Greece 2iii Alexander's Empire
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Greece 2iii Alexander's Empire

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New works by Peter Green and the late John Keegan are included in this revised and expanded presentation. I'm tempted to do a whole series on Alexander.

New works by Peter Green and the late John Keegan are included in this revised and expanded presentation. I'm tempted to do a whole series on Alexander.

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  • 1. ANCIENT GREECEvii-b-The Second Military Revolution (cont.) Alexander’s Empire
  • 2. ANCIENT GREECE vii-b-The Second Military Revolution (cont.) Alexander’s EmpireDetail of the Alexander Mosaic, representing Alexander the Great on his horse Bucephalus at the battle of Issus--at the House of the Faun, Pompeii, 1st century AD
  • 3. PRINCIPAL TOPICSI. Alexander “Frees the Greeks”II. Gaugamela--DecisionIII. India, “A Bridge Too Far”IV. The Successors
  • 4. Alexander the GreatἈλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας Μεγαλέξανδρος
  • 5. Alexander the Great Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας Μεγαλέξανδρος“It began with an urgent need for booty and ended in megalomania.” Peter Green
  • 6. Philip II, Alexander’s father, may well have been assassinated by a cabal,perhaps involving Olympias and Alexander himself, the discarded wifeand half-Macedonian son, who were nonentities among the dozens ofwives (seven at the king’s death), concubines, legitimate and illegitimatesons that would result during the unexpectedly long reign of Philip.Upon succession, Alexander had murdered the two brothers...along witha few other...elites….Then almost every prominent Macedonian who wasnot immediately aligned with Alexander was murdered--Amyntas, son ofPerdiccas, the general Attalus and his relatives, Philip’s last wifeCleopatra and her infant, Alexander’s half-sister. Hanson, The Wars of the Ancient Greeks, p. 187
  • 7. winter 336-335--when word of Philip’s death reached the Greeks, severalstates took this as occasion to rebel against the “chains” imposed afterChaeroneadisregarding the advice of his generals to use diplomacy, Alexander rodesouth at the head of 3,000 cavalryafter defeating the Thessalians, he was recognized by the cowed rebels ashead of the Sacred League of DelphiNext he went to Corinth to organize an expedition against the Persians to“free the Greeks” of Asia Minorhere occurred his famous meeting with Diogenes the Cynic
  • 8. ἀπὸ τοῦ ἡλίου µετάστηθιApò toû hēlíou metástēthi"Stand a little out of my sun"
  • 9. ἀπὸ τοῦ ἡλίου µετάστηθιApò toû hēlíou metástēthi"Stand a little out of my sun"
  • 10. ἀπὸ τοῦ ἡλίου µετάστηθιApò toû hēlíou metástēthi"Stand a little out of my sun"
  • 11. ἀπὸ τοῦ ἡλίου µετάστηθιApò toû hēlíou metástēthi"Stand a little out of my sun"
  • 12. ἀπὸ τοῦ ἡλίου µετάστηθιApò toû hēlíou metástēthi"Stand a little out of my sun"
  • 13. ἀπὸ τοῦ ἡλίου µετάστηθιApò toû hēlíou metástēthi"Stand a little out of my sun"
  • 14. ἀπὸ τοῦ ἡλίου µετάστηθιApò toû hēlíou metástēthi"Stand a little out of my sun"
  • 15. spring 335--After being acclaimed hegemon of the League of Corinth,Alexander next headed north to subdue the barbarian hill tribes. Amongthem were the Agrinanians who became his “Gurkhas.”when word reached him that Thebes had rebelled against its Macedoniangarrison he made a forced march southDecember-after diplomacy failed Alexander made a successful siege andthen burned the city to the ground. 6,000 Thebans perished in the battle.30,000 were sold into slaveryno other Greek city was to rebel against Macedon during Alexander’s twelve-year absence despite Persian efforts to subvert them
  • 16. spring 335--After being acclaimed hegemon of the League of Corinth,Alexander next headed north to subdue the barbarian hill tribes. Amongthem were the Agrinanians who became his “Gurkhas.”when word reached him that Thebes had rebelled against its Macedoniangarrison he made a forced march southDecember-after diplomacy failed Alexander made a successful siege andthen burned the city to the ground. 6,000 Thebans perished in the battle.30,000 were sold into slaveryno other Greek city was to rebel against Macedon during Alexander’s twelve-year absence despite Persian efforts to subvert them remains of the Cadmea, the citadel of Thebes
  • 17. The leader of men in warfare can show himself to his followers onlythrough a mask, a mask that he must make for himself, but a mask madein such form as will mark him to men of his time and place as the leaderthey want and need. What follows is an attempt, across time and place,to penetrate the mask of command. John Keegan , The Mask of Command, p. 11
  • 18. The leader of men in warfare can show himself to his followers onlythrough a mask, a mask that he must make for himself, but a mask madein such form as will mark him to men of his time and place as the leaderthey want and need. What follows is an attempt, across time and place,to penetrate the mask of command. John Keegan , The Mask of Command, p. 11
  • 19. [By this time] the obvious superiority of Greek soldiery and generalshipover those of the mainland powers of Asia [had become clear]. Thelesson was there to be learned as early as the Greco-Persian wars at thebeginning of the fifth century, but it took the tumults of the succeedinghundred years, when Greek mercenaries served as the major lever ofpower around the eastern Mediterranean, to underscore the inescapableconclusion. F.E. Peters , Harvest of Hellenism, p. 29
  • 20. After the assassination of Philip (336 B.C.), and Alexander’ssubsequent subjugation of the Greek states...the twenty-year-old king inaugurated his deceased father’s plannedPersian invasion with a victory at the Granicus River nearthe Hellespont (334).
