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Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny
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Greece 3 Colonization and Tyranny

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The two most important trends of the early archaic period were the spread of Greek culture and the new governmental model of tyranny. Both had profound effects upon Greek history

The two most important trends of the early archaic period were the spread of Greek culture and the new governmental model of tyranny. Both had profound effects upon Greek history

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  • 1. ANCIENT GREECE iii-Colonization & Tyranny
  • 2. ANCIENT GREECE iii-Colonization & Tyranny
  • 3. τρεις τρία γΤό Τρίτον Μάθηµα
  • 4. PRINCIPAL TOPICSI. Why Colonize?II. The Nature of ColoniesIII. A TourIV.Effects of ColonizationV.TyrannyVI. Rise of Greek TyranniesVII. Accomplishments
  • 5. I. WHY COLONIZE?
  • 6. I. WHY COLONIZE?
  • 7. Late sixth century BC krater decorated inblack figure by the Athenian artist Exekiasand exported to Vulci in Etruria, where it wasdiscovered in a tomb. The bowl, used as ashallow wine cup, illustrates the story of thecapture of the wine god Dionysos by Etruscanpirates, and the transformation of the piratesinto dolphins. Abulafia, The Great Sea, illustration # 18
  • 8. CHORUS Of so many marvelous things, nothingis more wonderful than man; he crosses the foamy sea In the south wind, navigating its depths and crests Sophocles, Antigone, lines 332-334
  • 9. BUT, FIRST,they aren’t colonies (colonii, Lat., military settlements) late Middle English (denoting a settlement formed mainly of retired soldiers, acting as a garrison in newly conquered territory in the Roman Empire): from Latin colonia ‘settlement, farm,’ from colonus ‘settler, farmer,’ from colere ‘cultivate.’they’re apoikia (ap•oy•KEY•uh-ἀπ0ικία, Gk., literally, “away home,” fromἀπο + οἶκος)the above are etymologies (late Middle English: from Old French ethimologie, via Latinfrom Greek etumologia, from etumologos ‘student of etymology,’ from etumon, neuter singular ofetumos ‘true.’)
  • 10. SECONDLY, WHY DOES IT NEED TOBE EXPLAINED?until the 20th century, the vast majority of humankind never travelled morethan a day’s journey or so from their homes, from birth to death!the Greeks were especially devoted to their ancestors, proper burial rites.Leaving their polis meant leaving those gravesmost colonies required a sea journey, and Greeks were quite properly afraidto do this! Ἴσον ἐστὶν ὀργῃ καὶ θάλασσα καὶ γυωή--Μένανδρος, Μον. 264colonizing meant leaving everything familiar and facing many unknowns
  • 11. THIRDLY,SO WHY DID THEYCOLONIZE?we don’t know, no Greek primary sources address thisbut we can hypothesize hypothesize |hīˈpäTH"ˌsīz| verb [ with obj. ] put (something) forward as a hypothesis: it was reasonable to hypothesize a viral causality | [ with clause ] : they hypothesize that the naturally high insulin levels result from a “thrifty gene.”from late 16th cent.: via late Latin from Greek hupothesis ‘foundation,’from hupo ‘under’ + thesis ‘placing.’
  • 12. THIRDLY,SO WHY DID THEYCOLONIZE?we don’t know, no Greek primary sources address thisbut we can hypothesize hypothesize |hīˈpäTH"ˌsīz| verb [ with obj. ] put (something) forward as a hypothesis: it was reasonable to hypothesize a viral causality | [ with clause ] : they hypothesize that the naturally high insulin levels result from a “thrifty gene.”from late 16th cent.: via late Latin from Greek hupothesis ‘foundation,’from hupo ‘under’ + thesis ‘placing.’because a great deal is known about about modern colonists’ motivation
  • 13. ACCORDING TO PROF. KAGAN1. land hunger at the end of the “Dark Ages”2. for a trading entrepôt (Abulafia puts this first)3. political motives 1. the group which has lost in a civil war or revolution 2. wartime refugees 3. individuals who are exiled, (ostracized)4. finally, (a small group) for the sheer adventure of it, “fortune seekers”
  • 14. “Sappho Hears a Favorite Poet,” Lawrence Alma-Tadema
  • 15. Solon of Athens heard his nephew sing a song of Sapphosover the wine and, since he liked the song so much, heasked the boy to teach it to him. When someone asked himwhy, he said, "So that I may learn it, then die." Stobaeus, Florilegium, (3.29.58)
  • 16. II. THE NATURE OF COLONIES
  • 17. II. THE NATURE OF COLONIES
  • 18. Of these [Dark Ages refugees], the most famous, perhaps the most important,was Miletus, an Ionian city located on the west coast of Asia Minor, which sentmany a colony into different parts of the world, particularly up towards thestraits and the Bosporus and the Sea of Marmara. The way the Greeks did theirimmigration into Asia Minor actually had a pattern. From north to south, thereis a consistent pattern.The northernmost settlements spoke Greek with an Aeolian dialect; the Aeoliandialect is the one that you see on the mainland in Boeotia, for instance Thebes.South of the Aeolian section was the region of Asia Minor inhabited chiefly byIonians. The people on the mainland who are the main Ionians are theAthenians.Finally, on the most southern part of the west coast of Asia Minor, were theDorian-speaking Greeks. The whole Peloponnesus, was fundamentally a Dorianspeaking place.Thats the way the world looks when the polis is invented and when majorcolonization begins. Kagan
  • 19. Of these [Dark Ages refugees], the most famous, perhaps the most important,was Miletus, an Ionian city located on the west coast of Asia Minor, which sentmany a colony into different parts of the world, particularly up towards thestraits and the Bosporus and the Sea of Marmara. The way the Greeks did theirimmigration into Asia Minor actually had a pattern. From north to south, thereis a consistent pattern.The northernmost settlements spoke Greek with an Aeolian dialect; the Aeoliandialect is the one that you see on the mainland in Boeotia, for instance Thebes.South of the Aeolian section was the region of Asia Minor inhabited chiefly byIonians. The people on the mainland who are the main Ionians are theAthenians.Finally, on the most southern part of the west coast of Asia Minor, were theDorian-speaking Greeks. The whole Peloponnesus, was fundamentally a Dorianspeaking place.Thats the way the world looks when the polis is invented and when majorcolonization begins. Kagan
  • 20. PITHECUSAE- 775 BCTRADITIONALLY, THE FIRST APOIKIA first Greek colony set up at Pithecusae (Ischia), a small island off Naples, by colonists from Chalcis and Eretria in Euboea and from Cyme in Aeolis in search of precious metals– especially copper and iron–from the Etruscans. ΠΙΘΕΚΥΣΑΙ Kagan handout
  • 21. STEPS FOR ESTABLISHING ACOLONY1. an individual of some eminence, the οικιστες (oikistes), decides he wishes to found a colony2. he then seeks approval from the town council, that polis which will become the µητηρπολις (mētērpolis-metropolis). His proposal must be specific3. next, the approval of the oracle at Delphi is sought4. now, a concrete written proposal:governmental structure, how land will be allotted5. finally, recruitment; a critical stage. Enough men for defense, people with key skills
