofthemselves with the defeat of the Spanish Armada by Elizabeths English fleet, thebeginning of the glory of the Elizabethan Era. It was seen as a victory for freedom,because the price of defeat would have been slavery in every sense, as theyunderstood it. Greek civilization, could have been strangled in its infancy; it is in itsinfancy!Still, we ought to pay attention to those people who suggest that people like me areover-embellishing the significance of all this. Kagan
  53. 53. The Athenians won the battle, very large casualties for the Persians. Only192 Greeks killed in the battle and allowed the extraordinary honor ofbeing buried on the field where they fought.Next day 2,000 Spartans come marching into Attica [too late for thebattle]. They ask permission — can we go to the battlefield and look at it?There they saw all these dead Persians. No one had ever seen anything likethat. No Greeks had ever beaten Persians before. Great was the glory of theAthenians.So what?What is the significance of this silly little battle 10,000 Greeks against15,000 Persians back a billion years ago? What does it matter? Lots of folkswill say that, especially these days.But I remember in 1936 there was a wonderful conference of pacifists, whomet in England, at which the dominant theme of the speakers was, no warever made any difference. What I like about that was that the place of themeeting was Hastings. [What happened there in 1066?--jbp] Kagan
  54. 54. One English statesman said war wins nothing, cures nothing, settles nothing; thespeaker was Neville Chamberlain. In 1936 Bertrand Russell would declare,disarmament and complete pacifism is indisputably the wisest policy, and he urgedthe gradual disbanding of the British Army, Navy and Air Force, as Hitler wasmoving into the Rhineland. Does victory in war make a difference?I would say ask the losers, the victims, and the survivors of the Holocaust. Ask thedescendants of the slaves in the American south. Remember this, if the Athenianshad lost at Marathon — Aeschylus had just begun his career as a playwright,Sophocles hadnt written a play, Euripides of course hadnt either, nor hadAristophanes. Socrates wasnt born yet, much less Plato, Aristotle, Phidias. Therewas no Parthenon, none of those glorious buildings that make us think about thegreatness that was Greece had been constructed.There would be no democracy, because this was the only place where it had anyexistence. The scientific revolution would have been wiped out.There would be no memory; there would be no record of any of this. Therefore, noWestern civilization, no political freedom, for none of these have occurred in anyother culture in all the years since that time. Thats why I wanted you to know alittle bit about the battle of Marathon. I think all of us alive today here owe a verygreat debt to the 10,000 marathonomachoi, the fighters of Marathon who foughtfor Greek freedom and for ours too. Thank you. Kagan
  55. 55. Xerxes, Mardonius (480 BC)
  56. 56. Black Sea Bosphorus Sea of MarmaraAegean SeaDardanelles orHellespont As the population of Athens grew in the 7th and 6th centuries, the Athenians became more and more dependent on this narrow waterway connecting them with the Black or Euxine Sea. Here were the wheat and metal exports so vital to their economy, their very survival.
  57. 57. According to Herodotus,Xerxes first attempt tobridge the Hellespontended in failure when astorm destroyed the flaxand papyrus cables of thebridges; Xerxes orderedthe Hellespont (the straititself) whipped threehundred times and hadfetters thrown into thewater. Xerxes secondattempt to bridge theHellespont wassuccessful.
  58. 58. Xerxes’ crossing of the Hellespont in the summer of 480, with a pontoon bridge formed byconnected boats, was famous in antiquity. Seen as a symbol of the vast resources of the Persianempire and its ability to conquer natural obstacles. This horde subsequently descended throughnorthern Greece to Thermopylae--a variegated force of Persians, Phoenicians, Lydians, Medes,Egyptians, and dozens more contingents of the Persian empire, joined by Ionian and mainlandGreeks. After Xerxes’ defeat at Salamis (September 480), a great part of the army rushed home inparanoid fear that the Greeks would destroy the bridge and trap them in Europe.
  59. 59. Leonidas marched into Thermopylae with about seven thousand men….Hedismissed the bulk of his forces….perhaps he knew his position was hopelessand wished to save as many soldiers as he could for future battles while stillinflicting damage and delay on the enemy. Only a small force of four hundredmen sent by the Thebans, the Thespians, and three hundred Spartansremained. Leonidas and his men defended the pass heroically and fellfighting, having slain many “immortals” including two brothers of Xerxes. OnXerxes’ orders the body of Leonidas was decapitated and displayed on a cross.The holding operation at Thermopylae not only bought time but went down inhistory as an extraordinary act of heroism. Pomeroy et.al., p 219
  60. 60. Leonidas marched into Thermopylae with about seven thousand men….Hedismissed the bulk of his forces….perhaps he knew his position was hopelessand wished to save as many soldiers as he could for future battles while stillinflicting damage and delay on the enemy. Only a small force of four hundredmen sent by the Thebans, the Thespians, and three hundred Spartansremained. Leonidas and his men defended the pass heroically and fellfighting, having slain many “immortals” including two brothers of Xerxes. OnXerxes’ orders the body of Leonidas was decapitated and displayed on a cross.The holding operation at Thermopylae not only bought time but went down inhistory as an extraordinary act of heroism. Pomeroy et.al., p 219
  61. 61. the terrain of Greece favoredthe defenderspasses in northern Thessaly,and at Thermopylae, togetherwith narrow entries into Boeotiaand along the Attic border couldbe garrisoned or blocked byhoplitesthe seacoast was irregularand the mountains of westernGreece made that region nearlyimpassable
  62. 62. the terrain of Greece favoredthe defenderspasses in northern Thessaly,and at Thermopylae, togetherwith narrow entries into Boeotiaand along the Attic border couldbe garrisoned or blocked byhoplitesthe seacoast was irregularand the mountains of westernGreece made that region nearly MOLON LABEimpassable COME, TAKE THEM!