  • 21. here, Alexander established his pattern: brilliant adaptation to often unfavorable terrain (all his battles were on plains chosen by his adversaries) generalship by frightful example of personal--- and always near fatal---courage at the head of the Companion Cavalry stunning cavalry blows focused on a spot in theGranicus enemy line, horsemen turning the dazed enemy334 BC onto the spears of the advancing phalanx subsequent pursuit of enemy forces...reflecting Alexander’s impulse to eliminate, not merely to defeat, hostile armies find the enemy, charge him, and annihilate him in open battle Hanson, Wars
  • 22. (1) pierce the enemy’s left flank by a daring attack of the Macedonian cavalry(2) turn the cavalry to the left and roll up the enemy line(3) simultaneously bring the phalanx, covered by cavalry on the left, forward in echelon to engage the enemy Griess, ed., West Point Military History Series, pp. 30-31
  • 23. At the Granicus river in May 334 Alexander destroyed the Persian army outright,surrounded the trapped Greek mercenaries, and massacred all except 2,000whom he sent back in chains to Macedon. Our sources disagree over the precisecasualty figures, but Alexander may have exterminated between 15,000 and18,000 Greeks after the battle was essentially won--killing more Hellenes in asingle day than the entire number that had fallen to the Mede at Marathon,Thermopylae, Salamis and Plataea combined. In his first battle to liberate theGreeks, it turned out that Alexander had killed more of them than all the Persiankings combined in over a century and a half of trans-Aegean campaigning.Perhaps as many as 20,000 Persians fell as well at Granicus. Hanson, Wars of the Ancient Greeks, p. 176
  • 24. AN INITIAL DÉBACLE?Peter Green suggests that there may have been, not one, but two battles atthe Granicus. In an appendix he writes a model analysis of the ancientaccounts and their discrepancies. It is known that Alexander took officialhistorians along to glorify his accomplishments. Green believes Alexanderled an impetuous attack against a strong Persian position against the adviceof his second-in-command, 65-year-old Parmenio. It was defeated. Thatnight he went upstream, crossed unopposed and won a decisive victory. Therecord was doctored to begin the story of an ἀνίκητος (invincible)Alexander. This explains his savage treatment of the captured Greekmercenaries. Green, Alexander, “Propaganda at the Granicus,” pp. 489-512
  • 25. Alexander’s decisive victory at the Granicus changed the character of the war.Defeat deprived the Persians of a principal advantage: no longer could theymount an effective defense in Anatolia while exploiting their naval superiorityand financial resources to harass Alexander’s communications with Macedonand foment rebellion in Greece. With most of the Persian commanders dead andmuch of their best cavalry and Greek mercenaries lost, the Persian position inAnatolia disintegrated. Pomeroy et al. Ancient Greece, p. 437
  • 26. he conducts his first of many successful sieges at Halicarnassushe marches to the interior to the city of Gordium
  • 27. “...the true situation was … accurately reflected in the symbolism of Alexander’sdramatically severing the “Gordian knot.” According to a famous legend, ruleover Asia was promised to whoever loosened the complex knot connecting thedrawpole to the wagon the first Midas had ridden when he became the king ofPhrygia. While he was at Gordium, Alexander fulfilled the prophecy by slashingthrough the knot with his sword, allowing no doubt that a new king had arisen inAsia. Pomeroy et al. Ancient Greece, p. 438
  • 28. “...the true situation was … accurately reflected in the symbolism of Alexander’sdramatically severing the “Gordian knot.” According to a famous legend, ruleover Asia was promised to whoever loosened the complex knot connecting thedrawpole to the wagon the first Midas had ridden when he became the king ofPhrygia. While he was at Gordium, Alexander fulfilled the prophecy by slashingthrough the knot with his sword, allowing no doubt that a new king had arisen inAsia. Pomeroy et al. Ancient Greece, p. 438
  • 29. he conducts his first of many successful sieges at Halicarnassushe marches to the interior to the city of Gordiumthen defeats the main Persian force at Issus
  • 30. The Battle ofAlexander at Issus(German:Alexanderschlacht)is a 1529 oil paintingby the German artistAlbrecht Altdorfer(c. 1480–1538), apioneer of landscapeart. The painting iswidely regarded asAltdorfersmasterpiece, andexemplifies hisaffinity for scenes ofmonumentalgrandeur.
  • 31. The paintings subjectis explained in thetablet suspended fromthe heavens. Thewording, probablysupplied by Williamscourt historianJohannes Aventinus,was originally inGerman but was laterreplaced by a Latininscription. Ittranslates:Alexander the Greatdefeating the lastDarius, after 100,000infantry and more than10,000 cavalrymenhad been killedamongst the ranks ofthe Persians. WhilstKing Darius was ableto flee with no morethan 1,000 horsemen,his mother, wife, andchildren were takenprisoner.
  • 32. The painting was one of 72 taken to Paris in 1800 by the invading armies of Napoleon I (1769–1821), who was a noted admirer of Alexander the Great. The Louvre held it until 1804, when Napoleon declared himself Emperor of France and took it forhis own use. When thePrussians captured the Château de Saint- Cloud in 1814 as partof the War of the Sixth Coalition, they supposedly found the painting hanging in Napoleons bathroom.
  • 33. The climactic moments of the battle of Issus (333) are captured in this famous Roman floor mosaicfrom Pompeii, from which the earlier portrait of Alexander was taken. Darius III amidst hisbodyguard catches the deadly gaze of the charging Alexander who is intent on his destruction. Hanson, op. cit., pp. 180-181
  • 34. The mosaic is composed of app. 1.5 million pieces, 0.12 inches square
  • 35. The Alexander Sarcophagus is a late 4th century BC Hellenistic stone sarcophagusadorned with bas-relief carvings of Alexander the Great. The work is remarkably wellpreserved and has been celebrated for its high aesthetic achievement. It is considered theoutstanding holding of the Istanbul Archaeology Museum.--Wikipedia
  • 36. first came two tough sieges“29 July 332-Tyre fell after [9] months of heroic defense. On that city’s final dayof existence nearly 8,000 residents were butchered. 2,000 males werecrucified, 20-30,000 women and children were enslaved Hanson, op. cit. pp. 178-180
  • 37. The contradiction of siege engineering, as Vauban knew and Arriansuccinctly puts it, is that the front-line men must be ‘clad rather for workthan for warfare’. Siege warfare is navvying [Br. term for grunt work]under fire; armour must be laid aside; half-naked and sweating bodies areexposed to the enemy at close range, pick and shovel wielded in theclosest proximity to men handling missiles and edged weapons. Incircumstances like these, the example of leadership is not enough; menmust be bribed and rewarded to run the risks. Alexander, running riskswith the boldest, bribed and rewarded as the best of siegemasters were todo for centuries afterward. Keegan, pp. 74-75
  • 38. EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN--TYRE SIEGE OF TYRE Nov 333-Aug 332 B.C.Griess, ed., West Point Military History Series, after p. 42 0 250 500 SCALE OF YARDS
  • 39. Burden of the Lord’s doom, where falls it now? … This Tyre, how strong afortress has she built, what gold and silver she has amassed, till they wereas common as clay, as mire in the streets! Ay, but the Lord means todispossess her; cast into the sea all that wealth of hers, and herself burntto the ground! [Zachariah ix, 1-8] quoted in Green, p. 263
  • 40. first came two tough sieges“29 July 332-Tyre fell after months of heroic defense. On that city’s final day ofexistence nearly 8,000 residents were butchered. 2,000 males were crucified,20-30,000 women and children were enslaved“Gaza was next. After a two-month siege Alexander let his troops murder atwill. He bound Batis, the governor, pierced his ankles with thongs, and thendragged him around the city, Achilles-style, until the tortured victim expired.” Hanson, op. cit. pp. 178-180
  • 41. after the sieges, he conquers Persia’s rich vassal Egypt. Here he founds the firstand most famous of the cities which bore his name
  • 42. after the sieges, he conquers Persia’s rich vassal Egypt. Here he founds the firstand most famous of the cities which bore his namethence he made a mysterious pilgrimage to the Egyptian oracle of Ammon-Zeus at Siwa. Did he really believe in his divinity proclaimed there?