  • 22. The best time [to recruit] would be at some great festival. There are festivals held ineach city just for its own citizens. When you felt that you could recruit a full colonyfrom your fellow citizens, in Corinth, let us say, thats what you did. But it wouldoften happen that there were not enough Corinthians who were ready to go with youon your expedition.So, you would try to take your message to one of the Pan-Hellenic festivals whichwere getting organized about this time. As you know, the Olympic Games are allegedto have started in 776. So, that would be a place where Greeks from all over mightcome and you could then try to recruit settlers for your new colony there. Then, wedont know precisely when, there were Pan-Hellenic Games near Corinth, theIsthmian Games. There were Pan-Hellenic Games at Delphi and there were Pan-Hellenic Games in the northeastern Peloponnesus at a town called Nemea.So, therewould always be some opportunity for you to go out and make your pitch.So now you have everything in place, youve recruited your settlement, you get onyour ships and sail, in this case out to the west central Mediterranean, you find yourway to Sicily, work your way into the harbor at Syracuse and things work out, andnow we have this apoikia called Syracuse. Kagan
  • 23. Youre out there in Sicily and you discover, of course, that you dont have all of thethings that you used to have available to you, that used to be made let us say inCorinth. As a matter of fact, in the early days, Corinth was a great center of paintedpottery and was the leading producer and exporter of that. So, maybe you wanted areally fine pot of the kind you used to be able to walk to the corner and pick up at apottery shop, but you cant get now, so you would want to buy what the Corinthianssell.Guess what? Youve got great grain fields out there in Syracuse. Hard to believetoday, but Sicily was one of the major granaries of the Mediterranean world at thattime, tremendously fruitful, able to grow the best possible crops, very good wheatand so on. Corinth always needs that kind of stuff, so we sell you our wheat, you sellus your pottery, you sell good wine that we cant grow yet and maybe never will beable to grow in our neighborhood, so on and so forth. So you can see why it would bevery natural for all sorts of ties to unite this colony and mother city. Kagan
  • 24. 734/33 BC- oicist Archias brings settlers from Corinthhe names it Sirako, referring to a nearby salt marsh. The nucleus of thepolis is the small island of Ortygiathe lands were fertile and the native tribes well-disposedthe city grew and prospered, and for some time stood as the most powerfulGreek city anywhere in the Mediterranean
  • 25. 734/33 BC- oicist Archias brings settlers from Corinthhe names it Sirako, referring to a nearby salt marsh. The nucleus of thepolis is the small island of Ortygiathe lands were fertile and the native tribes well-disposedthe city grew and prospered, and for some time stood as the most powerfulGreek city anywhere in the Mediterranean
  • 26. 734/33 BC- oicist Archias brings settlers from Corinthhe names it Sirako, referring to a nearby salt marsh. The nucleus of thepolis is the small island of Ortygiathe lands were fertile and the native tribes well-disposedthe city grew and prospered, and for some time stood as the most powerfulGreek city anywhere in the Mediterranean664-598 BC-Syracuse, in turn, became the metropolis of new apoikiai inSicily
  • 27. III. A TOUR
  • 28. III. A TOUR
  • 29. Before this period of the polis (and the period of colonization which is connectedwith the rise of the polis), centuries before that, the Greeks had already spread outfrom their original settlements. Right after the collapse of the Mycenaean worldthere was a period of tremendous confusion and panic and fear, we know that peoplefleeing from whoever destroyed the Mycenaean world fled typically eastward into theislands of the Aegean Sea and continuing on to the coast of Asia Minor beyond them.By the tenth century BC, we see Greek cities lining the coast of Asia Minor on thewest, and even around to the south and to some degree northward.So there is an expansion of the Greek world already by the tenth century. TheseGreeks are now settled down, so that some of these cities are among the mostimportant cities sending out colonies of their own.Of these, the most famous, perhaps the most important, was Miletus, an Ionian citylocated on the west coast of Asia Minor, which sent many colonies into differentparts of the world, particularly north towards the Dardanelles, the Bosporus and theSea of Marmara. Thats the way the world looks when the polis is invented andwhen colonization proper begins.. Kagan
  • 30. Before this period of the polis (and the period of colonization which is connectedwith the rise of the polis), centuries before that, the Greeks had already spread outfrom their original settlements. Right after the collapse of the Mycenaean worldthere was a period of tremendous confusion and panic and fear, we know that peoplefleeing from whoever destroyed the Mycenaean world fled typically eastward into theislands of the Aegean Sea and continuing on to the coast of Asia Minor beyond them.By the tenth century BC, we see Greek cities lining the coast of Asia Minor on thewest, and even around to the south and to some degree northward.So there is an expansion of the Greek world already by the tenth century. TheseGreeks are now settled down, so that some of these cities are among the mostimportant cities sending out colonies of their own.Of these, the most famous, perhaps the most important, was Miletus, an Ionian citylocated on the west coast of Asia Minor, which sent many colonies into differentparts of the world, particularly north towards the Dardanelles, the Bosporus and theSea of Marmara. Thats the way the world looks when the polis is invented andwhen colonization proper begins.. Kagan
  • 31. Before this period of the polis (and the period of colonization which is connectedwith the rise of the polis), centuries before that, the Greeks had already spread outfrom their original settlements. Right after the collapse of the Mycenaean worldthere was a period of tremendous confusion and panic and fear, we know that peoplefleeing from whoever destroyed the Mycenaean world fled typically eastward into theislands of the Aegean Sea and continuing on to the coast of Asia Minor beyond them.By the tenth century BC, we see Greek cities lining the coast of Asia Minor on thewest, and even around to the south and to some degree northward.So there is an expansion of the Greek world already by the tenth century. TheseGreeks are now settled down, so that some of these cities are among the mostimportant cities sending out colonies of their own.Of these, the most famous, perhaps the most important, was Miletus, an Ionian citylocated on the west coast of Asia Minor, which sent many colonies into differentparts of the world, particularly north towards the Dardanelles, the Bosporus and theSea of Marmara. Thats the way the world looks when the polis is invented andwhen colonization proper begins.. Kagan
