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Greece 1 Origins
Greece 1 Origins
Greece 1 Origins
Greece 1 Origins
Greece 1 Origins
Greece 1 Origins
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Greece 1 Origins

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The first session of the class on Ancient Greece

The first session of the class on Ancient Greece

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  • 1. CLASSICAL GREECE i-Origins
  • 2. CLASSICAL GREECE i-Origins
  • 3. CLASSICAL GREECE i-Origins Achilles tending the wounded Patroclus (Attic red-figure kylix, ca. 500 BC)
  • 4. εἶς µία ἔν άΤό Πρῶτον Μάθηµα
  • 5. session i will look at these periods
  • 6. sessions ii-viii willlook at these periods
  • 7. PRINCIPAL TOPICSI. Reasons to study ancient GreeceII. έν ἀρχῇ (ěn archē=in the beginning)III. HomerIV. The GodsV. The Greek Dark Ages
  • 8. I. WHY STUDYANCIENT GREECE?
  • 9. I. WHY STUDYANCIENT GREECE?
  • 10. DONALD KAGAN’S ANSWERSsubjectively, it’s amazingly interestingobjectively, the Greek experience is the starting point of Western CivilizationWestern Civ has created the most envied and sought after human condition inhistory political and legal institutions which have created unprecedented freedom scientific and technological discoveries which have created health and prosperity unknown outside of the West and regions which have influenced by the West reason and objectivity, essential to the above, make their appearance with the Greeks
  • 11. “The civilization of the West, however, was not the result of some inevitable process,through which other cultures will automatically pass. It emerged from a uniquehistory in which chance and accident often played a vital part. The institutions andideas, therefore, that provide for freedom and improvement in the materialconditions of life cannot take root and flourish without an understanding of howthey came about and what challenges they have had to surmount. Non-westernpeoples who wish to share in the things which characterize modernity will need tostudy the ideas and history of Western Civilization to achieve what they want. AndWesterners, I would argue, who wish to preserve these things, must do the same. Donald Kagan, Introduction to Ancient Greek History, iTunes University. 12/31/00 or: http://academicearth.org/lectures/kagan-intro-ancient-greek-history
  • 12. “The many [non-Western] civilizations adopted by the human race have sharedbasic characteristics. Most have tended toward cultural uniformity and stability.Reason, although it was employed for all sorts of practical and intellectual purposesin some of these cultures, still lacked independence from religion, and it lacked thehigh status to challenge the most basic received ideas.Standard form of government has been monarchy. Outside the West, republics havebeen unknown. Rulers have been thought to be divine or appointed spokesmen fordivinity. Religious and political institutions and beliefs have been thoroughlyintertwined as a mutually supportive unified structure. Government has not beensubjected to secular reasoned analysis. It has rested on religious authority, traditionand power. The concept of individual freedom has had no importance in the greatmajority of cultures in human history. Kagan, loc. cit.
  • 13. “The first and the sharpest break with this common human experience came inancient Greece. The Greek city states (called poleis) were republics. Differences inwealth among their citizens were relatively small. There were no kings with thewealth to hire mercenary soldiers, so the citizens had to do their own fighting and todecide when to fight. As independent defenders of the common safety...theydemanded a role in the most important political decisions. In this way for the firsttime political life was invented (observe that the word “political” derives from theGreek word “polis”). Before that, no word was needed because there was no suchthing. This political life came to be shared by a relatively large proportion of thepeople and participation in political life was highly valued by the Greeks.” Ibid.
  • 14. Hence it is evident that man is a political animal (ἂνθρωπος φύσει πολιτικόν ζωόν). And hewho by nature and not by mere accident is without a state, is either a bad man or abovehumanity...he who is unable tolive in society...must be either a beast or a god…. Aristotle, Politics, bk I, 2 Aristotle (Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC)
  • 15. DELPHI γνόθι σεαυτόν (GNO•thi say•au•TAWN) know thyself-Thales µῆ δὲν ἄγαν (may den A•gan) nothing in excess-Solon“...this was the manner of philosophy among the ancients, a kind of laconic brevity.”--Socrates (470?-399 BC)
  • 16. the most famous of many Greekand barbarian (βαρβαρ-) oraclesPythia, priests, omphalos, gasses?intelligence gathering
  • 17. It was [in Classical Greece, between the late eighth and the early fourth centuries,BC] democracy was invented and argued about, achieved and attacked. Romansdisapproved of democracy, and after the conquest of Greece by the Macedoniankings and the Roman Republic, democracy was suppressed in favor of dominationof the upper class. Other basic questions were discussed in works of [Greek]literature which have survived the centuries. Is slavery wrong? (against nature)What is the ultimate source of law, human or divine? Should the family be abolishedin favor of the state? (Plato abolished it in theory, and the Spartans [had gone] along way toward abolishing it in fact) Is civil disobedience sometimes right?(Antigone) What is the right relation of the sexes? What justifies a state in rulingother states, or is there no such justification, but only the ruthless logic of power?What is the role of heredity and what of education in the formation of character?Jasper Griffin, Greece and the Hellenistic World, in the Oxford History of the Classical World, 1988. pp. 1-2
  • 18. HUMANISM is a maddeningly slippery term, but in the context of fourteenth-century Italy, where the movement was born, it has a very specific meaning: itdescribes a surge of interest in the works of the ancient Greeks and Romans, thedevelopment of a new kind of critical method for studying those works, and thegradual emergence of a program of education and cultural renewal based onclassical thought. [classical or secular humanism stood in contradistinction to Churchteaching. This provoked Christian humanism which tried to reconcile the twoapproaches.--jbp] Toby Lester, The Fourth Part of the World, 2009. p. 118
  • 19. II. ΕΝ ΑΡΧΗ IN THE BEGINNING
  • 20. II. ΕΝ ΑΡΧΗ Head from the figure of a woman, Spedos type, Early Cycladic II (2700 BC–2300 BC), IN THE BEGINNING Keros culture.