  • 43. after the sieges, he conquers Persia’s rich vassal Egypt. Here he founds the firstand most famous of the cities which bore his namethence he made a mysterious pilgrimage to the Egyptian oracle of Ammon-Zeus at Siwa. Did he really believe in his divinity proclaimed there?strengthened by prophesy, he went east to finish off Darius
  • 44. ...mountain skirmishing [before the Asian invasion] and siege warfare[333-332] cannot substitute tutorially for the test of leadership in pitchedbattle. It is on the open field, when armies clash face to face in the grip ofthose terrible unities of time, place and action, that a man’s real powers ofanticipation, flexibility, quick-thinking, patience, spatial perception, thriftand prodigality with resources, physical courage and moral strength aretried to the extreme. The trial is potentially destructive for any leader;perhaps no fate on earth is worse than that of the defeated general whomust live out his days with the burden of wasted life on his conscience.For the heroic leader it is destructive in the most direct sense. To knowwhen and how to risk his person entails a narrowness of choice betweendeath and triumph. Keegan, pp. 77-78
  • 45. Gaugamela--Decision
  • 46. Gaugamela--Decision Darius flees the battle, 18th century ivory
  • 47. “the battle plan adopted byDarius was influenced by hissuperior cavalry” and inferiorinfantryhe hoped to envelop bothflanks of his enemy, anoperation facilitated by thegreater length of his battlefrontAlexander could see anopportunity for success. Asthe Persian cavalry rodeforward the infantry wouldprobably not be able tomaintain contact, and gapswould develop Griess, ed., West Point Military History Series, after p. 42
  • 48. Alexander & Companions Cretan spearmen & archer GAUGAMELA PHASE IIn late September 331, Alexander met Darius III in thenorthern Tigris valley at Gaugamela, a small village, toforce the decisive battle for the Persian empire. Alexanderhad collected his largest force ever, but it was still under50,000 men.
  • 49. Alexander & Companions Cretan spearmen & archer GAUGAMELA PHASE IIn late September 331, Alexander met Darius III in thenorthern Tigris valley at Gaugamela, a small village, toforce the decisive battle for the Persian empire. Alexanderhad collected his largest force ever, but it was still under50,000 men. Darius deploys his army in two massive lines, cavalry on the flanks, chariots and elephants to the front cavalry infantry chariots ts an ph ele cavalry ar w 15 chariots cavalry
  • 50. Alexander & Companions Cretan spearmen & archer GAUGAMELA PHASE IIn late September 331, Alexander met Darius III in thenorthern Tigris valley at Gaugamela, a small village, toforce the decisive battle for the Persian empire. Alexanderhad collected his largest force ever, but it was still under50,000 men. Darius deploys his army in two massive Alexander, out- lines, cavalry on the numbered, deploys flanks, chariots and flank guards to his elephants to the front central Macedonian phalanx cavalry infantry chariots ts x an nx an h la al ep ph a el ph cavalry ar n n ia ia w on 15 on ed ed ac ac M M chariots cavalry
  • 51. Persian army movesforward. The leftand right flanksattempt to encircleAlexander’s army GAUGAMELA PHASE II
  • 52. Persian army moves Chariots proveforward. The left ineffective, afterand right flanks several charges areattempt to encircle stopped by archersAlexander’s army and spearmen GAUGAMELA PHASE II
  • 53. Persian army moves Alexander and his Chariots proveforward. The left Companion cavalry ineffective, afterand right flanks advance through a screen several charges areattempt to encircle of light infantry and stopped by archersAlexander’s army attack the Persian center and spearmen GAUGAMELA PHASE II
  • 54. Persian army moves Alexander and his Alexander’s flank guards move to Chariots proveforward. The left Companion cavalry engage advancing Persian cavalry ineffective, afterand right flanks advance through a screen several charges areattempt to encircle of light infantry and stopped by archersAlexander’s army attack the Persian center and spearmen Parmenio commands the left flank GAUGAMELA PHASE II
  • 55. Alexander on the battlefield, once in the heat of action, can have seen or heard littlethat might be dissected afterwards, by himself or anyone else. His experience musthave been a boiling of bodies, sword-arms and horse flesh, a clamour of voices,urgent or terrified, animal screams, a clang of metal on metal. Physical pressurestronger or weaker would have told him how combat went immediately aroundhim; a thinning of the dust cloud which fighting threw up would have signified thatthe enemy’s line was breaking or broken through. Keegan, p.155
  • 56. [At Gaugamela] Parmenio...was terrified about the very survival of his entire wing,and with it the fate of a Macedonian army thousands of miles from the Aegean. Thatsame specter struck Napoleon centuries later [at Borodino], when he remarked thatGaugamela was a great victory but too risky, since defeat “would have strandedAlexander “nine hundred leagues from Macedonia.” Hanson, Carnage and Culture, p. 66
  • 57. Persian left wing crumbles under pressure and begins to flee the field.GAUGAMELA PHASE III [At Gaugamela] Parmenio...was terrified about the very survival of his entire wing, and with it the fate of a Macedonian army thousands of miles from the Aegean. That same specter struck Napoleon centuries later [at Borodino], when he remarked that Gaugamela was a great victory but too risky, since defeat “would have stranded Alexander “nine hundred leagues from Macedonia.” Hanson, Carnage and Culture, p. 66 Parmenio’s left flank
  • 58. Persian cavalry Persian left wing advances and almost crumbles under envelops Alexander’s pressure and begins to left flank. flee the field.GAUGAMELA PHASE III [At Gaugamela] Parmenio...was terrified about the very survival of his entire wing, and with it the fate of a Macedonian army thousands of miles from the Aegean. That same specter struck Napoleon centuries later [at Borodino], when he remarked that Gaugamela was a great victory but too risky, since defeat “would have stranded Alexander “nine hundred leagues from Macedonia.” Hanson, Carnage and Culture, p. 66 Parmenio’s left flank
  • 59. Persian cavalry Alexander, seeing the danger to his left Persian left wing advances and almost flank, attacks with his Companion cavalry crumbles under envelops Alexander’s and restores the situation. Meanwhile Darius pressure and begins to left flank. flees with a few faithful followers, leaving his flee the field. army leaderless.GAUGAMELA PHASE III [At Gaugamela] Parmenio...was terrified about the very survival of his entire wing, and with it the fate of a Macedonian army thousands of miles from the Aegean. That same specter struck Napoleon centuries later [at Borodino], when he remarked that Gaugamela was a great victory but too risky, since defeat “would have stranded Alexander “nine hundred leagues from Macedonia.” Hanson, Carnage and Culture, p. 66 Parmenio’s left flank