  • 32. Before this period of the polis (and the period of colonization which is connectedwith the rise of the polis), centuries before that, the Greeks had already spread outfrom their original settlements. Right after the collapse of the Mycenaean worldthere was a period of tremendous confusion and panic and fear, we know that peoplefleeing from whoever destroyed the Mycenaean world fled typically eastward into theislands of the Aegean Sea and continuing on to the coast of Asia Minor beyond them.By the tenth century BC, we see Greek cities lining the coast of Asia Minor on thewest, and even around to the south and to some degree northward.So there is an expansion of the Greek world already by the tenth century. TheseGreeks are now settled down, so that some of these cities are among the mostimportant cities sending out colonies of their own.Of these, the most famous, perhaps the most important, was Miletus, an Ionian citylocated on the west coast of Asia Minor, which sent many colonies into differentparts of the world, particularly north towards the Dardanelles, the Bosporus and theSea of Marmara. Thats the way the world looks when the polis is invented andwhen colonization proper begins.. Kagan
  • 33. Priene is one of the oldest cities ofIonia, possibly 2nd millennium6th c. was the most prosperous eraBias, one of the “Seven Sages” putthe laws of the city “in order”545 BC-Mazares, commander ofthe Persian “Great King” attackedthe city, burned it, and enslavedits people
  • 34. the Hittite documents speak of akingdom of Ahhiyava (Achaea?) and acity of Millavanda (Miletus?)10th c-Strabo says Cretans, Homer saysCarians; others, Ionians founded itarchaeology in the ‘50s point to aMycenaen settlement, ca 1400 BC!the earliest settlement was on #9670 BC-although much fertile land wasavailable, Miletus began her owncolonizing northwards
  • 35. Now, lets take a look at the world of the Mediterranean and see how Greekexpansion worked. Lets start with the Aegean Sea. Almost all the islands areinhabited by Greeks, mostly by the Greeks that came in that first wave of immigrantsearlier on, not colonized during the eighth century and afterwards. But if you go tothe north shore of the Aegean Sea, into the region that the Greeks called Thrace —sorry, before I even get to Thrace, maybe even a little bit of Thessaly which is offmostly west of the Aegean Sea, a little bit but not Thrace chiefly, which is thenorthern shore of the Aegean Sea, lots of Greek colonies there; its fundamentallypart of Greece. This is not a bad time for me to remind you that in one of Platosdialogues, Socrates says the Greeks sit like frogs around a pond and that pond is theAegean Sea. Its a helpful little image to remember, because we tend to think ofGreece as that peninsula of which there is a sub-peninsula at the bottom, thePeloponnesus. That was not the Greece of antiquity. If you had to pick a central focusof where the Greeks were, it would be in the Aegean Sea so thats useful toremember. Kagan
  • 36. Now, lets take a look at the world of the Mediterranean and see how Greekexpansion worked. Lets start with the Aegean Sea. Almost all the islands are Thraceinhabited by Greeks, mostly by the Greeks that came in that first wave of immigrantsearlier on, not colonized during the eighth century and afterwards. But if you go tothe north shore of the Aegean Sea, into the region that the Greeks called Thrace —sorry, before I even get to Thrace, maybe even a little bit of Thessaly which is offmostly west of the Aegean Sea, a little bit but not Thrace chiefly, which is thenorthern shore of the Aegean Sea, lots of Greek colonies there; its fundamentallypart of Greece. This is not a bad time for me to remind you that in one of Platosdialogues, Socrates says the Greeks sit like frogs around a pond and that pond is theAegean Sea. Its a helpful little image to remember, because we tend to think ofGreece as that peninsula of which there is a sub-peninsula at the bottom, thePeloponnesus. That was not the Greece of antiquity. If you had to pick a central focusof where the Greeks were, it would be in the Aegean Sea so thats useful toremember. Kagan
  • 37. Now, lets take a look at the world of the Mediterranean and see how Greekexpansion worked. Lets start with the Aegean Sea. Almost all the islands areinhabited by Greeks, mostly by the Greeks that came in that first wave of immigrantsearlier on, not colonized during the eighth century and afterwards. But if you go tothe north shore of the Aegean Sea, into the region that the Greeks called Thrace —sorry, before I even get to Thrace, maybe even a little bit of Thessaly which is offmostly west of the Aegean Sea, a little bit but not Thrace chiefly, which is the Thessalynorthern shore of the Aegean Sea, lots of Greek colonies there; its fundamentallypart of Greece. This is not a bad time for me to remind you that in one of Platosdialogues, Socrates says the Greeks sit like frogs around a pond and that pond is theAegean Sea. Its a helpful little image to remember, because we tend to think ofGreece as that peninsula of which there is a sub-peninsula at the bottom, thePeloponnesus. That was not the Greece of antiquity. If you had to pick a central focusof where the Greeks were, it would be in the Aegean Sea so thats useful toremember. Kagan
  • 38. Now, lets take a look at the world of the Mediterranean and see how Greekexpansion worked. Lets start with the Aegean Sea. Almost all the islands areinhabited by Greeks, mostly by the Greeks that came in that first wave of immigrantsearlier on, not colonized during the eighth century and afterwards. But if you go tothe north shore of the Aegean Sea, into the region that the Greeks called Thrace —sorry, before I even get to Thrace, maybe even a little bit of Thessaly which is offmostly west of the Aegean Sea, a little bit but not Thrace chiefly, which is thenorthern shore of the Aegean Sea, lots of Greek colonies there; its fundamentallypart of Greece. This is not a bad time for me to remind you that in one of Platosdialogues, Socrates says the Greeks sit like frogs around a pond and that pond is theAegean Sea. Its a helpful little image to remember, because we tend to think ofGreece as that peninsula of which there is a sub-peninsula at the bottom, thePeloponnesus. That was not the Greece of antiquity. If you had to pick a central focusof where the Greeks were, it would be in the Aegean Sea so thats useful toremember. Kagan
  • 39. emporium 7th c BC polis 350 BC 650 BC ca 600 BC ca 600 BC ca 543 BC 657 BC 6th c BC Now, we sail back ca-550 BC out of the Black ca-650 BC Sea c 625 BC ca-700 BC 6th c BC 667 BC 756 BC Megara 756 BCKlazomene 760-750 BC 675 BC600 BC Lesbos Klazomene Euboea Miletus Corinth 810 BC ca-700 BC Rhodes