  63. 63. Some have suggested that [the 2007 film] 300 is juvenile in its black-and-white plot and character depiction---and glorification---of free Greeks versusimperious Persians. Yet that good-bad contrast comes not entirely fromSnyder or Miller, but again is based on accounts from the Greeks themselves,who saw their own society as antithetical to the monarchy of imperial Persia Hanson, The Father of Us All, p. 54
  64. 64. Some have suggested that [the 2007 film] 300 is juvenile in its black-and-white plot and character depiction---and glorification---of free Greeks versusimperious Persians. Yet that good-bad contrast comes not entirely fromSnyder or Miller, but again is based on accounts from the Greeks themselves,who saw their own society as antithetical to the monarchy of imperial Persia Hanson, The Father of Us All, p. 54
  65. 65. 300 was released in both conventional and IMAX theaters in the United States on March 9, 2007, and onDVD, Blu-ray, and HD DVD on July 31, 2007. The films opening was the 24th largest in box officehistory… Wikipedia
  66. 66. παπαί, Μαρδόνιε, κοίους ἐπ ἄνδρας ἤγαγες µαχησοµένους ἡµέας, οἳ οὐπερὶ χρηµάτων τὸν ἀγῶνα ποιεῦνται ἀλλὰ περὶ ἀρετῆς.Papaí, Mardónie, koíous ep ándras ḗgages makhēsoménous hēméas, hoì ouperì khrēmátōn tòn agôna poieûntai allà perì aretês."Good heavens! Mardonius, what kind of men have you brought us to fightagainst? Men who do not compete for possessions, but for honour."Spontaneous response of Tigranes, a Persian general while Xerxes wasinterrogating some Arcadians after the Battle of Thermopylae. Xerxes asked whythere were so few Greek men defending the Thermopylae. The answer was "Allthe other men are participating in the Olympic Games". And when asked "What isthe prize for the winner?", "An olive-wreath" came the answer. — Herodotus, The Histories, quoted in Wikipedia, “List of Greek Phrases”
  67. 67. Not long before the Persian invasion, in the year 482, the silver mines in the south of Attica[at Laurion] had yielded an unusual strike. A vein of silver had been discovered,much morethan normal. So much so that something had to be decided by the Athenian assembly. Whatshould we do with the silver? Its a wonderful insight into the way Greeks thought about theirpolis. The first thought, the one that was most popular, was well, lets take the silver anddivide it up equally among ourselves. That in some sense the polis was a kind of joint stockcompany and when there was a nice dividend you just dole it out to the investors.Themistocles thought otherwise. Themistocles was — its evident — constantly aware of thethreat from Persia and of the importance of getting ready to fight the Persians, and heunderstood before most other Greeks that the navy was going to be really critical in thisoperation. So, he made the suggestion that the silver strike be used to build a whole fleet ofnew ships for the Athenians, and they end up with two hundred triremes (the trireme is thebattleship of the ancient Greeks). So, that is the core of the fleet which is the one that defeatsthe Persians at Salamis and defeats them again at Mycale.The Spartans were given command of the war against Persia, both on land and sea, but theSpartans didnt have any great skill or experience in naval matters, and the Athenians hadmore than they, and it was the Athenian portion of the fleet, which was the largest and themost effective in fighting those naval battles. And, of course, the battle of Salamis was foughtin Athenian waters and Themistocles, with his clever devices, had come up with the way ofwinning victory. First of all, compelling the Greeks to fight at Salamis and then winning thevictory at Salamis. Kagan
  68. 68. Not long before the Persian invasion, in the year 482, the silver mines in the south of Attica[at Laurion] had yielded an unusual strike. A vein of silver had been discovered,much morethan normal. So much so that something had to be decided by the Athenian assembly. Whatshould we do with the silver? Its a wonderful insight into the way Greeks thought about theirpolis. The first thought, the one that was most popular, was well, lets take the silver anddivide it up equally among ourselves. That in some sense the polis was a kind of joint stockcompany and when there was a nice dividend you just dole it out to the investors.Themistocles thought otherwise. Themistocles was — its evident — constantly aware of thethreat from Persia and of the importance of getting ready to fight the Persians, and heunderstood before most other Greeks that the navy was going to be really critical in thisoperation. So, he made the suggestion that the silver strike be used to build a whole fleet ofnew ships for the Athenians, and they end up with two hundred triremes (the trireme is thebattleship of the ancient Greeks). So, that is the core of the fleet which is the one that defeatsthe Persians at Salamis and defeats them again at Mycale.The Spartans were given command of the war against Persia, both on land and sea, but theSpartans didnt have any great skill or experience in naval matters, and the Athenians hadmore than they, and it was the Athenian portion of the fleet, which was the largest and themost effective in fighting those naval battles. And, of course, the battle of Salamis was foughtin Athenian waters and Themistocles, with his clever devices, had come up with the way ofwinning victory. First of all, compelling the Greeks to fight at Salamis and then winning thevictory at Salamis. Kagan
  69. 69. Not long before the Persian invasion, in the year 482, the silver mines in the south of Attica[at Laurion] had yielded an unusual strike. A vein of silver had been discovered,much morethan normal. So much so that something had to be decided by the Athenian assembly. Whatshould we do with the silver? Its a wonderful insight into the way Greeks thought about theirpolis. The first thought, the one that was most popular, was well, lets take the silver anddivide it up equally among ourselves. That in some sense the polis was a kind of joint stockcompany and when there was a nice dividend you just dole it out to the investors.Themistocles thought otherwise. Themistocles was — its evident — constantly aware of thethreat from Persia and of the importance of getting ready to fight the Persians, and heunderstood before most other Greeks that the navy was going to be really critical in thisoperation. So, he made the suggestion that the silver strike be used to build a whole fleet ofnew ships for the Athenians, and they end up with two hundred triremes (the trireme is thebattleship of the ancient Greeks). So, that is the core of the fleet which is the one that defeatsthe Persians at Salamis and defeats them again at Mycale.The Spartans were given command of the war against Persia, both on land and sea, but theSpartans didnt have any great skill or experience in naval matters, and the Athenians hadmore than they, and it was the Athenian portion of the fleet, which was the largest and themost effective in fighting those naval battles. And, of course, the battle of Salamis was foughtin Athenian waters and Themistocles, with his clever devices, had come up with the way ofwinning victory. First of all, compelling the Greeks to fight at Salamis and then winning thevictory at Salamis. Kagan
