French Revolution; session viii- Directoire

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This session looks at the Directory period from its beginning to the coup by Napoleon that ends it and essentially concludes the Revolutionary era.

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French Revolution; session viii- Directoire

  1. 1. Saturday, September 18, 2010
  2. 2. Directoire French Revolution session viii The Directory Saturday, September 18, 2010
  3. 3. Directoire French Revolution session viii The Directory Exit libertè a la Francois!—or—Buonaparte closing the farce of Egalitè, at St. Cloud near Paris Novr. 10th. 1799 / Js. Gillray Saturday, September 18, 2010
  4. 4. Major topics for this session • The Directory at Work • Napoleon’s First Italian Campaign • America’s Quasi-war with France • The Tiger and the Shark • 18 Brumaire, l’an viii Saturday, September 18, 2010
  5. 5. The Directory at Work Saturday, September 18, 2010
  6. 6. The Directory at Work Saturday, September 18, 2010
  7. 7. The stereotypes of corruption and cynicism were greatly exaggerated. It has been concluded by one scholar that, of all the men in the higher positions under the Directory, that is, the thirteen who served as Directors and the others who acted as ministers, only three are known to have been financially corrupt: Barras, Talleyrand, and Fouché; and it is added (as if in defense of the French bourgeoisie) that the two former were ex-nobles by origin, and Fouché an ex-priest. A number of contractors and generals, including Bonaparte, made fortunes in the occupied countries….the British were doing the same by by not wholly dissimilar methods in their conquests...without incurring the shocked indignation of Europeans. Palmer, Democratic Revolution, vol. ii, p. 212 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  8. 8. Fructidor and Floréal These poetic words refer to two unseemly maneuvers, by which the Directory struck out in turn against the Right and the Left. By the coup d’état of Fructidor of the Year V (September 1797) it put down the royalists. By the coup d’état of Floréal of the Year VI (May 1798) it did the same to the democrats…. It will be recalled that by the two-thirds rule of 1795 two-thirds of the legislative chambers...were until the election of March 1797 former members of the Convention….The election of 1797 proved to be a humiliating defeat for the Directory. The newly elected third of the Elders and Five Hundred...gave a majority of royalists of various kinds, or at least of persons not well affected to the Republic….At least two generals in the army, Pichegru and Moreau, were carrying on secret discussions looking to a royalist restoration. Palmer, pp. 255-256 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  9. 9. The coup of 18 Fructidor l’an V • 4 September 1797-Barras, Reubell, and la Révellière staged a coup, supported by the military, against the moderates and royalists in the Councils • Hoche, then in command of the Army of Sambre-et-Meuse, visited Paris and sent troops, while Bonaparte sent General Augereau • the two conservative directors, Carnot and Barthélemy were ousted. Barthélemy was deported to Cayenne, while Carnot escaped • the elections of 49 departments were annulled and many of the deputies charged with royalist conspiracy were also exiled to Cayenne • the two vacant places in the Directory were filled by Merlin de Douai and François de Neufchâteau. • the government frankly returned to Jacobin methods. The law against the relatives of émigrés was reenacted, and military tribunals were established to condemn émigrés who should return to France. Saturday, September 18, 2010
  10. 10. The coup of 22 Floréal l’an VI • spring,1798- not only a new third of the legislature had to be chosen, but the places of the members expelled by the revolution of Fructidor had to be filled • the constitutional party (moderate monarchists on the Right) had been rendered helpless, and the mass of the electors were indifferent. However, among the Jacobins themselves, there had arisen an extreme party hostile to the directors • with the support of many who were not Jacobins but detested the government, it bade fair to gain a majority • before the new deputies could take their seats, the directors forced through the councils the law of 22 Floréal, annulling or perverting the elections in thirty departments and excluding forty-eight deputies by name • even this coup d'état did not secure harmony between the executive and the legislature. In the councils, the directors were loudly charged with corruption and misgovernment • while France was thus inwardly convulsed, its rulers were doubly bound to husband the national strength and practice moderation towards other states. Since December 1797, a congress had been sitting at Rastatt to regulate the future of Germany. That it should be brought to a successful conclusion was of the utmost importance for France Saturday, September 18, 2010
  11. 11. Instead, foreign adventurism Saturday, September 18, 2010