  • 21. Archaeology-(from Greek ἀρχαιολογία, archaiologia – ἀρχαῖος, arkhaios,"ancient"; and -λογία, -logia, "-logy"), is the study of human society, primarilythrough the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental datathat they have left behind.
  • 22. PREHISTORIC TIMESliterally, this refers to the period before written texts appearour knowledge of events and conditions then is, necessarily, impreciseit depends on archaeology2900 BC/BCE-for Greece, our prehistory begins with the remains of Bronze Agecivilization in the Aegean area at approximately this date
  • 23. Prehistoric times
  • 24. Poliochnē; settled in Late Chalcolithic or Early Bronze Age “The Oldest City in Europe” Poliochni Lemnos
  • 25. WHAT’S THIS BC VS BCE?BC=before ChristBCE=before the common eraguess which is more politically correct;-) For those uncomfortable with Before Christ, just imagine BC stands for“backward chronology”guess which most universities use todayso fifth century, the “Golden Age” of Classical Greece=the 400s BC, andearly fifth century=the 490s, the 480s and so on; the time of the Persian Wars
  • 26. ATHENIAN YEAR DATESwhen a year date is given for an event in Athens it will appear as 411/10I puzzled over that for some time. Even Mr. Google was mutefinally an appendix in Song of Wrath explained the mysteryAthenian year dates were given by the name of the Eponymous Archonfor example, “in the year of Cleisthenes,” whose year of office ran July 411-July 410so when the source dates something with the archon’s name, that’s as close as wecan come! At least students don’t have to learn day and month!
  • 27. THE LITMUS TEST FOR “CIVILIZATION”most archaeologists distinguish the arrival of “civilization” with the appearanceof citiesthere were Greek agricultural villages in Neolithic times but Greek cities are firstfound in the Aegean area on the island of Cretethe Bronze Age civilization there was first uncovered at the beginning of the 20thcentury by the archaeologist Sir Arthur Evanshe called it Minoan after the legendary king Minos
  • 28. THE LITMUS TEST FOR “CIVILIZATION”most archaeologists distinguish the arrival of “civilization” with the appearanceof citiesthere were Greek agricultural villages in Neolithic times but Greek cities are firstfound in the Aegean area on the island of Cretethe Bronze Age civilization there was first uncovered at the beginning of the 20thcentury by the archaeologist Sir Arthur Evanshe called it Minoan after the legendary king MinosEvans uncovered the impressive palace ruins at Knossos
  • 29. The Minoan civilization...was the first major Mediterranean civilization, the firstwealthy, literate, city-based culture with a vibrant artistic culture to emerge within theMediterranean world. David Abulafia, The Great Sea, 2011, p. 22
  • 30. THE SO-CALLED THRONE ROOM
  • 31. THE BULL-LEAPING FRESCO !om the Middle Minoan III to Late Minoan B period (17th-15th centuries BC)
  • 32. beside that fresco, bronzes and carvedgems portray the ritual of bull grapplingin Minoan Cretethe bull was an object of reverence,perhaps associated with the sea,earthquakes?on the wall is a painting of the Labrys(double-bladed axe), a royal symbolthis + the many chambers of the palaceof Knossos-->labyrinth?
  • 33. beside that fresco, bronzes and carvedgems portray the ritual of bull grapplingin Minoan Cretethe bull was an object of reverence,perhaps associated with the sea,earthquakes?on the wall is a painting of the Labrys(double-bladed axe), a royal symbolthis + the many chambers of the palaceof Knossos-->labyrinth?
  • 34. beside that fresco, bronzes and carvedgems portray the ritual of bull grapplingin Minoan Cretethe bull was an object of reverence,perhaps associated with the sea,earthquakes?on the wall is a painting of the Labrys(double-bladed axe), a royal symbolthis + the many chambers of the palaceof Knossos-->labyrinth?the bull grappling-->Minotaur
  • 35. MINOAN CRETE
  • 36. The Discus of Phaistos
  • 37. The Discus of Phaistos
  • 38. WHO WERE THEGREEKS? Those who were native speakers (that is from birth, not alater learned speech) of some variety of the Greek language.A cultural definition. We no longer speak of a Greek race, as if it were a matter of DNA. That was the style in the nineteenth century. But the Nazis and other racists have thoroughly discredited race as a concept.
  • 39. The earliest speakers of what would developinto the Greek language seem to have arrivedin the Balkans during the third millennium.
  • 40. The earliest speakers of what would developinto the Greek language seem to have arrivedin the Balkans during the third millennium.