  • 40. emporium 7th c BC polis 350 BC 650 BC ca 600 BC ca 600 BC ca 543 BC 657 BC 6th c BC Now, we sail back ca-550 BC out of the Black ca-650 BC Sea c 625 BC ca-700 BC 6th c BC 667 BC 756 BC Megara 756 BCKlazomene 760-750 BC 675 BC600 BC Lesbos Klazomene Euboea Phokaia Miletus Corinth 810 BC ca-700 BC Rhodes
  • 41. • probably Minoan, certainlyMycenaean trade with Egypt, nosettlements• 7th c. Ionian pirates forced to land,given two στραπεδοπεδα (parcels) byPharaoh Psammetichus• 570 BC-Pharaoh Amasis grants theentrepot of Naucratis to Greek traders(and possibly Phoenicians)
  • 42. TheraPhoenician! 630 BC
  • 43. When you go west, however, Greek settlement stops on the coast of North Africa —the reason being the rest of North Africa is dominated by Carthage. Carthage is acolony of Phoenician cities. Phoenicia was located where Lebanon is now, and it goesback to maybe the tenth century, maybe the ninth [high point 1200-800 BC-Wikipedia],and it was powerful. The Tyrians [Tyre was the principal port] tried to control notonly North Africa, but the waters of the Western Mediterranean entirely. TheCarthaginians, in fact, have a powerful pied à terre [foothold] in the western part ofSicily and the Greeks will have to fight the Carthaginians over the years for control ofthe island of Sicily. So, thats how far east they get and in time the Carthaginians alsocross over into Spain and they control some portion of the Spanish coast closest toAfrica. So, there are no Greeks there. Theyre shut out there for the same reasons.However, once you get beyond the Carthaginian foothold in Spain, there are nowGreek cities on the northeast coast of Spain and there continue to be Greek cities, noteverywhere, but into France of which the most important and famous is the one thatthe Romans called Masillia, Marseille, a Greek town. Kagan
  • 44. Carthage
  • 45. Phokaia600 BC Carthage
  • 46. Phokaia600 BC Phokaia 566 BC Carthage
  • 47. From the people of Massalia, therefore, the Gauls learned a morecivilized way of life, their former barbarity being laid aside or softened;and by them they were taught to cultivate their lands and to enclosetheir towns with walls. Then too, they grew accustomed to liveaccording to laws, and not by violence; then they learned to prune thevine and plant the olive; and such a radiance was shed over both menand things, that it was not Greece which seemed to have immigrated toGaul, but Gaul that seemed to have been transplanted into Greece. Abulafia, quoting Justin, The Great Sea, p. 125
  • 48. So Nice is a Greek town. Nice was Nikea, (victory town) and there are several others. But whatabout the Italian Riviera? Thats pretty nifty. Were the Greek colonies near Portofino where youcould put in? No!. And the reason was in the northern part of Italy, there were Etruscans,another powerful ancient people who control their own area and were not about to haveanybody colonizing their territory. However, when you keep going south in Italy, past Rome,Roman tradition says the city was founded in 753. So, in the period were talking about thereare no powerful Romans that you have to worry about. So, south of Rome there is a tremendouscolonizing of southern Italy. Greek cities are all over the place. So Greek was that area thatwhen the Romans do come to dominate most of Italy and move up against the southern regionthey refer to the whole southern portion of that peninsula as Magna Graecia, great Greecebecause theyre all Greeks down there. Finally, down we go to Sicily, the east coast.Two-thirdsof the coast of Sicily is filled with Greek towns. The third to the west is under Carthaginiancontrol. The inland, the Greeks dont move in there. The natives Sicilians inhabit that territoryand the Greeks are not interested. You will find very rare of the case of a Greek city, which isfounded away from the sea; they always wanted to be close to the sea for varieties of reasons.So, now I hope you have in your mind a picture of the way the Greek world had expanded by thetime this wave of colonization was complete — pretty complete, sometime in the seventhcentury B.C. Kagan
  • 49. Which Poleis colonized?A word about the leading colonizing poleis.Why did some cities send out lots of colonies, somecities send out only a few, and others none at all for quite a while? Well, if you see who doesthen you may have a clue. Here is a list of the early extensive colonizers. Miletus, from AsiaMinor; Corinth on the isthmus; Megara right next door to Corinth, also on the isthmus. Theisland of Euboea, that long island thats right next to the east coast of Attica, Euboea. Therewere two important cities on that island. Calkis ands Eretria. We hear about them relativelyearly in the eighth century, already being very important, very strong and fighting each other ina famous [Lelantine] war. But these cities were very active in colonizing in a variety ofdirections. Lots of these towns sent colonists up north into the Dardanelles and beyond andboth sent out colonies to Sicily, so that for the real colonizing states there was no limit to wherethey would send people who wanted to go to those areas. Kagan
  • 50. IV. EFFECTS OFCOLONIZATION
  • 51. IV. EFFECTS OFCOLONIZATION
  • 52. CULTURAL--A GREEK RENAISSANCEto the east and south of Asia Minor, the Levant and Egypt, Greeks hadextensive contact with societies which had much to teach them“the Greeks are absorbing tremendously useful information, talent, andskills, that help explain future developments”-Kaganthis took the form of ideas, but also artisans and imported goods“Anybody who looks at Greek mythology and Greek poetry...sees there is apowerful influence coming into Greek thought, mainly from Mesopotamia”
  • 53. MILETUS-GATEWAY TO THE EAST“Philosophy is going to be invented in Miletus, probably in the 6th century“Miletus was on the main route to all the places where advanced knowledgecould be found, Mesopotamia, Egypt…” Kagan
  • 54. CULTURAL--GREEKS AS TEACHERS“their impact was greater in the west and the north than it was in the east and thesouth” --Kaganthe Black Sea coast was populated by the barbaroi, proto-Huns and Mongolsin the future France, traders seeking tin and silver pushed up the Rhone spreadingGreek civilization among the GaulsSouthern Italy was so densely settled that when Rome finally moved against them,they called the region Magna Graecia (Great Greece)--hence our word for HellasSicily was the richest and most densely settled region of colonial settlement; hence,the most influenced
  • 55. The opening of contact between the Greeks of the Aegean (specificallyEuboia) and the lands facing the Tyrrhenian Sea [French Riviera andSouthern Italy] has enthusiastically been described as a moment ‘ofgreater lasting significance for western civilization than almost anyother single advance achieved in antiquity’. Abulafia, quoting D. Ridgeway, The Great Sea, p. 89