  12. 12. Chasseur, 1er Légion des Francs, 1797 Preparing for the expedition to Ireland in 1796, General Hoche formed the Prémier Légion des Francs by taking selected men from existing units. Described as “true devils incarnate” the légionaires were dressed in captured British coats which had been recut like light infantry uniforms and dyed dark brown (hence the name ‘the Black Legion’)… Caught in a storm, the expedition never landed, but still lost some 500 dead from drowning. Saturday, September 18, 2010
  13. 13. BRITISH REPUBLICAN SYMPATHY Charles James Fox “Pitt the Younger” Richard Sheridan Saturday, September 18, 2010
  14. 14. Pitt Pitt’s cabinet Fox other British “Jacobins” Saturday, September 18, 2010
  15. 15. Pitt Pitt’s cabinet Fox other British “Jacobins” Saturday, September 18, 2010
  16. 16. Pitt Pitt’s cabinet Fox other British “Jacobins” Saturday, September 18, 2010
  17. 17. Chasseur, 2e Légion des Francs; Wales, 1797 22 February 1797 a French force landed on the Welsh coast...to divert attention from the planned expedition to Ireland. They intended to march on Liverpool, raise an insurrection, plunder public stores and mansions as they went. Commanded by the Irish-American Col. Tate (who couldn’t speak French) the expedition was ill-fated from the start and surrendered to the militia after two days, causing little damage. The 1,200 troops were ex-soldiers condemned to prisons and galleys: ‘The men ought to be young, robust and daring, with minds open to the lure of booty….They should know how to carry terror and death into the midst of their enemies….’ Saturday, September 18, 2010
  18. 18. The Spithead and Nore mutinies were two major mutinies by sailors of the Royal Navy in [April]1797. There was also discontent and minor incidents on ships in other locations in the same year. They were not violent insurrections, being more in the nature of strikes, demanding better pay and conditions. The mutinies were potentially dangerous for Britain, because at the time the country was at war with the Revolutionary government of France. There were also concerns among some members of the British ruling class that the mutinies might be the trigger to a wider uprising similar to the French Revolution. Wikipedia Saturday, September 18, 2010
  19. 19. Tell him we intend to be Masters. I’ll read him a lecture Admiral Lord Howe coming to negotiate “hat in hand” The Spithead and Nore mutinies were two major mutinies by sailors of the Royal Navy in [April]1797. There was also discontent and minor incidents on ships in other locations in the same year. They were not violent insurrections, being more in the nature of strikes, demanding better pay and conditions. The mutinies were potentially dangerous for Britain, because at the time the country was at war with the Revolutionary government of France. There were also concerns among some members of the British ruling class that the mutinies might be the trigger to a wider uprising similar to the French Revolution. Wikipedia Aye, Aye, We’re at the bottom of it Fox Saturday, September 18, 2010
  20. 20. Arthur O’Connor Erskine dan Duke of Norfolk Sheridan Fox Saturday, September 18, 2010
  21. 21. The United Irishmen of 1798 • symbol of the United Irishmen (founded 1791) Saturday, September 18, 2010
  22. 22. The United Irishmen of 1798 • symbol of the United Irishmen (founded 1791) • winter 1796-97-Gillray’s caricature of Hoche’s failed invasion Saturday, September 18, 2010
  23. 23. The United Irishmen of 1798 • symbol of the United Irishmen (founded 1791) • winter 1796-97-Gillray’s caricature of Hoche’s failed invasion • 21 June 1798-Cruikshank’s “Defense of the Rebels at Vinegar Hill” Saturday, September 18, 2010
  24. 24. The United Irishmen of 1798 • symbol of the United Irishmen (founded 1791) • winter 1796-97-Gillray’s caricature of Hoche’s failed invasion • 21 June 1798-Cruikshank’s “Defense of the Rebels at Vinegar Hill” • Wolfe Tone (19 November 1798), charismatic leader and martyr Saturday, September 18, 2010
  25. 25. The United Irishmen of 1798 • symbol of the United Irishmen (founded 1791) • winter 1796-97-Gillray’s caricature of Hoche’s failed invasion • 21 June 1798-Cruikshank’s “Defense of the Rebels at Vinegar Hill” • Wolfe Tone (19 November 1798), charismatic leader and martyr ….THINKER AND DOER, DREAMER OF THE IMMORTAL DREAM AND DOER OF THE IMMORTAL DEED, WE • his grave with Pearce (1879-1916) tribute OWE MORE THAN WE CAN EVER REPAY HIM….TO HIS TEACHING WE OWE IT THAT THERE IS SUCH A THING AS IRISH NATIONALISM AND TO THE MEMORY OF THE DEED HE NERVED HIS GENERATION TO DO, TO THE MEMORY OF ’98, WE OWE IT THAT THERE IS ANY MANHOOD LEFT IN IRELAND.” Saturday, September 18, 2010
  26. 26. The United Irishmen of 1798 • symbol of the United Irishmen (founded 1791) • winter 1796-97-Gillray’s caricature of Hoche’s failed invasion • 21 June 1798-Cruikshank’s “Defense of the Rebels at Vinegar Hill” • Wolfe Tone (19 November 1798), charismatic leader and martyr • his grave with Pearce (1879-1916) tribute • half-hanging of a rebel Saturday, September 18, 2010