  • 60. Persian cavalry Alexander, seeing the danger to his leftDarius flees to the Persian left wing advances and almost flank, attacks with his Companion cavalrynorth and the road crumbles under envelops Alexander’s and restores the situation. Meanwhile Darius to Ekbatana pressure and begins to left flank. flees with a few faithful followers, leaving his flee the field. army leaderless.GAUGAMELA PHASE III [At Gaugamela] Parmenio...was terrified about the very survival of his entire wing, and with it the fate of a Macedonian army thousands of miles from the Aegean. That same specter struck Napoleon centuries later [at Borodino], when he remarked that Gaugamela was a great victory but too risky, since defeat “would have stranded Alexander “nine hundred leagues from Macedonia.” Hanson, Carnage and Culture, p. 66 Parmenio’s left flank
  • 61. Persian cavalry Alexander, seeing the danger to his left Darius flees to the Persian left wing advances and almost flank, attacks with his Companion cavalry north and the road crumbles under envelops Alexander’s and restores the situation. Meanwhile Darius to Ekbatana pressure and begins to left flank. flees with a few faithful followers, leaving his flee the field. army leaderless. GAUGAMELA PHASE III [At Gaugamela] Parmenio...was terrified about the very survival of his entire wing, and with it the fate of a Macedonian army thousands of miles from the Aegean. That same specter struck Napoleon centuries later [at Borodino], when he remarked that Gaugamela was a great victory but too risky, since defeat “would have stranded Alexander “nine hundred leagues from Macedonia.” Hanson, Carnage and Culture, p. 66 Parmenio’s left flankHanson, The Wars of the AncientGreeks, pp. 172-177
  • 62. the gap did indeed develop, allowing Alexander to make a “penetration of opportunity” as the Persians disintegrated on their left and center, Alexander made a timely rescue of his own left in spite of many casualties and the intensity of the battle, Alexander ordered a relentless pursuit in the futile hope of capturing Darius and destroying as much of his forces as possibleGriess, ed., West Point Military History Series, after p. 42
  • 63. Five hundred Persians had fallen at Gaugamela (camel’s house) for everyMacedonian---such were the disparities when a polyglot, multicultural force ofpanicked men fled on level ground before heavily armed veteran killers with pikesand seasoned cavalry, whose one worry was not to turn fainthearted in front oflifelong companions-in-arms. The myriad corpses of his enemies were left todecompose in the autumn sun. Alexander, worried only about the rot and smell,quickly moved his army away from the stink and headed south to Babylon and thekingship of the Achaemenids. “The battle,” Plutarch remarks, “resulted in the uttertermination of the Persian Empire.” (Alexander 34.1). Hanson, Carnage and Culture, pp.73-74
  • 64. “3-TAKE CARE OF YOUR MEN”-- DOUGLAS SOUTHALL FREEMAN (1886-1953)Concern for subordinates’ welfare comes less naturally when the leader is distractedby impending danger…. Alexander was notably thoughtful even at such times.Before Issus he made sure his men had eaten--better than Wellington couldmanage before Waterloo, when much of his army fought on stomachs empty fortwo days--and before Gaugamela ‘he bade his army take their meal and rest’. Hehad already rested for four days and so arranged his base that his men couldadvance to battle ‘burdened with nothing but their arms’. After Issus, ‘despite asword wound in his thigh’, he ‘went round to see the wounded...He promised allwho, by his own personal witness or by the agreed report of others [an exactanticipation of the modern practice in citation for medals], he knew had donevalorous deeds in the battle--these one and all he honored by a donation suitable totheir desert.’ Keegan, The Mask of Command, p. 46
  • 65. “3-TAKE CARE OF YOUR MEN”-- CONTINUEDIt was a repetition of his behaviour [sic] after the Granicus when ‘heshowed much concern about the wounded, visiting each, examining theirwounds, asking how they were received, and encouraging each to recountand even to boast of his exploits’ (excellent psychotherapy, howeverwearisome for the listener). Ibid.
  • 66. CEREMONY AND THEATER...theatricality was at the very heart of Alexander’s style of leadership, as it perhapsmust be of any leadership style. Throughout the Alexander story, acts of theaterrecur at regular intervals. Daily, of course, he had to make sacrifice to the gods; inMacedonian culture, only the king could perform that central religious act. Bizarrethough it seems to us, therefore, his day began with his plunging of a blade into theliving body of an animal and his uttering of a prayer as the blood flowed. BeforeGaugamela, uniquely in his whole kingship, he performed sacrifice in honor of Fear[Φοβος Phobos]. op. cit, p. 46
  • 67. Pursuing andGaugamela consolidating Ekbatana SusaBabylon Persepolis
  • 68. “The cheerful, luxury-loving citizens of Babylon, reflecting (with goodreason0 that it was better to collaborate than to suffer the fate of Tyre, wentout of their way to give the Macedonian troops a month’s leave they wouldnever forget. Officers and men alike were billeted in luxurious private houses,where they never lacked for food,wine, or women. Babylon’s professionalcourtesans were reinforced by countless enthusiastic amateurs, including thedaughters and wives of many leading citizens. (After dinner striptease seemsto have been very popular.) Their guests were shown the usual tourist sites,including the fabulous Hanging Gardens--a stone-terraced forest of trees andshrubs, built by an Assyrian king whose wife pined for the forests anduplands of her native Iran.” Green, p. 303
  • 69. Gold double staterAlexander the Great, 323.Alexander could haveminted over 90 million ofsuch coins from the bullionlooted from Persepolis alone. Hanson, Wars of the Ancient Greeks, p. 199
  • 70. ...he had to build up an authority similar to that wielded by the Great Kinghimself. The imposition of a new coinage was an obvious step in this process.Old issues were called in, melted down, and restruck with Alexander’s name andtype: what began at Tarsus was very soon copied by mints on Cyprus and alldown the Phoenician coast….Alexander achieved his main object---to get himself‘recognized as the master in all parts of his new territory’. He also had aconvenient centre from which to pay the army. Green, p. 222
  • 71. Ἀλεξάνδρεια Ἐσχάτη Sogdiana Bactria
  • 72. In Bactria, Alexander began to execute in earnest when faced with local revolts andsecession. An expatriate community of Greeks...were wiped out to a man. Then itwas the turn of the Sacai of Sogdiana, whose forces were extinguished and whoseterritory ravaged. Convinced that the rich villages of the Zervashan valley to thesouth had aided the rebellions in Sogdiana, Alexander stormed their fortresses andexecuted all the defenders he found (329 BC)--8,000 alone were killed in thecapture of Cyrupolis. The revolts in Bactria and Sogdiana (329-328) were littlemore than two years of uninterrupted fighting, looting and executing.Yet with Alexander’s approach into India (327-326) the real barbarity begins. Hanson, op. cit, p. 182
  • 73. India--”A Bridge Too Far”
  • 74. India--”A Bridge Too Far” Alexander and Porus by Charles Le Brun, painted 1673.