  • 56. ECONOMIC IMPACTcommerce and trade (imports and exports) expanded tremendously afterthe economic isolation of the Dark Agesas industry [handicraft] in the mētērpoleis grew, colonists pushed fartherinland in search of silver, tin, copper, dyes and selling Greek products: scented olive oil wine ceramicsthe non-farm sector of the labor force [never approaching a majority] grew,both abroad and at home
  • 57. Some scholars early in the 20th century, influenced byMarxist theories, suggested that you had a capitalist classgrowing up, theres just no evidence of that; its just wrong.The earliest traders of any significance were noblemen whoalso had land and estates back home, but who had theopportunity, the know-how, the connections to make itpossible to make money in trade. Even so, while you donthave a class of separate people who are just in the businessof making things and making money, you do have peoplewho are engaged in those activities and who have someinterests that are different from those of the rest of theirpeople who are only hoplite farmers. Kagan
  • 58. A COMPLEX OF CHANGES WITHIMPORTANT POLITICALCONSEQUENCESthe hoplite revolution means more and more of the rural populace is notcontent to remain politically impotentthe new wealthy class, not just the landed aristocrats of earlier times, thosewho had become prosperous from commerce and industry, also want agreater voicefirst there are factional struggles within the aristocracy, then “outsiders”join in--the hoplites, sometimes on several sides!this strife back home, sometimes approaching civil war, is a negative stagein the development of political change
  • 59. KAGAN’S ANALOGY OF THEAMERICAN FRONTIER THESISthose who were on the losing side of these upheavals didn’t have to stay andfight it outthe overseas colonies were a place where the “outs” could start over amongtheir fellow Greeksjust as in America the frontier had been a “safety valve” beginning incolonial times and up until the 1890s
  • 60. V. TYRANNY
  • 61. V. TYRANNY
  • 62. Tyranny emerges in the seventh century B.C. — for many of the samereasons and in response to some of the same developments that[contributed to] the great burst of colonization that began in the eighthcentury. All of those tumultuous, troubling, changing forces were at work inbringing about this new kind of regime, which lasted from one to threegenerations among the Greeks before it faded away. It was a transitionalphase in Greek society, rather than one that lasted for a long time, but it wasnot trivial, in some cases it went for three generations. Kagan
  • 63. LET’S BEGIN WITHTHE WORD The word tyranneia is tyranny, the word tyrannos is tyrant, and etymologicallythe word is not a Greek word. It was a borrowed word [which the Greeks] appliedto certain elements that emerged in their society. It [probably was] borrowedfrom Lydia, that kingdom in Asia Minor that was inland from the Greeksettlements on the coast. The first Lydian king, of whom we hear that could fit asthe first tyrant from the Greek perspective was a man called Gyges, who ruled inLydia from approximately 685 to 657. Kagan
  • 64. object of much mythologizing the ring of Gyges the seduction of Queen Tudo and the murder of King Candaules [see below]served as the model for the earliestGreek use of the word “tyranny” Gyges "I dont care for the wealth of golden Gyges, nor have I ever envied him. I am not jealous of the Γύγης works of the gods and I have no desire for lofty King of Lydia tyranny."-- the Ionian poet Archilochus f. early 7th century
  • 65. CHARACTERISTICSa single rulernot legitimately acquirednot responsible to any other authority, i.e., despoticthe power is abused with violence, often sexual in nature
  • 66. LET’S GO BACK TOARCHILOCHUS’ FEW WORDSwhich are so rich in telling us so much about it. He says, "I am notjealous of the works of the gods." The Greek view of tyranny was thattyrants see themselves as rivaling the gods. And because they have thepower and the wealth, because they have no responsibility to anybody,presumably they can, and this is one of the things that makes themterrible. Its this act of behaving as though they were gods that Greekscalled hubris, this arrogant, this violent exercise of power. That is theway things looked in the Classical Period. But even in the ClassicalPeriod there was a remnant of what was the special characteristic of theidea in its earlier day — not so much how evil tyranny was, because in theearly days its not clear that they thought it was, but the fact that it wasnot legitimately acquired. Kagan
  • 67. The contemporaries of Gyges and the tyrants that came after him in Greeceprobably didnt use the term yet. It probably sprang up at a later time. For theGreeks it originally meant something much more neutral, without this greatmoral baggage. It simply meant more than anything else, two things.• One man rule, well that would always raise an eyebrow, but you couldimagine it being okay, and• that it was unconstitutional. It did not come about in a way that followedtradition, which was what Greek constitutions were, traditional sets of laws orcustoms. [edited & emphasis & bullets added] Kagan
  • 68. VI. RISE OF GREEK TYRANNIES
  • 69. VI. RISE OF GREEK TYRANNIES
  • 70. Okay, thats the general picture; lets take a look at tyranny as it emerges inGreece, and we dont know very much about it. Heres another one of thesecases where we are dependent on later sources, we have...nothing reallycontemporary at all that speaks about any tyrant. So thats a problem, butwe have to deal with that.There are very limited tales that are told about them, so that we have topiece together a lot of information and ask ourselves what it all means.In any case, the first tyrant named in the Greek tradition is a man calledPheidon of Argos, who is mentioned by Aristotle in his Politics, and he sayssome interesting things. Ill come back [to Aristotle’s account] in a moment,but here are some of the facts or alleged facts that surround Pheidon in theGreek tradition. He is the King of Argos, and Argos you know in theHomeric tradition is a very big, powerful, important place; Argos includesMycenae and all of that. So, this would be a king of a large and importantarea. Kagan
  • 71. PHEIDON’S PATH TO POWERa Basileus (aristocrat, not king)668 BC-soundly defeats the Spartans,gets himself elected president of theOlympic Gamesestablishes a system of weights andmeasures for the whole Peloponnesuswas the first to strike coins on the island ofAegina (huge controversy) possible image of Pheidon
  • 72. WHAT DOES IT TAKE TO BECOME ATYRANT? military force, in the 7th century this meant the backing of some or most of the hoplite farmers widespread public dissatisfaction with the existing aristocratic élites wide support of the new wealthy commercial and industrial class which is being kept out of power by the eupatridai (well-born aristocrats) detail, Protocorinthian olpē by the Chigi painter, 7th c. found in an Etruscan tomb