  • 41. Mycenean sites (ca 1600-1100 BC)
  • 42. the shaftthe Lion graves Gate a reconstruction of Mycenae at the time of its height
  • 43. THE FOUNDER OF MYCENAEANARCHAEOLOGYson of a Protestant minister--early educationan amazing business career which includedthe California gold rush, cornering the indigomarket in St Petersburg, speculatinghe learned languages easily: English, French, Dutch, Spanish, Portuguese, Swedish, Polish, Italian, Greek, Latin, Russian, Arabic, and Turkish as well as Germanas a self-made millionaire, he indulged hisambition since adolescence---to search forTroy Heinrich Schliemann 1822 – 1890
  • 44. “PRIAM’S TREASURE” 1871-he began digging for Troy at a Turkish site called Hissarlik later, more professional archaeologists, would curse the way he “bulldozed” an area which they called “Schliemann’s trench” Sophia Schliemann 1852 – 1932
  • 45. “PRIAM’S TREASURE” 1871-he began digging for Troy at a Turkish site called Hissarlik later, more professional archaeologists, would curse the way he “bulldozed” an area which they called “Schliemann’s trench” Sophia Schliemann 1852 – 1932
  • 46. “PRIAM’S TREASURE” 1871-he began digging for Troy at a Turkish site called Hissarlik later, more professional archaeologists, would curse the way he “bulldozed” an area which they called “Schliemann’s trench” 1873-under suspicious circumstances, he discovered the gold, shown here, on his Greek wife this publicity astounded the academic community which had long regarded Homer’s Sophia Schliemann epics as mere legends 1852 – 1932
  • 47. MYCENAE1841- Greek archaeologist Kiriakos Pittakisfound and restored the Lion Gate1874-after his success at Troy, Schliemannundertook a complete excavation of Mycenaehe found the shaft graves with their rich burialgoodshe also uncovered the tholos or beehive tombsoutside the acropolis “Clytemnestra’s Tomb” interior view of the tholos tomb
  • 48. Exterior view of a tholos tombMYCENAE1841- Greek archaeologist Kiriakos Pittakisfound and restored the Lion Gate1874-after his success at Troy, Schliemannundertook a complete excavation of Mycenaehe found the shaft graves with their rich burialgoodshe also uncovered the tholos or beehive tombsoutside the acropolis “Clytemnestra’s Tomb” interior view of the tholos tomb
  • 49. MYCENEAN GRAVE GOODS on the right, replicas are pictured” “Mycenae, rich in gold…”--Homer
  • 50. Schliemann stated “I have gazed upon the face of Agamemnon!”discovered at Mycenae in 1878, foundover the face of a body in burial shaft V
  • 51. Linear B is a syllabic script thatwas used for writingMycenaean Greek, an earlyform of Greek. It pre-dated theGreek alphabet by severalcenturies (ca. 13th but perhapsas early as 17th century BC)and seems to have died outwith the fall of Mycenaeancivilization. Most clay tabletsinscribed in Linear B werefound in Knossos, Cydonia,Pylos, Thebes and Mycenae.The succeeding period, knownas the Greek Dark Ages,provides no evidence of the useof writing.
  • 52. Mycenaean culture resembled other Bronze Age states: Egypt, Babylonia monarchy, monumental architecture, centralized bureaucracy, widespread trade governments powerful enough to direct such enterprises wealth stratified societies
  • 53. III. HOMER
  • 54. Idealized portrayal of Homer dating to the HellenisticIII. HOMER period. British Museum.
  • 55. “ALL MEN MUST SUFFER, THAT IS THE WAY THE GODS PLAN HUMAN LIFE” (ILIAD, 24.531)
  • 56. THE HOMERIC QUESTIONwas there a real Homer?when did he live?how did he describe events from four or five centuries previously?how did the praise songs of ἀοιδοί (aoidoí-creators ) or ῤαψῳδοί (rhapsōdoi-performers) come to be a written text?how do the texts of the two epics provide historic information about the BronzeAge? the Greek Dark Ages?
  • 57. Homeric studies are today confronted with a paradox. The Homeric poems weread are the result of a double transmission: a mainly oral transmission until thesixth century BCE and then, more and more, a written transmission leading to themodern editions. If documents and materials are lacking to compare differentstages and variants of the oral evolution of the poems, we have many textualvariants that can teach us a lot about both oral and written transmission. A deepercomprehension of oral composition in ancient Greece requires—somewhatparadoxically—a close examination of these textual variants. Consider anexample: Plato quotes Homer many times and his quotations often differ from theHomeric vulgate. How should we interpret these differences? Most interesting arethe instances that allow us to understand how Plato memorized Homer (when hewas not reading a variant). Did he use the rhythmical structure of the hexameteror not? David Bouvier, The Homeric Question; An Issue for the Ancients?, p.3 PDF at muse.jhu.edu/demo/oral_tradition/v018/18.1bouvier.pdf