  • 75. India--”A Bridge Too Far” The four century evolution of Greek warfare had now come down to the masteryof murder on a grand scale. On many occasions, Alexander’s sheer recklessness and megalomania haddisastrous consequences, when the expertise and advice of his generals andlogisticians were ignored and the absence of postwar investigation assured…. Hanson, op. cit., p. 183
  • 76. Alexander attacksthe center in thebattle of theHydaspes River,326 BC
  • 77. "Victory coin" of Alexander the Great, minted in Babylon c.322 BCE, following his campaigns in India.Obverse: Alexander being crowned by Nike. Reverse: Alexander attacking King Porus on his elephant. Silver. British Museum
  • 78. The Battle of the Hydaspes River was fought by Alexander the Great in 326 BCagainst King Porus of the Hindu Paurava kingdom on the banks of the HydaspesRiver in the Punjab...in what is now modern-day Pakistan. The battle resulted in acomplete Macedonian victory and the annexation of the Punjab, which lay beyondthe confines of the defeated Persian empire, into the Alexandrian Empire.Alexanders tactics to cross the monsoon-swollen river despite close Indiansurveillance to catch Porus army in the flank has been referred as one of his"masterpieces". Although victorious, it was also the most costly battle fought bythe Macedonians. The resistance put up by King Porus and his men won therespect of Alexander who asked him to become a Macedonian satrap.The battle is historically significant for opening up India for Greek political(Seleucid Empire, Indo-Greeks) and cultural influence (Greco-Buddhist art) whichwas to continue for many centuries. Wikipedia
  • 79. Classic Move 1. Craterus pins 2. Alexander flanks Napoleon will copy it dozens of timesGriess, ed., West Point Military History Series, after p. 42
  • 80. Griess, ed., West Point Military History Series, after p. 42x
  • 81. Although Alexander didn’t realize it at the time, the confrontation at theHydaspes was to be his last pitched battle. As the army marched furthereastward through the Punjab, morale dropped steadily. The crisis camewhen Alexander reached [another] river….Exhausted by the stress offighting and marching during the endless rains of the summer monsoon,terrified by rumors of yet another great river valley occupied by a greatkingdom possessing thousands of war elephants, and doubtful that theywould ever return home, the army mutinied. This time not even Alexander’sformidable powers of verbal and moral persuasion could convince hissoldiers to go on. Ultimately, Alexander yielded, defeated by his own army,and agreed to return to the Indus, where he had already ordered theconstruction of a great fleet. Pomeroy et al. Ancient Greece, p. 455
  • 82. “...when Alexander learnt in India that his army yearned for Greece morestrongly than for new worlds to conquer, he managed an appearance ofgood grace and turned his steps homeward.” Keegan, John. The Mask of Command, p. 2
  • 83. The long retreatthrough theGedrosian desert
  • 84. ALEXANDER’S FORMULAFOR VICTORY...his extraordinary battlefield performances….Reconnaissance and a staff discussionpreceded the advance to contact. Then he addressed his men, sometimes the wholearmy, sometimes only their officers. Finally, when the light troops and cavalry hadmade touch with the enemy’s line, Alexander, clothed in his unmistakablyconspicuous battle garb, charged into the brown [Br. for the thick of the fight]. At thismoment his power to command the battle passed from him. He lost sight of the line,lost all means to send orders, could think only of saving his own life and taking that ofas many of the enemy as put themselves within reach of his sword-arm. But theknowledge that he was risking his skin with theirs was enough to ensure that thewhole army, from that moment onwards, fought with an energy equal to his. Totalexposure to risk was his secret of total victory. Keegan, pp. 89-90
  • 85. ALEXANDER & “THEBROTHERHOOD OF MAN”Those who would idealize Alexander point to his many attempts to merge hisMacedonian and Persian subjects. The most grandiose of these was the mass weddingof his soldiers with Persian brides at Susa in 324. Alexander’s own Persian bride,Roxana, was already pregnant with their son (the future Alexander iv), born after hisfather’s death.Alexander had also taken on many aspects of the Persian culture such as his orientalgarments. The one which caused the most friction was requiring those coming beforehim to prostrate themselves, proskinesis, which Greeks traditionally reserved as amark of respect to the gods.Many of the Macedonian “Old Fighters,” (Hitler’s Alte Kämpfer) were becomingrebellious, especially when he started blending Persian officers and soldiers into theirunits.--jbp
  • 86. Too many scholars like to compare Alexander to Hannibal or Napoleon. A farbetter match would be Hitler, who engineered a militarily brilliant but similarlybrutal killing march into Russia during the summer and autumn of 1941. BothAlexander and Hitler were crack-pot mystics, intent solely on loot and plunderunder the guise of bringing ‘culture’ to the East and ‘freeing’ oppressed peoplesfrom a corrupt empire. Both were kind to animals, showed deference to women,talked constantly of their own destiny and divinity, and could be especiallycourteous to subordinates even as they planned the destruction of hundreds ofthousands, and murdered their closest associates. Hanson, op.cit., pp. 189-190
  • 87. Alexander the Great’s legacy was to leave the Hellenistic world withgenerations of would-be Alexanders, who practiced their master’s savagebrand of political autocracy and butchery of all under suspicion. Thearmy in the West was now not to be a militia or even a professional forcesubject to civilian oversight, but, like the later Nazi military, anautocratic tool that would murder at will far from the battlefield, friendand foe, soldier and civilian alike. Alexander the Great was nophilosopher-king, not even a serious colonizer or administrator, andsurely not a well-meaning emissary of Hellenism. Instead he was anenergetic, savvy adolescent, who inherited from his father a frighteninglymurderous army and the loyal cadre of very shrewd and experiencedbattle administrators who knew how to take such a lethal show on theroad. Hanson, op. cit. p. 188
  • 88. κρατιστῳ (kratistō, to the strongest)...once Alexander was gone, there was no unified structure to ensure asmooth succession. Nor is there any indication that this was a problemthat bothered Alexander himself overmuch. His pursuit of Homeric glorywas essentially solipsistic [self-centered]: it did not concern itself withthe future. Dying, he was asked to whom he left his kingdom. “To thestrongest,” he reportedly said. Peter Green, The Hellenistic Age, p. 16