  • 73. Argos, in addition to being a fine agricultural area, also had commercialactivity from an early time. So, that fits. Then on top of that, the next threetowns [whose tyrants will be examined were] very active in colonization —Corinth, the neighboring town Sicyon also has an early tyrannical family andMegara. Sicyon is south and to the west of Corinth, and Megara is north andto the east or Corinth. All three are right on and around the Isthmus ofCorinth. These are states that are very, very active in the colonial movement.Miletus has a tyrant at a fairly early time, just as you would expect, becauseit fits into the whole.You dont have tyrannies very early, if at all, in places like Athens. They willhave a famous tyrant, but that will come later. Thebes will not have a tyrantin spite of the mythology surrounding Oedipus. Sparta, of course, never hasa tyrant so all of this is sort of reasonable support for the interpretationwhich most scholars take. So, you have all of these factors:• the pressure of a growing population• new groups challenging the aristocracy, hoplites among them. Kagan
  • 74. CYPSELUS-CORINTHIAN TYRANT-OUTSIDERhe was a polemarch, the war archonby tradition he was the son of a “mixed marriage”between an aristocrat and a commoner Periander [son]of Cypselus Corinthian
  • 75. CYPSELUS-CORINTHIAN TYRANT-OUTSIDERhe was a polemarch, the war archonby tradition he was the son of a “mixed marriage”between an aristocrat and a commonerKagan compares him to the marginal Napoleon, anoutsider on the margin, determined to win respect
  • 76. CYPSELUS-CORINTHIAN TYRANT-OUTSIDERhe was a polemarch, the war archonby tradition he was the son of a “mixed marriage”between an aristocrat and a commonerKagan compares him to the marginal Napoleon, anoutsider on the margin, determined to win respectthe aristocracy of Corinth, which Kypselus wasdetermined to overthrow was unusually narrow, asingle clan, the Βακχιάδαι (Bakkhiadai)that meant that there were many powerful people inCorinth who were not part of the establishment
  • 77. CYPSELUS-SUCCESSFULTYRANT 657 BC-during an unpopular war with Argos and Corcyra he used his military position to drive out the Bacciadai he expelled other opponents to his rule but allowed them to set up colonies in northwestern Greece
  • 78. CYPSELUS-SUCCESSFULTYRANT 657 BC-during an unpopular war with Argos and Corcyra he used his military position to drive out the Bacciadai he expelled other opponents to his rule but allowed them to set up colonies in northwestern Greece
  • 79. CYPSELUS-SUCCESSFULTYRANT 657 BC-during an unpopular war with Argos and Corcyra he used his military position to drive out the Bacciadai he expelled other opponents to his rule but allowed them to set up colonies in northwestern Greece commerce and colonization expanded during his 30 year rule
  • 80. CYPSELUS-SUCCESSFULTYRANT 657 BC-during an unpopular war with Argos and Corcyra he used his military position to drive out the Bacciadai he expelled other opponents to his rule but allowed them to set up colonies in northwestern Greece commerce and colonization expanded during his 30 year rule 527 BC-he was able to pass the power on to his son, Periander
  • 81. So Corinth is colonizing quite vigorously in the time of the Cypselid tyranny, mostly, out in thewest, that sort of empty territory from a Greek point of view, and so you will see Corinthiancolonies stretching out along the north shore of the Gulf of Corinth. It is less Greek, morebarbaric, than the south shore which is the Peloponnesus. Then if you sail west out of the Gulfof Corinth and bear north and head up into the Ionian Sea and beyond that the Adriatic...Corinthian colonies are right along in there and they suggest, and I think theyre supported byother archaeological evidence, that commerce was one of the things that was very important forCypselus. Corinth is booming during the years of the Cypselid tyrants. None of that issurprising, all of this is very characteristic of this phase of Greek tyranny. In addition to that, weknow that Cypselus like just about all the tyrants used his power to do something that the Greekgovernments normally did not do, that is, collect taxes from their people. You have tounderstand that the idea of taxation being normal would have gotten a Greek foaming at themouth. When there is no tyranny, theres no taxes, no direct tax I should say. The normal formof taxation that existed in the Greek world, when it was in its independent polis phase, is simplycustoms duties on trade. But the hoplite farmer wasnt going to be taxed. Paying taxes is whatbarbarian kings did to their people.No surprise that Cypselus and his descendants, just like the other tyrants, were very wealthy.Undoubtedly they seized wealth when they took power, then there was the wealth from thetremendous income that would come from the taxation on the booming commerce. Immensewealth is another image that goes with tyranny. Kagan
  • 82. So Corinth is colonizing quite vigorously in the time of the Cypselid tyranny, mostly, out in thewest, that sort of empty territory from a Greek point of view, and so you will see Corinthiancolonies stretching out along the north shore of the Gulf of Corinth. It is less Greek, morebarbaric, than the south shore which is the Peloponnesus. Then if you sail west out of the Gulfof Corinth and bear north and head up into the Ionian Sea and beyond that the Adriatic...Corinthian colonies are right along in there and they suggest, and I think theyre supported byother archaeological evidence, that commerce was one of the things that was very important forCypselus. Corinth is booming during the years of the Cypselid tyrants. None of that issurprising, all of this is very characteristic of this phase of Greek tyranny. In addition to that, weknow that Cypselus like just about all the tyrants used his power to do something that the Greekgovernments normally did not do, that is, collect taxes from their people. You have tounderstand that the idea of taxation being normal would have gotten a Greek foaming at themouth. When there is no tyranny, theres no taxes, no direct tax I should say. The normal formof taxation that existed in the Greek world, when it was in its independent polis phase, is simplycustoms duties on trade. But the hoplite farmer wasnt going to be taxed. Paying taxes is whatbarbarian kings did to their people.No surprise that Cypselus and his descendants, just like the other tyrants, were very wealthy.Undoubtedly they seized wealth when they took power, then there was the wealth from thetremendous income that would come from the taxation on the booming commerce. Immensewealth is another image that goes with tyranny. Kagan