  • 58. Various considerations of language, archaeology and history suggest that it wasabout 725 BC, somewhere on the coast of Asia Minor or on one of the Aegeanislands, that a great poet conceived the plan of the Iliad, and perhaps a generationlater, that the second poet created the Odyssey, setting out to create a poem whichin scale and inclusiveness should rival the Iliad. Once in existence, the two poems never went out of fashion and were never lostsight of…. In this they differ from all the literature of the period except the OldTestament; the writings of the Egyptians, the Sumerians, the Babylonians and allthe rest were lost to the world for many centuries and have only recently beendeciphered by the labours of Western scholars. Jasper Griffin, Homer, 1980, p. 6
  • 59. The Iliad 15,693 lines, ≐ 26 hours to recite (aoidoi and rhapsodoi) contests, beginning in the 6th century 5,500 combats (µάχια) the most famous, between “man-killing Hektor” and “fleet-footed Achilles” (Homeric epithets) describes forty-one days during the ninth year of the ten-year Trojan War
  • 60. http://cerhas.uc.edu/troy/map.html
  • 61. Those who believe that the stories of the TrojanWar are derived from a specific historical conflictusually date it to the 12th or 11th centuries BC,often preferring the dates given by Eratosthenes,1194–1184 BC, which roughly corresponds witharchaeological evidence of a catastrophic burningof Troy VIIa http://cerhas.uc.edu/troy/map.html
  • 62. The impact of Troy on the history of the Mediterranean is twofold. On the onehand Troy functioned from the beginning of the Bronze Age as a staging-postlinking the Aegean to Anatolia and the Black Sea [for the trade in tin and copper];on the other, the tale of Troy lay at the heart of the historical consciousness notmerely of the Greeks who claimed to have destroyed the city, but of the Romanswho claimed to have descended from its refugees. The real Troy and the mythicalTroy have been hard to disentangle since 1868 when Heinrich Schliemann... David Abulafia, The Great Sea, 2011, p. 18
  • 63. Troy VIIa
  • 64. born in Minneapolis to Norwegian immigrant parents1907-after U of MN began graduate studies at Yale1911-13-fellow at American School of ClassicalStudies at Athens (ASCSA)1920-26--after WW I, became Assistant Dir. ASCSA1927-57-Univ of Cinti, prof of classical archaeology1932-38-Troy Carl William Blegen 1887 – 19711939-Pylos begins. After WW II, Linear Bdecipherment in 1952. UC at Pylos continues to thepresent
  • 65. born in Minneapolis to Norwegian immigrant parents1907-after U of MN began graduate studies at Yale1911-13-fellow at American School of ClassicalStudies at Athens (ASCSA) The Blegen Library1920-26--after WW I, became Assistant Dir. ASCSA1927-57-Univ of Cinti, prof of classical archaeology1932-38-Troy Carl William Blegen 1887 – 19711939-Pylos begins. After WW II, Linear Bdecipherment in 1952. UC at Pylos continues to thepresent
  • 66. Μηνιν αειδε Θεα, Πηληιαδεω Αχιληος Μaynin aede Thea, Paylayyadeo Achilayosουλοµενην, η µυρι Αχαιοις αλγε εθηκε, oolowmenayn hay moori Acha•iois algay ethehke,πολλας δ’ιφθιµους ψυχας ‘Αïδι προιαψεν pullas d’ifthemoos psoochas Haëde proyapsenηρωων, αυτους δε ελωρια τευχε κυνεσσιν heh•row•on*,ow•toos deh el•ow•ria toohay koonessinοιωνοισι τε πασι, Διος δ’ετελειετο βουλη, oyonoisee tay posse Deeaws dehtelayehtow boolayεξ ου δη τα πρωτα διαστητην ερισαντε ex hoo day ta prota dyastay•tayn ehrisanteh‘Ατρειδης τε αναξ ανδρων και διος Αχιλλευς Ahtraydeis tay ahnax androne kay dios Achilayos Sing Goddess of the wrath, of Peleus’ son Achilles, that baneful wrath which brought countless woes upon the Achaeans, that sent many heroes’ souls to Hades, and made their bodies food for dogs and all manner of birds; and thus the will of Zeus was being fulfilled when first there parted that leader of men, Atreus’ son and godlike Achilles * heroes the Homeric Greek word for men at war, which has had such fatal consequences
  • 67. ΑΧΙΛΛΕΥΣ ΟΧΥΣ ΠΟΔΑΣFLEET FOOTED ACHILLES“Sing Goddess of the wrath of Peleus’ son Achilles,”“...the best of the Achaeans”ἀρετἦ (aretē [manly] excellence)either to live a long, comfortable life of inactivity orto die young and have an immortal memory (κλεόςἄφθιτον)῟Ον οί θεοὶ φιλοῦσιν ἀπο-θνῃσκει νέος (those whomthe gods love die young--Menander, Mon. 425) The Wrath of Achilles, by François-Léon Benouville (1821–1859) (Musée Fabre)
  • 68. MĒTĒR GAR TE ME FĒSI THEA THETIS ARGUROPEDZAμήτηρ γάρ τέ μέ φησι θεὰ Θέτις ἀργυρόπεζα (410) For my mother Thetis the goddess of silver feet tells meδιχθαδίας κῆρας φερέμεν θανάτοιο τέλος δέ. I carry two sorts of destiny toward the day of my death. Either,εἰ μέν κ’ αὖθι μένων Τρώων πόλιν ἀμφιμάχωμαι, if I stay here and fight beside the city of the Trojans,ὤλετο μέν μοι νόστος, ἀτὰρ κλέος ἄφθιτον ἔσται my return home is gone, but my glory shall be everlasting;εἰ δέ κεν οἴκαδ’ ἵκωμι φίλην ἐς πατρίδα γαῖαν, but if I return home to the beloved land of my fathers,ὤλετό μοι κλέος ἐσθλόν, ἐπὶ δηρὸν δέ μοι αἰὼν (415) the excellence of my glory is gone, but there will be a long lifeἔσσεται, οὐδέ κέ μ’ ὦκα τέλος θανάτοιο κιχείη. left for me, and my end in death will not come to me quickly book ix, Latimore translation