  • 89. “It is those who endure toil and who dare dangers that achieve gloriousdeeds, Arrian has him say at Opis [site of another of his soldiers’mutinies]. “It is a lovely thing to live with courage and to die leavingbehind an everlasting renown” Keegan, p. 91
  • 90. THE SUCCESSORS
  • 91. Διάδοχοι (Diadochoi, Successors)THE SUCCESSORS κοσµοπολις (Cosmopolis, World State)
  • 92. The Diadochi were as much competitors in heroism with Alexander as mediators,and the posthumous fragmentation of his empire was the result of their desire toequal his achievement rather than to propagate it. His essentially unstablesystem was held in equilibrium only by his day-to-day efforts; when his deathdisturbed the balance, both army and empire fell apart. Keegan, p. 318
  • 93. SUCCESSION STRIFEthe problem with µοναρχεια (monarcheia, monarchy, any sort of one-man rule)is determining the strongman’s successor. America’s democratic constitutionalprocess, which seems so “messy” to us, is a historically rare, peaceful exceptiontraditional solutions fall in two broad categories: dynastic--an adult male heir, preferably seen as competent, with political support a new strongman--usually from the military, who can collect political support323-276 BC-lacking the first, Alexander’s new empire would be racked with thesecond alternative, until, with the death of the last Successor, the Hellenistic erawould take shape as a series of rival dynastic states
  • 94. DIADOCHOI--PART I “The First Rank” “The Second Rank” Perdiccas Somatophylakes (Bodyguards) Craterus Ptolemy I Soter, Lysimachus, Peucestas, Peithon & Leonnatus Antipater Macedonian satraps Antigonus I Monopthalmus, Neoptolemus, Seleucus Inames in bold are men which we will Nicator, Polyperchon examine at length
  • 95. DIADOCHOI--PART IIOther Successors Royal Family Philip iii of Macedon, Alexander iv of Macedon, Olympias, Euridice ii & Cleopatra of Macedon Non-Macedonian Satraps and Generals Eumenes of Cardia & Pyrrhus of Epirus Sons of the Diadochoi Cassander, Demetrius Poliorcetes & Ptolemy Keraunos
  • 96. THE PARTITION OFBABYLON-- 323 BCis the distribution of the territories of Alexander the Great between his generalsafter his death.The partition was a result of a compromise, essentially brokered by Eumenes,following a conflict of opinion between the party of Meleager, who wished togive full power to Philip III of Macedon [Alexander’s half-witted brother], andthe party of Perdiccas, who wished to wait for the birth of the heir of Alexander(the future Alexander IV of Macedon) to give him the throne under the controlof a regent. Under the agreement, Philip III became king, but Perdiccas, as aregent, ruled. Perdiccas, as regent, managed the repartition of the territoriesbetween the former generals and satraps of Alexander. Meleager and about 300of his partisans were eliminated by Perdiccas soon after. Wikipedia
  • 97. The Initial Situation
  • 98. commanded a battalion of the Macedonian phalanx. Distinguished in the Indian campaign 324-when Hephaestion [Alexander’s “Patroclus”] died suddenly, Perdiccas was appointed his successor as commander of the No Companions image available 323-at Alexander’s death, he was appointed regent for the two potential heirs to the empire, the unborn son & the half-wit 322-he broke off his engagement to Antipater’s daughter because Olympias offered him the hand of her daughter Cleopatra, Alexander’s half-sister. Antipater allied with Ptolemy & Antigonus war broke out, he moved against Egypt. “A botched attempt to Perdiccas cross the Nile at the wrong place cost 2,000 men to drowningΠερδίκκας, Perdikkas and crocodiles. This was no successor to Alexander.”--Green died 321/320 BC he was assassinated by his own officers, including Seleucus (about whom much later)
  • 99. 323-was left in control of Greece by Perdiccas321-after Perdiccas’ death, became regent, guardian ofAlexanders brother Philip III and now-born sonHaving quelled a mutiny of his troops, he commissionedAntigonus to continue the war against Eumenes and theother partisans of Perdiccas320-Antipater returned to Macedonia. Soon after, he wasseized by an illness which terminated his active career319-died, leaving the regency to the aged Polyperchon,passing over his own son, Cassander, a measure which Antipatergave rise to much later strife Ἀντίπατρος Antipatros c. 397 BC – 319 BCwas he the assassin of Alexander? All the ancient sourcesmention this rumor, most, only to deny it
  • 100. 340s-son of Antipater, taught by the philosopher Aristotle at the Lyceum in Macedonia. He was educated alongside the Crown Prince Alexander in a group that included Hephaestion and Ptolemy 319-Cassander rejected his father’s decision to give the regency to Polyperchon, and immediately went to seek the support of Antigonus, Ptolemy and Lysimachus as allies 317-after waging war on Polyperchon, and destroying his fleet, Cassander put Athens under the control of Demetrius of Phaleron, and declared himself RegentCassander Κάσσανδρος Ἀντίπατρος, Kassandros Antipatros Alexander IV, Roxana, and Alexander’s supposed illegitimate ca. 350 – 297 son Heracles were all executed on Cassanders orders, and a king of Macedon (305–297). guarantee to Olympias to spare her life was not respected coin of Cassander British Museum 301-after the Battle of Ipsus, in which Antigonus was killed, he was undisputed in his control of Macedonia; however, he had little time to savor the fact, dying of dropsy in 297
  • 101. founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty 323-one of the organizers of the Partition. Became satrap of Egypt, nominally under the two kings without authorization, he quickly annexed Cyrenaica to the west (modern eastern Libya) 320-he then organized the war against Perdiccas 318-he secured Syria and Cyprus 315-when Antigonus One-Eye showed dangerous ambition, he joined the coalition against him Ptolemy I SoterΠτολεµαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr, Ptolemy the Savior c. 367 BC – c. 283 BC 311-309--a brief peace interrupted the wars Marble bust in the Louvre 3rd century BC
  • 102. founder of the Antigonid dynasty321-with the death of Perdiccas, a new attempt at divisionof the empire took place. Antigonus found himselfentrusted with the command of the war against Eumenes,who had joined Perdiccas against the coalition ofAntipater, Antigonus, Ptolemy, Craterus, and the othergenerals319-Antigonus and the other dynasts refused to recognizePolyperchon, since it would undermine their ownambitions. Once again, war broke out315-Antigonus now was in possession of the empires Asianterritories, his authority stretching from the easternsatrapies to Syria and Asia Minor in the west. He seized thetreasures at Susa and entered Babylon. The governor of the Antigonus I Monophthalmuscity, Seleucus fled to Ptolemy and entered into a league Ἀντίγονος ὁ Μονόφθαλµος, "Antigonus the One-eyed"with him, Lysimachus and Cassander against Antigonus 382 BC – 301 BC