  70. 70. Not long before the Persian invasion, in the year 482, the silver mines in the south of Attica[at Laurion] had yielded an unusual strike. A vein of silver had been discovered,much morethan normal. So much so that something had to be decided by the Athenian assembly. Whatshould we do with the silver? Its a wonderful insight into the way Greeks thought about theirpolis. The first thought, the one that was most popular, was well, lets take the silver anddivide it up equally among ourselves. That in some sense the polis was a kind of joint stockcompany and when there was a nice dividend you just dole it out to the investors.Themistocles thought otherwise. Themistocles was — its evident — constantly aware of thethreat from Persia and of the importance of getting ready to fight the Persians, and heunderstood before most other Greeks that the navy was going to be really critical in thisoperation. So, he made the suggestion that the silver strike be used to build a whole fleet ofnew ships for the Athenians, and they end up with two hundred triremes (the trireme is thebattleship of the ancient Greeks). So, that is the core of the fleet which is the one that defeatsthe Persians at Salamis and defeats them again at Mycale.The Spartans were given command of the war against Persia, both on land and sea, but theSpartans didnt have any great skill or experience in naval matters, and the Athenians hadmore than they, and it was the Athenian portion of the fleet, which was the largest and themost effective in fighting those naval battles. And, of course, the battle of Salamis was foughtin Athenian waters and Themistocles, with his clever devices, had come up with the way ofwinning victory. First of all, compelling the Greeks to fight at Salamis and then winning thevictory at Salamis. Kagan
  71. 71. Not long before the Persian invasion, in the year 482, the silver mines in the south of Attica[at Laurion] had yielded an unusual strike. A vein of silver had been discovered,much morethan normal. So much so that something had to be decided by the Athenian assembly. Whatshould we do with the silver? Its a wonderful insight into the way Greeks thought about theirpolis. The first thought, the one that was most popular, was well, lets take the silver anddivide it up equally among ourselves. That in some sense the polis was a kind of joint stockcompany and when there was a nice dividend you just dole it out to the investors.Themistocles thought otherwise. Themistocles was — its evident — constantly aware of thethreat from Persia and of the importance of getting ready to fight the Persians, and heunderstood before most other Greeks that the navy was going to be really critical in thisoperation. So, he made the suggestion that the silver strike be used to build a whole fleet ofnew ships for the Athenians, and they end up with two hundred triremes (the trireme is thebattleship of the ancient Greeks). So, that is the core of the fleet which is the one that defeatsthe Persians at Salamis and defeats them again at Mycale.The Spartans were given command of the war against Persia, both on land and sea, but theSpartans didnt have any great skill or experience in naval matters, and the Athenians hadmore than they, and it was the Athenian portion of the fleet, which was the largest and themost effective in fighting those naval battles. And, of course, the battle of Salamis was foughtin Athenian waters and Themistocles, with his clever devices, had come up with the way ofwinning victory. First of all, compelling the Greeks to fight at Salamis and then winning thevictory at Salamis. Kagan
  72. 72. Not long before the Persian invasion, in the year 482, the silver mines in the south of Attica[at Laurion] had yielded an unusual strike. A vein of silver had been discovered,much morethan normal. So much so that something had to be decided by the Athenian assembly. Whatshould we do with the silver? Its a wonderful insight into the way Greeks thought about theirpolis. The first thought, the one that was most popular, was well, lets take the silver anddivide it up equally among ourselves. That in some sense the polis was a kind of joint stockcompany and when there was a nice dividend you just dole it out to the investors.Themistocles thought otherwise. Themistocles was — its evident — constantly aware of thethreat from Persia and of the importance of getting ready to fight the Persians, and heunderstood before most other Greeks that the navy was going to be really critical in thisoperation. So, he made the suggestion that the silver strike be used to build a whole fleet ofnew ships for the Athenians, and they end up with two hundred triremes (the trireme is thebattleship of the ancient Greeks). So, that is the core of the fleet which is the one that defeatsthe Persians at Salamis and defeats them again at Mycale.The Spartans were given command of the war against Persia, both on land and sea, but theSpartans didnt have any great skill or experience in naval matters, and the Athenians hadmore than they, and it was the Athenian portion of the fleet, which was the largest and themost effective in fighting those naval battles. And, of course, the battle of Salamis was foughtin Athenian waters and Themistocles, with his clever devices, had come up with the way ofwinning victory. First of all, compelling the Greeks to fight at Salamis and then winning thevictory at Salamis. Kagan