  • 69. “The rage of Achilles,” Gian Battista Tiepolo, fresco, 1757
  • 70. Following this confrontation Achilles storms off to his tent in book i. hewill not rejoin the Achaeans in battle, despite their pleas, until book xix.But he appeals to his mother, Thetis, a sea nymph demigoddess. Sheintercedes with Zeus
  • 71. Following this confrontation Achilles storms off to his tent in book i. hewill not rejoin the Achaeans in battle, despite their pleas, until book xix.But he appeals to his mother, Thetis, a sea nymph demigoddess. Sheintercedes with Zeus
  • 72. Jupiter and Thetis,Jean Auguste DominiqueIngres, 1811:"She sank to theground beside him,put her left armround his knees,raised her right handto touch his chin,and so made herpetition to the RoyalSon of Cronos" (book i, 500-502)
  • 73. ἦ καὶ κυανέῃσιν ἐπ ὀφρύσι νεῦσε Κρονίων ἀμβρόσιαι δ ἄρα χαῖται ἐπερρώσαντο ἄνακτος κρατὸς ἀπ ἀθανάτοιο μέγαν δ ἐλέλιξεν Ὄλυμπον. He spoke, the son of Kronos, and nodded his head with the dark brows, and the immortally anointed hair of the great god swept from his divine head, and all Olympos was shaken (book i, 528-530) One of the “seven wonders” Roman copy of Phidias’Chryselephantine at Olympia (532)
  • 74. OF KING EDWARD II OF ENGLAND
  • 75. Napoleon IJ.A.D. Ingres (1804)
  • 76. Daniel Chester French (1920)
  • 77. Daniel Chester French (1920)
  • 78. Homeric simile Achilles rushed to meet him like a lion, a ravaging lion, whom men are resolved to slay, the whole village uniting: at first he goes on, heedless, but when some fightingman wounds him with a spear, he gathers himself open-mouthed; there is foam abouthis teeth, his fighting spirit groans in his heart, and with his tail he lashes his flanks oneither side, goading himself to fight, then comes straight on with glaring eyes, either tokill a man or be killed himself in the first onset: even so was Achilles driven on by his anger and his brave spirit to confront great-hearted Aeneas (20.164-75). Griffin, p.11
  • 79. ΠΟΛΥΤΡΟΠΟΣ ΟΔΥΣΣΕΥΣODYSSEUS OF THE MANY TURNINGS“wily Odysseus” His heroic trait is µητις(mētis) “cunning intelligence”“...his patron goddess Athena congratulateshim on being ‘practiced in deceits’ beyond allmen”--Griffin, p. 50“ Much suffering did he endure on the deep,struggling for his own life and the return ofhis comrades. But even so he could not savehis comrades, although he desired it: theyperished through their own wantonness, thefools; they devoured the cattle of the god ofthe Sun, and he took away their home-coming.” (i. 4-9)
  • 80. The Odyssey12,110 lines of dactylic hexameternon-linear plot, “flashbacks” develop details of the fall of Troy andOdysseus’ many adventuresinfluence on the plot by the choices of women and serfsalthough most scholars believe it is the work of a second author,“one influential opinion was that the Iliad was the work of the poet’syouth, the Odyssey that of his old age”--Griffin, p. 47“The simple narrative of the return home of a hero has been greatlyexpanded”--Ibid.
  • 81. Homeric simile“So they mocked, but Odysseus, mastermind in action, once hes handled the greatbow and scanned every inch, then, like an expert singer, skilled at lyre and song--whostrains a string to a new peg with ease, making the pliant sheep-gut fast at either end--so with virtuoso ease Odysseus strung his mighty bow." xxi. 451-454
  • 82. The ancient Greeks regarded the Iliad as the greater of the Homericpoems, and the writer of this book shares that view. It is the Iliadwhich is quoted more, which was the subject of the greater volume ofscholarly work, and which did more to form the Greek conception ofthe world and man. It is a tragic work whereas the Odyssey is anadventure story which ends happily, with the good rewarded and thewicked punished. The tragic view of human life is, alas, more deeplytrue than the view which sees straightforward poetic justice in theworking out of events… Griffin, Homer, p. 46
  • 83. “A Reading from Homer,” Lawrence Alma-Tadema, oil on canvas, 1885Here, a young poet crowned with a laurel wreath reads from Homer to an audience dressed for a festival.The setting is probably Greece toward the end of the seventh century BCE. The Greek letters in the upperright indicate that the place is dedicated to the poet.Through attention to details such as architecture and dress, Alma-Tadema evokes scenes of everyday life inancient Greece and Rome. However, his pictures are rarely entirely archaeologically accurate. For example,while he accurately rendered the ancient musical instrument on the left, a cithara, he also included a typeof rose that did not exist before the nineteenth century.
  • 84. "Homer receiving homage from all the great men of Greece, Rome and modern times. The Universe crowns him, Herodotus burns incense. The Iliad and Odyssey sit at his feet."
  • 85. Herodotus"Homer receiving homage from all the great men of Greece, Rome and modern times. The Universe crowns him, Herodotus burns incense. The Iliad and Odyssey sit at his feet."