  • 103. son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus (One-eyed) 315-At the age of twenty-two he was left by his father to defend Syria against Ptolemy. He was defeated at the Battle of Gaza, his first (unsuccessful) siege 310-he was soundly defeated when he tried to expel Seleucus I Nicator from Babylon; his father was defeated in the autumn. As a result of this Babylonian War, Antigonus lost almost two thirds of his empire: all eastern satrapies became SeleucusDemetrius I ( Δηµήτριος, 337 – 283 ) Poliorcetes ( Πολιορκητής - "The Besieger") king of Macedon (294–288). Marble bust, Roman, 1st century AD of a Greek original from 3rd century BC
  • 104. LysymachusCassander Antigonus Seleucus Ptolemy
  • 105. LysymachusCassander Antigonus Seleucus Ptolemy
  • 106. LysymachusCassander Antigonus Seleucus Ptolemy
  • 107. LysymachusCassander Antigonus Seleucus Ptolemy
  • 108. LysymachusCassander Antigonus Seleucus Ptolemy
  • 109. LysymachusCassander Antigonus Seleucus Ptolemy
  • 110. LysymachusCassander Antigonus Seleucus Ptolemy
  • 111. LysymachusCassander Antigonus Seleucus Ptolemy
  • 112. LysymachusCassander Antigonus Seleucus Ptolemy
  • 113. Ἀλεξάνδρεια Ἐσχάτη Alexandria Eschatē Lysymachus the farthest AlexandriaCassander Antigonus Seleucus Ptolemy
  • 114. they were the actors of the first major interaction between an urbanized Indo- Ἀλεξάνδρεια Ἐσχάτη European culture and theChinese civilization, which led Alexandria Eschatē Lysymachus to the opening up the Silk the farthest AlexandriaRoad from the 1st century BC Cassander Wikipedia Antigonus Seleucus Ptolemy
  • 115. son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus (One-eyed) 315-At the age of twenty-two he was left by his father to defend Syria against Ptolemy. He was defeated at the Battle of Gaza, his first and last unsuccessful siege 310-he was soundly defeated when he tried to expel Seleucus I Nicator from Babylon; his father was defeated in the autumn. As a result of this Babylonian War, Antigonus lost almost two thirds of his empire: all eastern satrapies became Seleucus After several campaigns against Ptolemy on the coasts of Cilicia and Cyprus, Demetrius sailed with a fleet of 250 ships to Athens. He freed the city from the power of Cassander and Ptolemy, expelled the garrison which hadDemetrius I ( Δηµήτριος, 337 – 283 ) been stationed there under Demetrius of Phalerum Poliorcetes ( Πολιορκητής - "The Besieger") king of Macedon (294–288). 307-besieged and took Munychia. After these victories he was worshipped by the Athenians as a tutelary deity under Marble bust, Roman copy, 1st century AD of a Greek original from 3rd century BC the title of Soter (σωτήρ) ("Preserver") [or “Savior”]
  • 116. Helepolis (Greek: ἑλέπολις, English: "Taker of Cities") was an ancient siege engine invented byPolyidus of Thessaly and improved by Demetrius I Poliorcetes of Macedon and Epimachus of Athensfor the unsuccessful siege of Rhodes, based on an earlier, less massive design used against Salamis(305–304 BC)
  • 117. C l o s e - u pshowing thecapstan whichdrove themassive wheelsand the catapultswhich could firewhen theirshutters wereraised
  • 118. C l o s e - u pshowing thecapstan whichdrove themassive wheelsand the catapultswhich could firewhen theirshutters wereraised
  • 119. C l o s e - u pshowing thecapstan whichdrove themassive wheelsand the catapultswhich could firewhen theirshutters wereraised
  • 120. The Helepolis was essentially a large tapered tower, with each side about 130 feethigh, and 65 feet wide that was manually pushed into battle. It rested on eightwheels, each 12 feet high and also had casters, to allow lateral movement as wellas direct. The three exposed sides were rendered fireproof with iron plates, andstories divided the interior, connected by two broad flights of stairs, one forascent and one for descent. The machine weighed 160 tons, and required 3,400men working in relays to move it, 200 turning a large capstan driving the wheelsvia a belt, and the rest pushing from behind.The Helepolis bore a fearsome complement of heavy armaments, with two 180-pound catapults, and one 60-pounder (classified by the weight of the projectilesthey threw) on the first floor, three 60-pounders on the second, and two 30-pounders on each of the next five floors. Apertures, shielded by mechanicallyadjustable shutters, lined with skins stuffed with wool and seaweed to renderthem fireproof, pierced the forward wall of the tower for firing the missileweapons. On each of the top two floors, soldiers could use two light dart throwersto easily clear the walls of defenders. Wikipedia
  • 121. Antigonus clearly meant to secure firm control of the eastern Mediterranean searoutes, since he at once sent Demetrius to reduce that...great naval bastion,Rhodes….For over a year (305/4), Demetrius assaulted the island’s capital with afearsome array of siege engines, fire arrows, rams and torsion catapults.Ptolemy’s ships ran the blockade to supply the defenders, and in the endDemetrius was forced to leave the Rhodians independent. His title of “theBesieger” thus had a decidedly ironic flavor about it. The Rhodians celebrated byerecting a colossal statue of Helios at the harbor entrance, paid for by the sale ofDemetrius’ abandoned siege-gear. They also bestowed on Ptolemy the title of“Savior.” Green, The Hellenistic Age, pp. 36-37
  • 122. The Colossus of Rhodeswas a statue of the GreekTitan Helios, erected between292 and 280 BC. It isconsidered one of the SevenWonders of the AncientWorld. Before its destructionin 226 BC - due to anearthquake - the Colossus ofRhodes stood over 30 meters(107 ft) high, making it one ofthe tallest statues of theancient world.
  • 123. 320-After Alexander’s death, Seleucus was nominated as the satrap of BabylonAntigonus forced Seleucus to flee from Babylon, but, supported by Ptolemy, hewas able to return in 312Seleucus later conquests include Persia and Media. He was defeated by theemperor of India, Chandragupta Maurya and accepted a matrimony alliancefor 500 elephants after ceding the territories considered as part of IndiaSeleucus defeated Antigonus in the battle of Ipsus in 301 BC and Lysimachusin the battle of Corupedium in 281He was assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus during the same year. His successorwas his son Antiochus I Seleucus I (given the surname by later generations of Nicatorestablished the Seleucid dynasty and the Seleucid Empire. His kingdom would Σέλευκος Νικάτωρ, Seleucus thebe one of the last holdouts of Alexanders former empire to Roman rule. It was Victor)only outlived by the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt by roughly 34 years. He ca. 358 – 281founded many cities, the most famous, Antioch Roman copy from a Greek original, from Herculaneum. Now in the National Archaeological Museum of Naples, Italy.