  73. 73. Not long before the Persian invasion, in the year 482, the silver mines in the south of Attica[at Laurion] had yielded an unusual strike. A vein of silver had been discovered,much morethan normal. So much so that something had to be decided by the Athenian assembly. Whatshould we do with the silver? Its a wonderful insight into the way Greeks thought about theirpolis. The first thought, the one that was most popular, was well, lets take the silver anddivide it up equally among ourselves. That in some sense the polis was a kind of joint stockcompany and when there was a nice dividend you just dole it out to the investors.Themistocles thought otherwise. Themistocles was — its evident — constantly aware of thethreat from Persia and of the importance of getting ready to fight the Persians, and heunderstood before most other Greeks that the navy was going to be really critical in thisoperation. So, he made the suggestion that the silver strike be used to build a whole fleet ofnew ships for the Athenians, and they end up with two hundred triremes (the trireme is thebattleship of the ancient Greeks). So, that is the core of the fleet which is the one that defeatsthe Persians at Salamis and defeats them again at Mycale.The Spartans were given command of the war against Persia, both on land and sea, but theSpartans didnt have any great skill or experience in naval matters, and the Athenians hadmore than they, and it was the Athenian portion of the fleet, which was the largest and themost effective in fighting those naval battles. And, of course, the battle of Salamis was foughtin Athenian waters and Themistocles, with his clever devices, had come up with the way ofwinning victory. First of all, compelling the Greeks to fight at Salamis and then winning thevictory at Salamis. Kagan
  74. 74. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7da52cJLwW8
  75. 75. The last hope of Hellenic civilization to defeat an empire twenty times larger thanits own was to force a battle at Salamis….The Athenian refugees were huddled in makeshift quarters on the nearby islands ofSalamis and Aegina and on the coast of the Argolid, their very culture [and WesternCivilization] on the verge of extinction. We must remember that when Salamis wasfought, the Athenians had already lost their homeland. The battle was an effort notto save, but to reclaim, their ancestral ground. Hanson, Carnage, p. 43
  76. 76. “When Xerxes’ remaining 800 ships entered theBay of Phalerum, the Peloponnesians were forwithdrawing“Themistocles used all his powers of persuasion,arguing to stand and fight there“the shores of Salamis and the mainland nullifiedthe Persian numerical advantage
  77. 77. “When Xerxes’ remaining 800 ships entered theBay of Phalerum, the Peloponnesians were forwithdrawing“Themistocles used all his powers of persuasion,arguing to stand and fight there“the shores of Salamis and the mainland nullifiedthe Persian numerical advantage
  78. 78. “When Xerxes’ remaining 800 ships entered theBay of Phalerum, the Peloponnesians were forwithdrawing“Themistocles used all his powers of persuasion,arguing to stand and fight there“the shores of Salamis and the mainland nullifiedthe Persian numerical advantage“Moreover, there were no unwilling levies amongthe Greeks but men fighting for their lives andhomes, whereas the Persians were mostlyconscripts and mercenaries“Lastly, the Greeks wore metal breastplates andthe Persians did not.” Potter, ed. Sea Power, p. 9
  79. 79. A king sate on the rocky brow Which looks oer sea-born Salamis And ships, by thousands, lay below, And men in nations;—all were his! He counted them at break of day—And when the sun set where were they? the philhellene Lord Byron Don Juan, Canto iii, 1819
  80. 80. the battle of Plataea, 479 BC
  81. 81. Plataea, fought in a small valley about ten miles south of Thebes almost a year afterthe Greeks’ mastery at Salamis, was a magnificent Greek triumph, resulting in thedestruction of the remaining Persian infantry in the field and marking the finalexpulsion of the king’s infantry forces from Greece. Yet that landmark battle--where the Persian general Mardonius was killed and most of the remainingPersians slaughtered or scattered--is understood only in the context of the tactical,strategic and spiritual success of Salamis the September before, which energizedthe Greeks to press on with the war. Hanson, op. cit., p. 40
  82. 82. Two great battles decided the outcome of the war finally.On land, the battle of Plataea in southern Boeotia, in which a great Greek army,which included the [31] major cities including especially Sparta and Athens, tookon a powerful Persian army and defeated them.Herodotus says on the very same day a sea battle was fought off the coast of AsiaMinor at Mycale. Again, the Greek fleet destroyed the Persian fleet. At that pointthe Persians had no choice but simply to flee, to try to escape the Greeks, who werepursuing them, doing their best to kill as many of them as they could. Kagan
  83. 83. Although Greek historical sources tend to depict Persian history as the gradualdegeneration of the mighty empire established by Cyrus the Great...the Persianswere not decisively defeated by European forces until their conquest by Alexanderthe Great (334-323 BC). They continued to play an influential in Greek politics,both in civic disputes and in rivalries between Greek states, favoring now one side,now another, providing refuge for exiles and soldiers of fortune including theAthenians Hippias, Themistocles, Alcibiades, and Xenophon and the SpartansDemaratus and Pausanias. The Spartan victory in the Peloponnesian War of thelate fifth century would have been impossible without Persian backing…. Pomeroy & al., op. cit., p. 223
  84. 84. STRUGGLE FOR HEGEMONY
  85. 85. TheAthenian Empire
  86. 86. Hegemony (UK: /hɨˈɡɛməni/; US: /ˈhɛdʒɨmoʊni/, /hɨˈdʒɛməni/; Greek:ἡγεµονία hēgemonía, leadership, rule) is an indirect form of imperial dominance inwhich the hegemon (leader state) rules sub-ordinate states by the implied means ofpower rather than direct military force.[1] In Ancient Greece (8th c. BC – AD 6thc.), hegemony denoted the politico–military dominance of a city-state over othercity-states.[2]__________ 1. Ross Hassig, Mexico and the Spanish Conquest (1994), pp. 23–24. 2. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition (1994) p. 1215. Wikipedia
  87. 87. CHRONOLOGY OF THEπεντηκονταετία (FIFTY YEARS) 481-the second Persian invasion 459-so-called “First Peloponnesian War” begins winter 445/46-the “Thirty Years Peace” 431-the Peloponnesian War begins (only 13 years later!)