  • 86. Raphael Apelles of Kos ΙΛΙΑΣ ΟΔΥΣΣΕΙΑ
  • 87. Raphael PindarVergil Pheidias Apelles of KosDante ΙΛΙΑΣ ΟΔΥΣΣΕΙΑ
  • 88. Raphael PindarVergil Pheidias Alexander Apelles of KosDante ΙΛΙΑΣ ΟΔΥΣΣΕΙΑ Poussin Moliere Longinus
  • 89. V. THE GODS
  • 90. V. THE GODS
  • 91. Giulio Romano "The Gods of Olympus” V. THE GODS trompe loeil ceiling from the Sala dei Giganti"...(thousands of baroque ceilings with paintings of the gods derive ultimately from the Iliad)” --Griffin, p. 21
  • 92. To understand the place of religion in Greek society we must think away thecentral religious institution of our own experience, the Church. In Greecepower in religious matters lay with those who had secular power: in thehousehold with the father, in the early communities with the king, indeveloped city-states with the magistrates or even with the citizen assembly….There was, therefore, no religious organization that could spread moralteaching, develop doctrine, or impose orthodoxy. In such a context a creedwould have been unthinkable. In a famous passage Herodotus casts two poetsas the theologians of Greece: Homer and Hesiod Robert Parker, “Greek Religion; Gods and Men,” in Greece and the Hellenistic World, pp. 253-254
  • 93. ΗΣΙΟΔΟΣ (HESIOD) flourished 750-650 BC his Theogony collected the myths concerning the origins of the gods this “retelling of the old stories became, according to the fifth-century historian, Herodotus, the accepted version that linked all Hellenes”Ancient bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Senecanow conjectured to be an imaginative portrait of Hesiod.
  • 94. ΜΥΘΟΣ (MYTHOS,MYTH)meant “story,” not “falsehood”required no more credulitythan many Biblical taleswere viewed as conveyingmoral truths for edifyingyouths and adultsinspired cultic observance Athena fights Enkelados Attic red figure--525 bc
  • 95. ROBERT VON RANKE GRAVES(1895 – 1985) - an English poet,translator and novelist. During his longlife he produced more than 140 works.Graves poems—together with histranslations and innovativeinterpretations of the Greek myths, hismemoir of his early life, including his rolein the First World War, Goodbye to AllThat, and his historical study of poetic
  • 96. DODEKATHEONΔωδεκάθεον < δώδεκα, dōdeka, "twelve"+ θεοί, theoi, "gods" the principal deities of the Greek pantheon, resided atop Mount Olympus Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Hestia, and Hades were siblings Ares, Hermes, Hephaestus, Athena, Apollo, and Artemis were children of Zeus when the Twelve were codified in 5th century Athens, Hades was “out,” Aphrodite was “in” The Twelve Olympians by Monsiau, late 18th c
  • 97. from Homer’s time, until the rise of philosophical and scientificthinking among the educated few, Greeks regarded religion as thefoundation of moralityeach of the Twelve personified the virtues which they wished totransmit to their childrenthe deities were to be praised, thanked, supplicated and propitiatedin public ceremoniescertain places came to be considered as sacred, associated withparticular gods, demigods or heroessuch was Delphi, sacred to Apollo, the masculine embodiment ofreason
  • 98. V. THE GREEK DARK AGES
  • 99. V. THE GREEK DARK AGESA finely decorated geometric vase dating to around 750 BC
  • 100. Let me say a little bit, first of all, about the way scholars have categorized the historyof Greece. Typically, we speak of the Bronze Age, the Mycenaean Period and so on,followed by the Dark Ages, but after that, you started having refined terms whichderive actually from the world of the history of art. That is because in the Dark Ageswe dont have any writing. So, if you want to designate anything it has to be bytangible things like pottery, particularly painted pottery, because its easier tocategorize. Its from that most of our terms show up. So, for instance, you will seereferences to words like proto-geometric. Theyll be sort of post-Mycenaean thenproto-geometric. These would be the very earliest kinds of pots that have geometricdesigns on them, then comes the geometric period Kagan, op. cit.
  • 101. The Greek Dark Age or Ages also known as Geometric or Homeric Age (ca. 1200BC–800 BC) are terms which have regularly been used to refer to the period of Greekhistory from the presumed Dorian invasion and end of the Mycenaean Palatialcivilization around 1200 BC, to the first signs of the Greek city-states in the 9thcentury BC. These terms are gradually going out of use, since the former lack ofarchaeological evidence in a period that was mute in its lack of inscriptions (thus"dark") has been shown to be an accident of discovery rather than a fact of history.[1] Wikipedia
  • 102. WHAT ENDED THE BRONZE AGE?climatic or environmental catastrophe?invasion by Dorians or “Sea Peoples”?the widespread availability of edged weapons of iron?“no single explanation fits the available archaeological evidence”--Wikipedia
  • 103. MEDITERRANEAN WARFAREAND THE SEA PEOPLESAround this time large-scale revolts took place in several parts of the EasternMediterranean, and attempts to overthrow existing kingdoms were made as aresult of economic and political instability by surrounding people who werealready plagued with famine and hardship. Part of the Hittite kingdom wasinvaded and conquered by the so-called Sea Peoples whose origins - perhapsfrom different parts of the Mediterranean, such as the Black Sea, the Aegeanand Anatolian regions - remain obscure. The thirteenth and twelfth-centuryinscriptions and carvings at Karnak and Luxor are the only sources for "SeaPeoples", a term invented by the Egyptians themselves and recorded in theboastful accounts of Egyptian military successes. Wikipedia
  • 104. Aeoliansettlements IoniansettlementsMycenaeansettlements
  • 105. Archaeological evidence shows that during the “Dark Ages” Greek-speakingMycenaeans, Aeolians and Ionians spread from the Greek mainland andsettled the islands and the western coast of Asia Minor