  • 124. somatophylax,( σωµατοφύλαξ, literally, bodyguard) of first Philip ii, then Alexander 323-after Alexander’s death, he was appointed to the government of Thrace as strategos 315-he joined Cassander, Ptolemy I Soter and Seleucus I Nicator against Antigonus I Monophthalmus 309-he founded Lysimachia in a commanding situation on the neck connecting the Chersonese with the mainland. He followed the example of Antigonus I in taking the title of king LysimachusΛυσίµαχος, Lysimachos c. 360 – 281
  • 125. 302 BC-when the second alliance between Cassander, Ptolemy I and Seleucus I was made, Lysimachus, reinforced by troops from Cassander, entered Asia Minor, where he met with little resistance On the approach of Antigonus I he retired into winter quarters near Heraclea, marrying its widowed queen Amastris, a Persian princess 301-Seleucus I joined him and at the battle of Ipsus where Antigonus I was defeated and slain. His dominions were divided among the victors. Lysimachus Lysimachus share was Lydia, Ionia, Phrygia andΛυσίµαχος, Lysimachos the north coast of Asia Minor c. 360 – 281
  • 126. Situation c. 301 BCafter the battle of Ipsus
  • 127. c. 300-Feeling that Seleucus I was becoming dangerously great, Lysimachus now allied himself with Ptolemy I, marrying his daughter Arsinoe II of Egypt. When Antigonus I’s son Demetrius I renewed hostilities (297), during his absence in Greece, Lysimachus seized his towns in Asia Minor 294- concluded a peace whereby Demetrius I was recognized as ruler of Macedonia. 288- Lysimachus and Pyrrhus of Epirus in turn invaded Macedonia, and drove Demetrius I out of the country. Lysimachus left Pyrrhus in possession of Macedonia with the title of king for around seven months before Lysimachus invaded. For a short while the two ruled jointly LysimachusΛυσίµαχος, Lysimachos c. 360 – 281 285-Lysimachus expelled Pyrrhus
  • 128. a second cousin of Alexander through Olympias. He wasbrother-in law to Demetrius I Poliorketes302-first expelled from the throne by Cassander. Taken ashostage to Alexandria where he married Ptolemy’s step-daughter Antigone297-briefly restored to Epirus by Ptolemy, Pyrrhus had hisco-ruler Neoptolemus II of Epirus, puppet of the now-deceased Seleucus, murdered. Next, he went to war againsthis former ally and brother-in-law Demetriusby 286- he had taken control over the kingdom of Macedon. Pyrrhus or PyrrhosPyrrhus was driven out of Macedon by Lysimachus in 284 Πύρρος, Pyrros 319/318–272 king of Epirus (306-302 & 288–285) king of Macedon (274–272)
  • 129. a second cousin of Alexander through Olympias. He wasbrother-in law to Demetrius I Poliorketes302-first expelled from the throne by Cassander. Taken ashostage to Alexandria where he married Ptolemy’s step-daughter Antigone297-briefly restored to Epirus by Ptolemy, Pyrrhus had hisco-ruler Neoptolemus II of Epirus, puppet of the now-deceased Seleucus, murdered. Next, he went to war againsthis former ally and brother-in-law Demetriusby 286- he had taken control over the kingdom of Macedon. Pyrrhus or PyrrhosPyrrhus was driven out of Macedon by Lysimachus in 284 Πύρρος, Pyrros 319/318–272 king of Epirus (306-302 & 288–285)one of the strongest opponents of early Rome. Some of his king of Macedon (274–272)battles, though successful, cost him heavy losses, fromwhich the term "Pyrrhic victory" was coined
  • 130. Plutarch records that Hannibal ranked Pyrrhus as the greatest commander the world had ever seen, though Appian gives a different version of the story, in which Hannibal placed him second aftera second cousin of Alexander through Olympias. He was Alexander the Great.--Wikipediabrother-in law to Demetrius I Poliorketes302-first expelled from the throne by Cassander. Taken ashostage to Alexandria where he married Ptolemy’s step-daughter Antigone297-briefly restored to Epirus by Ptolemy, Pyrrhus had hisco-ruler Neoptolemus II of Epirus, puppet of the now-deceased Seleucus, murdered. Next, he went to war againsthis former ally and brother-in-law Demetriusby 286- he had taken control over the kingdom of Macedon. Pyrrhus or PyrrhosPyrrhus was driven out of Macedon by Lysimachus in 284 Πύρρος, Pyrros 319/318–272 king of Epirus (306-302 & 288–285)one of the strongest opponents of early Rome. Some of his king of Macedon (274–272)battles, though successful, cost him heavy losses, fromwhich the term "Pyrrhic victory" Pyrrhus’ Wars Against was coined Rome & Carthage 281-275 BC
  • 131. the eldest son of Ptolemy I Soter, ruler of Egypt, and his third wife Eurydice, daughter of the regent Antipater His younger half-brother, also called Ptolemy, became heir apparent and, in 282, ascended to the throne as Ptolemy II Ptolemy Keraunos had left Egypt and arrived at the court of Lysimachus, the king of Thrace, Macedon, and part of Asia Minor. His half-sister, Arsinoe, was wife of Lysimachus After Lysimachus defeat and death in the Battle of Corupedium in 281 BC, against Seleucus I Nicator, Ptolemy Keraunos murdered Seleucus I in order to gain the power of his former protector. He then rushed to Lysimacheia where he had himself acclaimed king by the Macedonian army. At this time he also formally relinquished his Ptolemy Keraunos claim to the Egyptian throne. To stabilize his throne, Ptolemy asked Πτολεµαῖος Κεραυνός his half-sister Arsinoe, the widow of Lysimachus, to marry him died 279His epithet Keraunos is Greek for "Thunder" or "Thunderbolt" 279-he was captured and killed during the wars against the Gauls, king of Macedon (281–279) who conducted a series of mass raids against Macedon and the rest of Greece
  • 132. The Gallic threat was brief, but it had significant consequences. The Gauls soontransferred their terror to Anatolia, but only after being defeated at Delphi andLysimacheia by the Aetolian League (the organization of the city-states ofnorthwest Greece) and Antigonus Gonatas (“Knock-knees”), the son ofDemetrius Poliorcetes. Their victories over the Gauls transformed the position ofboth the Aetolians and Antigonus, legitimizing the emergence of the former asthe preeminent power in central Greece and the protector of Delphi and thelatter as king of Macedon. The final pieces of the new political system that had sogradually and painfully emerged from the wreckage of Alexander’s empire hadfallen into place. Pomeroy et al., Ancient Greece, p 476
  • 133. So-called Ludovisi Gaul and his wife. Marble,Roman copy after an Hellenistic original from amonument built by Attalus I of Pergamon after his victory over Gauls, ca. 220 BC
  • 134. ...Alexander’s rejection of constitutional government, of civic militarism,and of municipal autonomy ensured that his conquests would neverresult in a stable Hellenic civilization in Asia, or even liberty in Greece--but simply the Successor’s (Διάδοχι, Diadochi) kingdoms (323-31 B.C.) ofhis like-minded marshals who followed. For three centuries theocrats--Macedonians, Epirotes, Selucids, Ptolemies, Attalids--would rule, fight,plunder and live in splendor amid a Hellenic veneer of court elites andprofessionals in Asia and Africa until at last they were subdued by thelegions of republican Rome. Hanson, Carnage and Culture, p. 82
  • 135. ...Alexander’s rejection of constitutional government, of civic militarism,and of municipal autonomy ensured that his conquests would neverresult in a stable Hellenic civilization in Asia, or even liberty in Greece--but simply the Successor’s (Διάδοχι, Diadochi) kingdoms (323-31 B.C.) ofhis like-minded marshals who followed. For three centuries theocrats--Macedonians, Epirotes, Selucids, Ptolemies, Attalids--would rule, fight,plunder and live in splendor amid a Hellenic veneer of court elites andprofessionals in Asia and Africa until at last they were subdued by thelegions of republican Rome. Hanson, Carnage and Culture, p. 82but, that’s another story, for another time (but not next week!)