  88. 88. One thing we need to understand or we wont comprehend the situation at all.We know that the Persian wars are over. We know that the Persians just ran awayand werent going to come back and challenge this Greek victory for the longest time,but the Greeks didnt know it.The Persian Empire was still intact; it was still an extraordinarily extensive, rich, andpowerful empire. There was no reason why the Greeks should not believe that thePersians would be coming again.If we dont grasp that, then all of what they do now makes no sense. Kagan
  89. 89. Now, after Mycale, a very important event took place... There was a conference heldon the island of Samos, ... one of the most important of the Ionian islands ... TheGreek council that had been conducting the war [met there.] The island states ofChios, Lesbos, and Samos...the three largest, most important islands off the coastof Asia Minor. All of them had taken advantage of the presence of the Greek forcesin that region to rebel against the Persians. Now they wanted to be admitted to theleague that the Greeks had formed in 481 to resist the Persian invasion.Now, this might seem like a simple thing to do. Why not accept these three Greekstates, all of them potentially powerful and important, who want join the GreekLeague. Kagan
  90. 90. Now, after Mycale, a very important event took place... There was a conference heldon the island of Samos, ... one of the most important of the Ionian islands ... TheGreek council that had been conducting the war [met there.] The island states ofChios, Lesbos, and Samos...the three largest, most important islands off the coastof Asia Minor. All of them had taken advantage of the presence of the Greek forcesin that region to rebel against the Persians. Now they wanted to be admitted to theleague that the Greeks had formed in 481 to resist the Persian invasion.Now, this might seem like a simple thing to do. Why not accept these three Greekstates, all of them potentially powerful and important, who want join the GreekLeague. Kagan
  91. 91. Now, after Mycale, a very important event took place... There was a conference heldon the island of Samos, ... one of the most important of the Ionian islands ... TheGreek council that had been conducting the war [met there.] The island states ofChios, Lesbos, and Samos...the three largest, most important islands off the coastof Asia Minor. All of them had taken advantage of the presence of the Greek forcesin that region to rebel against the Persians. Now they wanted to be admitted to theleague that the Greeks had formed in 481 to resist the Persian invasion.Now, this might seem like a simple thing to do. Why not accept these three Greekstates, all of them potentially powerful and important, who want join the GreekLeague. Kagan
  92. 92. Now, after Mycale, a very important event took place... There was a conference heldon the island of Samos, ... one of the most important of the Ionian islands ... TheGreek council that had been conducting the war [met there.] The island states ofChios, Lesbos, and Samos...the three largest, most important islands off the coastof Asia Minor. All of them had taken advantage of the presence of the Greek forcesin that region to rebel against the Persians. Now they wanted to be admitted to theleague that the Greeks had formed in 481 to resist the Persian invasion.Now, this might seem like a simple thing to do. Why not accept these three Greekstates, all of them potentially powerful and important, who want join the GreekLeague. Kagan
  93. 93. Now, after Mycale, a very important event took place... There was a conference heldon the island of Samos, ... one of the most important of the Ionian islands ... TheGreek council that had been conducting the war [met there.] The island states ofChios, Lesbos, and Samos...the three largest, most important islands off the coastof Asia Minor. All of them had taken advantage of the presence of the Greek forcesin that region to rebel against the Persians. Now they wanted to be admitted to theleague that the Greeks had formed in 481 to resist the Persian invasion.Now, this might seem like a simple thing to do. Why not accept these three Greekstates, all of them potentially powerful and important, who want join the GreekLeague. Kagan
  94. 94. Chios, Samos, and Lesbos wanted to be sure that they would be protected by thisGreek Leaguebasically the Spartans said no. There wasnt much danger that the Persians wouldpresent a threat to the Spartan predominance in the Peloponnesusthe Athenians held the opposite view, their situation was quite different. They wereaccustomed to the sea. Moreover they had very important supply lines. In order tofeed themselves they needed to have freedom of the seasfor those reasons alone, the Athenians would have had to take seriously this requestby the islanders. But its also true that the islanders, Samos particularly, wereIonians, kinsmen of the Athenians. The Athenians were recognized as the leader ofthe Ionian people Kagan
  95. 95. But most strikingly, the Athenians understood the Persians have to be kept awayfrom the Aegean Sea and the Athenians also wanted very much to liberate theGreeks of Asia Minor from the Persian rule. So, the Athenians won the argument; itwas agreed to take these three island states into the Greek League and that meantthat the Greeks would be committed to protect them.In accordance with these decisions, the commander of the Spartan fleet, KingLeotychidas sailed home and took his Spartans, and his Peloponnesians with him.On the other hand, the commander of the Athenian fleet, Xanthippus stayed, andcarried on the war against the Persians in the area. Xanthippus has a son in theyear 479 whose name is Pericles, and we will be hearing a lot about him later on.The Persians have fled but there are a few places in Europe that, along the route oftheir escape, where the Persians still had control of a town or a city here and there,and one of the most important was the town of Sestos, located on the Europeanside of the Dardanelles. So Xanthippus took the city by siege. Kagan
  96. 96. But most strikingly, the Athenians understood the Persians have to be kept awayfrom the Aegean Sea and the Athenians also wanted very much to liberate theGreeks of Asia Minor from the Persian rule. So, the Athenians won the argument; itwas agreed to take these three island states into the Greek League and that meantthat the Greeks would be committed to protect them.In accordance with these decisions, the commander of the Spartan fleet, KingLeotychidas sailed home and took his Spartans, and his Peloponnesians with him.On the other hand, the commander of the Athenian fleet, Xanthippus stayed, andcarried on the war against the Persians in the area. Xanthippus has a son in theyear 479 whose name is Pericles, and we will be hearing a lot about him later on.The Persians have fled but there are a few places in Europe that, along the route oftheir escape, where the Persians still had control of a town or a city here and there,and one of the most important was the town of Sestos, located on the Europeanside of the Dardanelles. So Xanthippus took the city by siege. Kagan