  • 106. The Aeolians (Greek: Αἰολεῖς) were one of the four major ancient Greek tribescomprising Ancient Greeks. Their name derives from Aeolus, the mythical ancestorof the Aeolic branch and son of Hellen*, the mythical patriarch of the Greeknation. The dialect of ancient Greek they spoke is referred to as Aeolic.Originating in Thessaly, a part of which was called Aeolis, the Aeolians often appearas the most numerous amongst the other Hellenic tribes of early times. TheBoeotians, a subgroup of the Aeolians, were driven from Thessaly by theThessalians and moved their location to Boeotia (bee•O•sha). Aeolian peoples werespread in many other parts of Greece such as Aetolia, Locris, Corinth, Elis andMessenia. During the Dorian invasion, Aeolians from Thessaly fled across theAegean Sea to the island of Lesbos and the region of Aeolis, called as such afterthem, in Asia Minor.________* note the double l! The Greek name for themselves is Hellenes Wikipedia
  • 107. Originating in Thessaly, a part of which was called Aeolis, the Aeolians often appear asthe most numerous amongst the other Hellenic tribes of early times. The Boeotians, asubgroup of the Aeolians, were driven from Thessaly by the Thessalians and moved theirlocation to Boeotia (bee•O•sha). Aeolian peoples were spread in many other parts ofGreece such as Aetolia, Locris, Corinth, Elis and Messenia. During the Dorianinvasion, Aeolians from Thessaly fled across the Aegean Sea to the island of Lesbos andthe region of Aeolis, called as such after them, in Asia Minor
  • 108. The Ionians (Greek: Ἴωνες, Íōnes, singular Ἴων, Íōn) were one of the four majortribes into which the Classical Greeks considered the population of Hellenes to havebeen divided (along with the Dorians, Aeolians and Achaeans). The Ionian dialectwas one of the three major linguistic divisions of the Hellenic world, together withthe Dorian and Aeolian."Ionian" with reference to populations had several senses in Classical Greece. In thenarrowest sense, it was used of the region of Ionia in Asia Minor. In a more broadsense, it could be used to describe all speakers of the Ionic dialect, which alsoincluded the populations of Euboea, the Cyclades and many colonies founded byIonian colonists. Finally, in the broadest sense, it could be used to describe all thosewho spoke languages of the East Greek group, which included Attic.The foundation myth which was current in the Classical period suggested that theIonians were named after Ion, son of Xuthus, and lived in the north Peloponnesianregion of Aegilaus. When the Dorians invaded the Peloponnese and expelled theAchaeans from the Argolid and Lacedaemonia, the Achaeans moved into Aegilaus(henceforth known as Achaea), and the Ionians were in turn expelled. The Ionianswent to Attica and mingled with the population there, before many people finallyemigrated to the coast of Asia Minor, founding the historical region of Ionia. Wikipedia
  • 109. the region of Ionia in Asia Minor. In a more broad sense, it could be used to describe allspeakers of the Ionic dialect, which also included the populations of Euboea (u•BEE•uh),the Cyclades and many colonies founded by Ionian colonists. Finally, in the broadestsense, it could be used to describe all those who spoke languages of the East Greek group,which included Attic [Attica-the area around Athens]
  • 110. Greek Dialects
  • 111. The Doric dialect was spoken in northwest Greece, Peloponnese, Crete,southwest Asia Minor, the southernmost islands in the Aegean Sea, and variouscities of Southern Italy and Sicily. After the classical period it was mainlyreplaced by the Attic, upon which the Koine or common Greek language of theHellenistic period was based. The main characteristic of Doric was thepreservation of Indo-European [aː], long ‹α›, which in Attic-Ionic became [ɛː],‹η›; as an example, the famous last farewell before the battle by Spartan mothersto their warrior sons giving them their shields "Ἤ τὰν ἤ ἐπὶ τὰς" (E tan e epi tas:either with it or on it - either you return with the shield or you are carried backdead on it) would have been "Ἤ τήν ἤ ἐπὶ τῆς" (E ten e epi tes) if it had beenuttered by an Attic-Ionic speaker, such as an Athenian mother. Tsakonian Greek,a descendant of Doric Greek is still spoken in some regions of the SouthernArgolid coast of the Peloponnese, on the coast of the modern prefecture ofArcadia.
  • 112. DARK AGE CULTURE With the collapse of the palatial centres, no more monumental stone buildings were built and the practice of wall painting may have ceased; writing in the Linear B script ceased, vital trade links were lost, and towns and villages were abandoned. The population of Greece was reduced, and the world of organized state armies, kings, officials, and redistributive systems that offered security to individuals disappeared. Most of the information about the period comes from burial sites and the grave goods contained within them. To what extent the earliest Greek literary sources, Homeric epics (8th-7th century) and Hesiods Works and Days (7th century) describe life in the 9th-8th centuries remains a matter of considerable debate. Wikipedia
  • 113. The Lelantine War was a long-remembered military conflict between the twoancient Greek city states Chalkis and Eretria in Euboea which took place in theearly Archaic period, at some time between ca 710 and 650 BC. The reason forwar was, according to tradition, the struggle for the fertile Lelantine Plain on theisland of Euboea. Due to the economic importance of the two participating poleis,the conflict spread considerably, with many further city states joining either side,resulting in much of Greece being at war. The historian Thucydides describes theLelantine War as exceptional, the only war in Greece between the mythical TrojanWar and the Persian Wars of the early fifth century BC in which allied cities ratherthan single ones were involved. Wikipedia
  • 114. Chalkis andEretria on theLelantine Plain.Ägäisches Meer =Aegean Sea;Euböa = Euboea;Lelantische Ebene =Lelantine Plain;Golf von Euböa = Gulfof Euboea;Attika = Attica.