  • 83. So Corinth is colonizing quite vigorously in the time of the Cypselid tyranny, mostly, out in thewest, that sort of empty territory from a Greek point of view, and so you will see Corinthiancolonies stretching out along the north shore of the Gulf of Corinth. It is less Greek, morebarbaric, than the south shore which is the Peloponnesus. Then if you sail west out of the Gulfof Corinth and bear north and head up into the Ionian Sea and beyond that the Adriatic...Corinthian colonies are right along in there and they suggest, and I think theyre supported byother archaeological evidence, that commerce was one of the things that was very important forCypselus. Corinth is booming during the years of the Cypselid tyrants. None of that issurprising, all of this is very characteristic of this phase of Greek tyranny. In addition to that, weknow that Cypselus like just about all the tyrants used his power to do something that the Greekgovernments normally did not do, that is, collect taxes from their people. You have tounderstand that the idea of taxation being normal would have gotten a Greek foaming at themouth. When there is no tyranny, theres no taxes, no direct tax I should say. The normal formof taxation that existed in the Greek world, when it was in its independent polis phase, is simplycustoms duties on trade. But the hoplite farmer wasnt going to be taxed. Paying taxes is whatbarbarian kings did to their people.No surprise that Cypselus and his descendants, just like the other tyrants, were very wealthy.Undoubtedly they seized wealth when they took power, then there was the wealth from thetremendous income that would come from the taxation on the booming commerce. Immensewealth is another image that goes with tyranny. Kagan
  • 84. Chapter 4. Herodotuss Story of Orthagoras at Sicyon [00:40:18]If you go to Sicyon, another element comes into the picture. There, the founder of thetyranny was a man called Orthagoras, and again, he was peripolarchos, leader of theperipoloi (border police). His son, Cleisthenes of Sicyon will succeed him. [Justremember this is Cleisthenes of Sicyon as opposed to Cleisthenes, the Athenian]Orthagoras, a man of great ability, came to power by appealing to the racialsentiments of the people, as soon as he was appointed General. He convinced them,that they were of Achaean origin and had been governed unfairly by Dorians. Theresult was the revolution that made him tyrant.But once youre past this ethnic peculiarity, you find that these tyrants are prettymuch like all the other tyrants. They have great wealth. They are patrons of the arts.They engage in conspicuous display, which is what tyrants do, and they are filledwith a tremendous ego and a terrific sense of their own importance, the kind of thingthat made Archilochus say, "Im not going to try to vie with the gods the way thesetyrants do." Kagan
  • 85. Herodotus tells a tale about Orthagoras’ successor, Cleisthenes. He was an athlete. He won the Olympicfour-horse chariot race, a contest for the wealthiest Greek aristocrats. He invites all the bestaristocratic, richest, handsomest, most athletic men in all of Greece to come to Sicyon and spend a year,at his expense, and treated royally all that time to compete for the hand of his daughter.Herodotus reads off the names of all of these amazing young men who come to the competition, in thestyle of Homers catalog of the ships in book ii of the Iliad and they come. Well, after this year of trials,two finalists are emerging. One is Hippocleides and the other is Megacles of Athens. [About whom,much more later]It seems Hippocleides has the edge. But he too much wine at the party celebrating the final stages, andnext he jumps on a table and he begins dancing wildly. I mean like beyond what is seen to be seeminglydancing, we expect a young nobleman to be a good dancer, but this guy is doing stuff that nobody everheard of and this is making Cleisthenes a little nervous. I mean who is this guy? Whats happeninghere? Then he begins to dance on his hands, with his feet flipping around in the air, at which pointHerodotus tells us Cleisthenes speaks up and says, ‘Son of Tysander, you have danced your brideaway!”He lost and Megacles got to marry Agariste.Well, what are we to make of that tale? I dont know, but this much I think is clear. Such a legend doesnot come from nothing. The picture is first of all of a man who is fabulously wealthy. Think of the kindof entertaining he is said to have done. Also, fabulously full of himself, just imagine saying ‘my daughterwill only marry the very best young man there is, and you will all have to go out there and compete forher hand and Ill tell you who shes going to marry.’Hubris. Kagan, severely edited
  • 86. Herodotus tells a tale about Orthagoras’ successor, Cleisthenes. He was an athlete. He won the Olympicfour-horse chariot race, a contest for the wealthiest Greek aristocrats. He invites all the bestaristocratic, richest, handsomest, most athletic men in all of Greece to come to Sicyon and spend a year,at his expense, and treated royally all that time to compete for the hand of his daughter.Herodotus reads off the names of all of these amazing young men who come to the competition, in thestyle of Homers catalog of the ships in book ii of the Iliad and they come. Well, after this year of trials,two finalists are emerging. One is Hippocleides and the other is Megacles of Athens. [About whom,much more later]It seems Hippocleides has the edge. But he too much wine at the party celebrating the final stages, andnext he jumps on a table and he begins dancing wildly. I mean like beyond what is seen to be seeminglydancing, we expect a young nobleman to be a good dancer, but this guy is doing stuff that nobody everheard of and this is making Cleisthenes a little nervous. I mean who is this guy? Whats happeninghere? Then he begins to dance on his hands, with his feet flipping around in the air, at which pointHerodotus tells us Cleisthenes speaks up and says, ‘Son of Tysander, you have danced your brideaway!”He lost and Megacles got to marry Agariste.Well, what are we to make of that tale? I dont know, but this much I think is clear. Such a legend doesnot come from nothing. The picture is first of all of a man who is fabulously wealthy. Think of the kindof entertaining he is said to have done. Also, fabulously full of himself, just imagine saying ‘my daughterwill only marry the very best young man there is, and you will all have to go out there and compete forher hand and Ill tell you who shes going to marry.’Hubris. Kagan, severely edited