  97. 97. But most strikingly, the Athenians understood the Persians have to be kept awayfrom the Aegean Sea and the Athenians also wanted very much to liberate theGreeks of Asia Minor from the Persian rule. So, the Athenians won the argument; itwas agreed to take these three island states into the Greek League and that meantthat the Greeks would be committed to protect them.In accordance with these decisions, the commander of the Spartan fleet, KingLeotychidas sailed home and took his Spartans, and his Peloponnesians with him.On the other hand, the commander of the Athenian fleet, Xanthippus stayed, andcarried on the war against the Persians in the area. Xanthippus has a son in theyear 479 whose name is Pericles, and we will be hearing a lot about him later on.The Persians have fled but there are a few places in Europe that, along the route oftheir escape, where the Persians still had control of a town or a city here and there,and one of the most important was the town of Sestos, located on the Europeanside of the Dardanelles. So Xanthippus took the city by siege. Kagan
  98. 98. But most strikingly, the Athenians understood the Persians have to be kept awayfrom the Aegean Sea and the Athenians also wanted very much to liberate theGreeks of Asia Minor from the Persian rule. So, the Athenians won the argument; itwas agreed to take these three island states into the Greek League and that meantthat the Greeks would be committed to protect them.In accordance with these decisions, the commander of the Spartan fleet, KingLeotychidas sailed home and took his Spartans, and his Peloponnesians with him.On the other hand, the commander of the Athenian fleet, Xanthippus stayed, andcarried on the war against the Persians in the area. Xanthippus has a son in theyear 479 whose name is Pericles, and we will be hearing a lot about him later on.The Persians have fled but there are a few places in Europe that, along the route oftheir escape, where the Persians still had control of a town or a city here and there,and one of the most important was the town of Sestos, located on the Europeanside of the Dardanelles. So Xanthippus took the city by siege. Kagan
  99. 99. The point of all this is that there is something new in the Greek world, a bigAthenian navy, an extraordinarily capable navy. The whole idea of naval powerbeing decisive in Greek affairs is a new idea. Were really at another level after theAthenians have built this fleet and had the success that they had.Another consequence of the war was the tremendous boost to Greek self-confidence. What an incredible upset this victory was! No one would have imaginedthat, if the Great King got really serious and sent over an army of a hundred or twohundred thousand (?)—it is widely agreed Herodotus numbers are exaggerated--but its a very big army, a very big navy. Certainly both outnumbered the Greeks.Anybody would have thought it was going to be an easy victory for the Persians.To defeat them was enormous. The Greeks came away feeling that their belief intheir own superiority over everybody else had been justified. The Athenians,especially, because of the central role which they had played. Kagan
  100. 100. PANHELLENISMpreviously there had been some sense of Greek unity and identity at thePanhellenic games and religious festivalsbut this couldn’t match the tremendous boost which this victory imparted tothese thirty-one states that had banded together to defeat the Persians“I dont mean to say that the Greeks are formed now into a single people,have retreated from their localism and their love for their polis; nothingcould be further from the truth. But alongside of their love of autonomy andlove of their polis, there was the idea that Panhellenism was a good thingKagan’s analogies of the League and the UN, post-war idealismVenizelos’ Μεγάλη Ιδέα
  101. 101. PANHELLENISMpreviously there had been some sense of Greek unity and identity at thePanhellenic games and religious festivalsbut this couldn’t match the tremendous boost which this victory imparted tothese thirty-one states that had banded together to defeat the Persians“I dont mean to say that the Greeks are formed now into a single people,have retreated from their localism and their love for their polis; nothingcould be further from the truth. But alongside of their love of autonomy andlove of their polis, there was the idea that Panhellenism was a good thingKagan’s analogies of the League and the UN, post-war idealismVenizelos’ Μεγάλη Ιδέα
  102. 102. Another consequence of the war was a division within the Greek world that was inpart based upon the fact that Athens had become a great power and had played oneof the leading roles in the victory. Now, the Spartans had too; the Spartans were theofficial leaders, and their regent [Pausanias] had been the commander at the greatland battle at Plataea and their general was in charge of the navy, but Athens hadbecome so important, so big, so successful that there was now a question — wasSparta really the leader of the Greeks? Was the future going to be one in which theSpartans would maintain the unique leadership of the Greeks or would theAthenians challenge them? Kagan
  103. 103. It soon became clear that the Athenians would indeed challenge them. The major theme inHellenic relations for the next fifty years [481-431, the πεντηκονταετία--Thucydides] will be theconflict between Athens and Sparta. A cold war, because there is no fighting between themfrom 479 until 457. And when that war ends there is a another period of peace until the greatPeloponnesian War which dominates the last third of the century. Whats clear now is thatthere must be some new alignment to reflect the change in power.Behind it all stood the question was Persia going to be a threat once again. The Spartans andthe Peloponnesians were more likely to take the view that the threat was over. The Athenians,the islanders, and the Asiatic Greeks, would take the view that there is an imminent dangerfrom the Persians.Now, let me describe the way in which a new plan for dealing with the Persians arose. [Kagangoes back in time!] It’s 481, the year when Xerxes starts his march from the Persian empireagainst the Greeks. Aware that this was happening, the Greeks met at Corinth where thirty-one cities swore that they would fight together to defeat the Persians. They appointed Spartaofficially as the hegemon, the leader of that league. This meant the Spartans would be incommand on land and sea once the battles commenced. But, prior to that, the decisions as towhat to do, where to go to fight, when to fight and so on, were made by the council of theGreeks. Kagan
  104. 104. THE LEAGUE OF 481 BCa league of equals, but with both Sparta and Athens being “more equal”still, as hegemon, Sparta was not the dominant partner as she was in the PeloponnesianLeague. The membership of the two leagues is different as are their ground rulesthey swear this common oath; the members will fight for the common freedom, to free theGreeks in the islands, in Asia Minorit is to be perpetual. They agree to put aside the quarrels which they may have had, to havethe same friends and enemies, the famous clause that means a common foreign policya symmachia (lit. “fight alongside”), a defensive-offensive alliance. Each state would fundits own forces. No scheduled meetings--”when necessary”the first Pan-Hellenic expedition since the Trojan War!