  • 115. Lefkandis contribution to archaeologyThe sites importance is due to a number of factors. First,substantial occupation strata of the Late Helladic IIIC period(ca. 1200-1100/1075 BCE) excavated in the 1960s allowedthe establishment of a ceramic sequence for this period, atthat time insufficiently attested. The IIIC settlementfurthermore stands in contrast to sites in the other parts ofGreece, such as the Peloponnese, where many sites wereabandoned at the end of LHIIIB (i.e. the end of theMycenaean palatial period). This situation places Lefkandiwithin a group of sites in Central Greece with importantpost-palatial occupation, such as Mitrou (settlement),Kalapodi (sanctuary), and Elateia (cemetery). Wikipedia
  • 116. HeroonThe archaeological significance of the site was revealed in 1980[1] when a large mound wasdiscovered to contain the remains of a man and a woman within a large structure called bysome a heroön, or "heros grave." There is some dispute as to whether the structure was infact a heroön built to commemorate a hero or whether it was instead the grave of a couplewho were locally important for other reasons. This monumental building, built c 950 BC,50 meters long and 13.8 meters wide, with a wooden verandah, foreshadows the templearchitecture that started to appear with regularity some two centuries later.One of the bodies in the grave had been cremated, the ashes being wrapped in a fringedlinen cloth then stored in a bronze amphora from Cyprus. The amphora was engraved witha hunting scene and placed within a still larger bronze bowl. A sword and other grave goodswere nearby. It is believed that the ashes were those of a man.The womans body was not cremated. Instead, she was buried alongside a wall and adornedwith jewelry, including a ring of electrum, a Bronze braziere, and a gorget believed to havecome from Babylonia and already a thousand years old when it was buried. An iron knifewith an ivory handle was found near her shoulder. It is unknown whether this woman wasburied contemporaneously with the mans remains, or at a later date. Scholars havesuggested that the woman was slaughtered to be buried with the man, possibly herhusband, in a practice reminiscent of the Indian custom of sati. Other scholars havepointed to the lack of conclusive evidence for sati in this instance, suggesting instead thatthis woman may have been an important person in the community in her own right, whowas interred with the mans ashes after her own death.Four horses appear to have been sacrificed and were included in the grave. Some of themwere wearing iron bits in their mouths. Wikipedia
  • 117. HeroonThe archaeological significance of the site was revealed in 1980[1] when a large mound wasdiscovered to contain the remains of a man and a woman within a large structure called bysome a heroön, or "heros grave." There is some dispute as to whether the structure was infact a heroön built to commemorate a hero or whether it was instead the grave of a couplewho were locally important for other reasons. This monumental building, built c 950 BC,50 meters long and 13.8 meters wide, with a wooden verandah, foreshadows the templearchitecture that started to appear with regularity some two centuries later.One of the bodies in the grave had been cremated, the ashes being wrapped in a fringedlinen cloth then stored in a bronze amphora from Cyprus. The amphora was engraved witha hunting scene and placed within a still larger bronze bowl. A sword and other grave goodswere nearby. It is believed that the ashes were those of a man.The womans body was not cremated. Instead, she was buried alongside a wall and adornedwith jewelry, including a ring of electrum, a Bronze braziere, and a gorget believed to havecome from Babylonia and already a thousand years old when it was buried. An iron knifewith an ivory handle was found near her shoulder. It is unknown whether this woman wasburied contemporaneously with the mans remains, or at a later date. Scholars havesuggested that the woman was slaughtered to be buried with the man, possibly herhusband, in a practice reminiscent of the Indian custom of sati. Other scholars havepointed to the lack of conclusive evidence for sati in this instance, suggesting instead thatthis woman may have been an important person in the community in her own right, whowas interred with the mans ashes after her own death.Four horses appear to have been sacrificed and were included in the grave. Some of themwere wearing iron bits in their mouths. Wikipedia
  • 118. Heroon of Lefkandi, as seen from the main door.
  • 119. By the mid- to late eighth century [750-710 BC] a new alphabetsystem was adopted from the Phoenicians by a Greek withfirst-hand experience of it. The Greeks adapted the Phoenicianwriting system, notably introducing characters for vowelsounds and thereby creating the first truly alphabetic writingsystem. The new alphabet quickly spread throughout theMediterranean and was used to write not only the Greeklanguage, but also Phrygian and other languages in the easternMediterranean. As Greece sent out colonies west towards Sicilyand Italy (Pithekoussae, Cumae), the influence of their newalphabet extended further. The ceramic Euboean artifactinscribed with a few lines written in the Greek alphabetreferring to "Nestors cup", discovered in a grave atPithekoussae (Ischia) dates from c. 730 BC; it seems to be theoldest written reference to the Iliad. Wikipedia
  • 120. "Nestors Cup" inscription, Cumae alphabet, 8th century BC from a Greekvase from Pithikoussai, the older Greek colony in Magna Graecia and Sicily,related to, and often confused with, Cumae.upper half: drawing of the state of the original inscription; lower half:restoration
  • 121. SocietyIt is likely that Greece during this period was divided intoindependent regions organized by kinship groups and the oikoior households, the origins of the later poleis. Wikipedia But the rise of the Polis is another story...

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