  • 87. Herodotus tells a tale about Orthagoras’ successor, Cleisthenes. He was an athlete. He won the Olympicfour-horse chariot race, a contest for the wealthiest Greek aristocrats. He invites all the bestaristocratic, richest, handsomest, most athletic men in all of Greece to come to Sicyon and spend a year,at his expense, and treated royally all that time to compete for the hand of his daughter.Herodotus reads off the names of all of these amazing young men who come to the competition, in thestyle of Homers catalog of the ships in book ii of the Iliad and they come. Well, after this year of trials,two finalists are emerging. One is Hippocleides and the other is Megacles of Athens. [About whom,much more later]It seems Hippocleides has the edge. But he too much wine at the party celebrating the final stages, andnext he jumps on a table and he begins dancing wildly. I mean like beyond what is seen to be seeminglydancing, we expect a young nobleman to be a good dancer, but this guy is doing stuff that nobody everheard of and this is making Cleisthenes a little nervous. I mean who is this guy? Whats happeninghere? Then he begins to dance on his hands, with his feet flipping around in the air, at which pointHerodotus tells us Cleisthenes speaks up and says, ‘Son of Tysander, you have danced your brideaway!”He lost and Megacles got to marry Agariste.Well, what are we to make of that tale? I dont know, but this much I think is clear. Such a legend doesnot come from nothing. The picture is first of all of a man who is fabulously wealthy. Think of the kindof entertaining he is said to have done. Also, fabulously full of himself, just imagine saying ‘my daughterwill only marry the very best young man there is, and you will all have to go out there and compete forher hand and Ill tell you who shes going to marry.’Hubris. Kagan, severely edited
  • 88. Chapter 5. The Story of Gyges and Unconventional Power [00:50:25]Summing up some points about tyrants: untraditional route to power is important.Perhaps you remember the story of Gyges. Gyges was sort of the prime minister ofthe King of Lydia. The king had this incredibly beautiful wife. He was terribly proudof her, and so he said to Gyges, “You cant believe how gorgeous my wife is.”Gyges says, of course shes wonderfully beautiful.“You cant tell with her clothes on for Gods sake,” the king says, “come on, comewith me.”Gyges says, no, no, no please your majesty!”“Come with me!”So, theres Gyges hidden behind a curtain and heres the queen disrobing and indeedshe was as advertised. The king goes out, and Gyges tried to slip away, but the queenspots him and, of course, shes totally disgraced. Shes deeply embarrassed just to putit very, very mildly, and so she says to him, unless you do what I tell you I will tell myhusband that you sneaked in and did this and he will kill you. But what I want you todo is to kill him and marry me. Thats how you can make it up. What could Gyges do?So he did; thats how he became king. This is not your normal constitutionalprocedure even in Lydia. So thats Gyges… Kagan, in his best comic mode
  • 89. Pheidon Ive talked to you about already. Theagenes of Megara I havent mentioned,but he comes to power by force, with the use of the soldiers and same thing is true ofCypselas…. They typically...introduce something new, mercenary soldiers.Its one thing to seize the power with the help of the hoplites, but to hold onto ityoure going to need something more solid than that. First of all, hoplites dont stickaround in uniform; they go back and work their fields. So, theyre not around tosuppress anything. Beyond that tyrants grow unpopular. This is one of the greatrules of politics in any system. The one question thats in the minds of all people…;that is “What have you done for me lately?” Any benefit that people might haveachieved from the establishment of the tyranny gets to be taken for granted afterawhile. Then they ask why is this guy taking taxes from me? Why is he such a bigshot and Im not? Thats just going to be inevitable, and so if youre going to keepyour power and keep people down, you cant just rely on the citizen body and sotyrants typically hire foreigners to serve as mercenaries for them.
  • 90. "Candaules, King of Lydia, Shews his Wife by Stealth to Gyges, One of his Ministers, As She Goes to Bed" (1820), by William Etty
  • 91. PLATO’S CYCLICALTHEORY OF GOVERNMENT Hesiod’s Five Ages GOLDENbest aristocracyworst
  • 92. PLATO’S CYCLICALTHEORY OF GOVERNMENT Hesiod’s Five Ages GOLDENbest aristocracy SILVER timocracyworst
  • 93. PLATO’S CYCLICALTHEORY OF GOVERNMENT Hesiod’s Five Ages GOLDENbest SILVER timocracy BRONZE oligarchy HEROICworst
  • 94. PLATO’S CYCLICALTHEORY OF GOVERNMENT Hesiod’s Five Ages GOLDENbest SILVER BRONZE oligarchy HEROIC IRON democracyworst
  • 95. PLATO’S CYCLICALTHEORY OF GOVERNMENT Hesiod’s Five Ages GOLDENbest SILVER BRONZE HEROIC IRONworst tyranny
  • 96. PLATO’S CYCLICALTHEORY OF GOVERNMENT Hesiod’s Five Ages GOLDENbest aristocracy SILVER BRONZE HEROIC IRONworst
  • 97. VIIACCOMPLISHMENTS
  • 98. VII ACCOMPLISHMENTS“Water nymphs...May your lovely feet tread on this watery house...while you fill it with a pure draught”--GreekAnthology Painting by H.M. Herget
  • 99. the diolkos built by Periander, tyrant of Corinth , (627-585 BC)
  • 100. the diolkos built by Periander, tyrant of Corinth , (627-585 BC)
  • 101. economic prosperity and diverse economies, because they support tradeand industry, sometimes even agriculture [Peisistratus in Athens]many of the tyrants foster colonizationcivic improvements in the principal city of the polis aqueducts, water houses, fountains and sewers development of the agora-a political, religious & commercial center
  • 102. economic prosperity and diverse economies, because they support tradeand industry, sometimes even agriculture [Peisistratus in Athens]many of the tyrants foster colonizationcivic improvements in the principal city of the polis aqueducts, water houses, fountains and sewers development of the agora-a political, religious & commercial center
  • 103. URBANIZATION-- OF A SORT the tyrants, like modern strongmen, established courts, sought artists, sculptors and architects to build great monuments, especially temples, all to increase the prestige of their capital cities
  • 104. URBANIZATION-- OF A SORT the tyrants, like modern strongmen, established courts, sought artists, sculptors and architects to build great monuments, especially temples, all to increase the prestige of their capital cities
  • 105. URBANIZATION-- OF A SORT the tyrants, like modern strongmen, established courts, sought artists, sculptors and architects to build great monuments, especially temples, all to increase the prestige of their capital cities just as now, this work and economic opportunity attracted new residents
  • 106. URBANIZATION-- OF A SORT the tyrants, like modern strongmen, established courts, sought artists, sculptors and architects to build great monuments, especially temples, all to increase the prestige of their capital cities just as now, this work and economic opportunity attracted new residents as the population of the central city of the polis increased, sanitation required water and sewage works
  • 107. Here we see the Athenian agora, a century after the tyrant Peisistratus(pie•SIS•truh•tus) greatly expanded it. In the distance, looming over it, theParthenon, brightest jewel in the crown of Athens’ Golden Age. It was builtby the direction of Pericles (pair•UH•kleez-”surrounded with glory), whowas called a tyrant by his political enemies. But that’s two other stories...

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