  105. 105. TENSIONS OVER ATHENIANDEFENSE PLANS478-Athens began to rebuild her walls which the Persians had destroyed in 480. Sparta isconcerned. Themistocles says that it’s none of their business477-representatives from Athens and dozens of other Greek states met at Delos to form ananti-Persian league [soon called the Delian League]ultimately some 150 states, small and large will joinSparta proves uninterested in this largely maritime enterprise, but jealous of the prestigeAthens gains as its leadermembers contributed either ships or money which Athens administeredMiltiades’ son Kimon (Κίµων — Kimōn) commanded the Greek force which fought thePersians and their satellite states on both sea and land for the next quarter century
  106. 106. 480-479--after fighting at Salamis he was madestrategos (general, here admiral) Κίµων — Kimōn 510, Athens – 450 BC, Citium, Cyprus Bust of Kimon in Larnaca, Cyprus
  107. 107. 480-479--after fighting at Salamis he was madestrategos (general, here admiral)466-his greatest exploit was the destruction of aPersian fleet and army at the battle of theEurymedon (200 Phoenician triremes werecaptured) Κίµων — Kimōn 510, Athens – 450 BC, Citium, Cyprus Bust of Kimon in Larnaca, Cyprus
  108. 108. 480-479--after fighting at Salamis he was madestrategos (general, here admiral)466-his greatest exploit was the destruction of aPersian fleet and army at the battle of theEurymedon (200 Phoenician triremes werecaptured)465-463-he conducted the difficult campaignagainst Thasos, a rebelling island member of theDelian League462-he led an unsuccessful expedition to supportSparta during a helot uprising Κίµων — Kimōn 510, Athens – 450 BC, Citium, Cyprus Bust of Kimon in Larnaca, Cyprus
  109. 109. 480-479--after fighting at Salamis he was madestrategos (general, here admiral)466-his greatest exploit was the destruction of aPersian fleet and army at the battle of theEurymedon (200 Phoenician triremes werecaptured)465-463-he conducted the difficult campaignagainst Thasos, a rebelling island member of theDelian League462-he led an unsuccessful expedition to supportSparta during a helot uprising461-ostracism-the “democratic party” under Κίµων — KimōnEphialtes and Pericles were critical of his 510, Athens – 450 BC, Citium, Cyprus Bust of Kimon in Larnaca, Cyprusaristocratic, pro-Spartan policy
  110. 110. ...this [joint military policy] shows that the league was working, as it was supposedto. Then (if the dates are right) in the next year 469 [Wikipedia gives 466], comes avery important turning point in the history of the league.The Persians had a fleet in the in the eastern Mediterranean on the southern coastof Asia Minor, the Eurymedon river flows out there. They had a fleet and an armyinland. The league forces went there under the command of Kimon, crushed thePersian fleet at sea, landed and defeated the Persian army on land. A terrible blowto the Persian position. Apparently the Persians had to pull back from that entirearea.Now, it would not have been at all unreasonable for people to think: well, thePersian threat really is over. This went far beyond what happened in 479. Its notjust that weve driven them out of Europe. Weve driven them away from theMediterranean. You could imagine that thats the end of the Persian threat. Kagan
  111. 111. That was not the view taken by the Athenians, or by most of the allies, but we canimagine that there were some of the allies, who were restless about the need tocontinue to contribute to the league when they didnt feel that there was anypurpose to the league anymore. General Grunther, a commander of NATO, obviously a West Point man,educated, he knew all about Thucydides and the Peloponnesian War. He made theanalogy between NATO and the Delian League. At a period when he felt that theAmerican allies in Europe were more and more reluctant to make the kinds ofcontributions that he thought they should make, he bewailed his situation. Everytime the Russians looked like they were going to behave, then the allies decidedthey didnt want to make any contributions, and then when the Russians lookedscary, everybody came running and said, sure well contribute. He suggested thatsthe way it was in the Delian League too.[After 466] there are real questions as to whether the league should persist. Kagan
  112. 112. KAGAN’S ANALOGY OF THE THREELEAGUESGreek League of 481=United Nations OrganizationDelian League of 478=NATOPeloponnesian League=Warsaw PactNotice how he goes beyond General Grunther’s analogy. Now the hostileSpartans (USSR) and their allies (Warsaw Pact, ”brotherly socialistcountries”) have become Athens’ enemies. Not the Persians!
  113. 113. The Athenians certainly had no plan of abandoning the league, of abandoning theirleadership, of giving up their assaults on the Persians. [If league members shouldattempt to break] away, the Athenians would [respond].A very important turning point in the character of the league occurred in 465 whenthe Island of Thasos in the northern Aegean Sea rebelled. Kagan
  114. 114. Thasos did not object to doing the duty which the members of the leaguehad to do. It was not about not wanting to take part in campaigns, notwanting to make payments. No nothing like that. There was a quarrelbetween the Athenians and the Thasians about some mines that wereworked on the mainland north of Thasos. Gold and silver, very rich preciousmetal sources for the ancient Greek world, of which there were not many,located on Mount Pangaean. Both states claimed those mines. It was aquarrel that was really just about money.There was also a trading post up there which both sides claimed.TheAthenians had established a colony at a place on the Strymon River in thatregion called ennea-hodoi, the nine roads, which would later, when theAthenians established it as the colony would be called Amphipolis.
  115. 115. PangaeanThasos did not object to doing the duty which the members of the leaguehad to do. It was not about not wanting to take part in campaigns, notwanting to make payments. No nothing like that. There was a quarrelbetween the Athenians and the Thasians about some mines that wereworked on the mainland north of Thasos. Gold and silver, very rich preciousmetal sources for the ancient Greek world, of which there were not many,located on Mount Pangaean. Both states claimed those mines. It was aquarrel that was really just about money.There was also a trading post up there which both sides claimed.TheAthenians had established a colony at a place on the Strymon River in thatregion called ennea-hodoi, the nine roads, which would later, when theAthenians established it as the colony would be called Amphipolis.
  116. 116. Strymon River PangaeanThasos did not object to doing the duty which the members of the leaguehad to do. It was not about not wanting to take part in campaigns, notwanting to make payments. No nothing like that. There was a quarrelbetween the Athenians and the Thasians about some mines that wereworked on the mainland north of Thasos. Gold and silver, very rich preciousmetal sources for the ancient Greek world, of which there were not many,located on Mount Pangaean. Both states claimed those mines. It was aquarrel that was really just about money.There was also a trading post up there which both sides claimed.TheAthenians had established a colony at a place on the Strymon River in thatregion called ennea-hodoi, the nine roads, which would later, when theAthenians established it as the colony would be called Amphipolis.
  117. 117. Strymon River PangaeanThasos did not object to doing the duty which the members of the leaguehad to do. It was not about not wanting to take part in campaigns, notwanting to make payments. No nothing like that. There was a quarrelbetween the Athenians and the Thasians about some mines that wereworked on the mainland north of Thasos. Gold and silver, very rich preciousmetal sources for the ancient Greek world, of which there were not many,located on Mount Pangaean. Both states claimed those mines. It was aquarrel that was really just about money.There was also a trading post up there which both sides claimed.TheAthenians had established a colony at a place on the Strymon River in thatregion called ennea-hodoi, the nine roads, which would later, when theAthenians established it as the colony would be called Amphipolis.
  118. 118. Thasos did not object to doing the duty which the members of the league had to do. It was not about not wanting totake part in campaigns, not wanting to make payments. No nothing like that. There was a quarrel between theAthenians and the Thasians about some mines that were worked on the mainland north of Thasos. Gold and silver,very rich precious metal sources for the ancient Greek world, of which there were not many, located on MountPangaean. Both states claimed those mines and it was a quarrel that was really just about money.There was also a trading post up there which both sides claimed.The Athenians had established a colony at a placeon the Strymon River in that region called ennea-hodoi, the nine roads, which would later, when the Atheniansestablished it as the colony would be called Amphipolis.These were all issues which the Thasians didnt like. The Athenians were movinginto their sphere of influence and giving them trouble. So Thasos, as a consequenceof all of these quarrels, rebelled. It was a very difficult siege for the Athenians.Thasos is a relatively big island. The Thasians were a pretty tough group to putdown, and the siege, actually the war, between Athens and Thasos took two years,which is quite a long stretch for any Greek combat and certainly had not beentypical of what the Athenians had been able to do against other rebellions. Whenthe Thasians were finally forced to surrender, the Athenians gave them the usualtreatment to rebellious states. Kagan
  119. 119. THEY MADE THEM TAKE DOWN THEIR WALLSTHEY TOOK THEIR SHIPSOF COURSE THE ATHENIANS TOOK OVER THE MINESTHE THASIANS HAD TO PAY AN INDEMNITY, THE COST TO ATHENSOF THE WARTHEN, THE ANNUAL TRIBUTE WHICH MEMBERS OF THE LEAGUEWERE REQUIRED TO PAY
  120. 120. That wasnt the first time such a thing had happened to one of the members of theleague. What made it different was that the quarrel was not over anything that had todo with the league.It could easily be seen that the Athenians used the forces and the funds of the leagueto achieve strictly Athenian advantages. After all, there was no way that the league[had a stake in whether] Athens or Thasos exploited those mines. It was not an issuefor the league at all, and yet the Athenians had used their position as leaders of theleague to gain an economic advantage.The Thasian rebellion is a critical moment. That is a good place for us to look at theevaluation that the ancient writers made of this transition. Kagan
  121. 121. ONE ANCIENTOPINION“In general, Athenians were making great gains in powerand no longer treated their allies with decency as they haddone before. Instead, they ruled with arrogance andviolence. For this reason, most of their allies could not beartheir harshness and spoke to one another of rebellion. Someof them even disdained the league council and actedaccording to their own wishes.” Diodorus Siculis [of Sicily], quoted by Kagan
  122. 122. BUT, ON THE OTHERHAND“Now, while there were other causes of revolts, the principal ones were thefailures in bringing in the tribute or their quota of ships, and in some cases,refusal of military service. For the Athenians exacted the tribute strictly andgave offense by applying coercive measures to any who were accustomed orunwilling to bear the hardships of service. In some other respects too, theAthenians were no longer equally agreeable as leaders. They would not takepart in expeditions on terms of equality and they found it easy to reducethose who had revolted."[Now, heres where Thucydides differs from Diodorus,] "For all this, the allies themselves were responsible for most of them onaccount of their aversion to military service, in order to avoid being awayfrom home got themselves rated in sums of money instead of ships, whichthey should pay in as their proportion of contribution. Consequently, thefleet of the Athenians was increased by the funds which they contributed,while they themselves, whenever they revolted entered on the war withoutpreparation and without experience." Thucydides, quoted by Kagan
  123. 123. So, Thucydides certainly agrees with what Diodorus says about the high handedmanner in which the Athenians had become accustomed to behave and theoffense they gave to their allies.[But] he points out that the allies had gotten themselves into that fix, becausemany of them — and this is an element Diodorus doesnt mention --- voluntarilysaid, okay, were not going to do this service anymore. Instead of supplying ships,manning them, doing the service ourselves, well pay the equivalent sum into theleague treasury. When they did so, the Athenians took that money and used it topay for Athenian ships with Athenian rowers. As the league forces grew smaller,the Athenian navy grew bigger. Kagan
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