  27. 27. The United Irishmen of 1798 • symbol of the United Irishmen (founded 1791) • winter 1796-97-Gillray’s caricature of Hoche’s failed invasion • 21 June 1798-Cruikshank’s “Defense of the Rebels at Vinegar Hill” • Wolfe Tone (19 November 1798), charismatic leader and martyr • his grave with Pearce (1879-1916) tribute • half-hanging of a rebel • guerilla warfare continues till 1804 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  28. 28. The United Irishmen of 1798 • symbol of the United Irishmen (founded 1791) • winter 1796-97-Gillray’s caricature of Hoche’s failed invasion • 21 June 1798-Cruikshank’s “Defense of the Rebels at Vinegar Hill” • Wolfe Tone (19 November 1798), charismatic leader and martyr • his grave with Pearce (1879-1916) tribute • half-hanging of a rebel • guerilla warfare continues till 1804 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  29. 29. Further Foreign Adventurism • However, the directors were driven by self-interest to new adventures abroad. Bonaparte was resolved not to sink into obscurity, and the directors were anxious to keep him as far as possible from Paris • they, therefore, sanctioned the expedition to Egypt which deprived the Republic of its best army and most renowned captain • coveting the treasures of Bern, the Directors sent Brune to invade Switzerland and remodel its constitution • they sent Berthier to invade the Papal States and erect the Roman Republic. They also occupied and virtually annexed Piedmont. In all these countries, they organized such an effective pillage that the French became universally hated • as the armies were far below the strength required by the policy of unbounded conquest and rapine, the first permanent law of conscription was passed in the summer of 1798. The attempt to enforce it caused a revolt of the peasants in the Belgian departments • the priests were held responsible and some eight thousand were condemned to deportation en masse, although the much greater part escaped by the goodwill of the people. Few soldiers were obtained by the conscription, for the government was as weak as it was tyrannical Saturday, September 18, 2010
  30. 30. However, the reaction [of 22 Floreal (1798)] did not go very far, because the notables [the haut bourgeois, upper middle-class] were divided. They were divided by...the aggressive anticlericalism which brought most of the Directorials close to the sans-culottes….the notables considered that the common people had to have a religion and that the clergy was indispensable to social order; they also believed that the civil war would never really be brought to an end until peace had been made with the clergy. The Directory, on the other hand, especially after 18 Fructidor, pursued a policy of hostility…. Lefebvre, pp. 404-405 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  31. 31. Civil Religion, Again Some Directorials, moreover, like the “tyrant Robespierre,” considered that the Republic could not live without a metaphysical doctrine, and would have liked to set up a civil religion in competition with Christianity. Such were La Revellière and his friend Leclerc. In January, 1797, [they] inaugurated Theophilanthropy, a moralizing, idealistic deism which brought together, in the churches of Paris, a fair number of Republicans of all shades of opinion...it never reached the common people. Freemasonry, whose philosophical principles were very similar, was likewise unable to do so…. Lefebvre, pp. 404-405 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  32. 32. Dim Prospects It seems likely that the chances for a moderate and constitutional settlement in France, in the years after 1795, were virtually nil. For one thing, the war was still going on….Even with governments well established, the needs and atmosphere of war are unfavorable to constitutional experimentation and personal and political liberties. The Revolution--or rather the last years of the Old Regime of which the Revolution itself was merely the outcome--had left the country too divided, with too many memories, hopes and fears, hates and attachments, disillusionments and expectations, for men to accept each other with mutual trust or political tolerance. Palmer, Democratic Revolution, vol. ii p. 260 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  33. 33. Napoleon’s First Italian Campaign Saturday, September 18, 2010
  34. 34. Bonaparte at the Bridge of Arcole, by Baron Antoine-Jean Gros, (ca. 1801), Louvre, Paris Saturday, September 18, 2010
  35. 35. Soldiers! You are naked, i%-fed; the government owes you much, it can give you nothing. Your patience, the courage you exhibit in the midst of these rocks, are admirable, but they bring you no glory; no luster is reflected on you. I wi% lead you into the most fertile plains of the world. Rich provinces, great cities wi% be in your power; there you wi% find honor, fame and riches. Soldiers of Italy, sha% courage or constancy fail you? Napoleon, 27 March 1796 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  36. 36. BATAVIAN REPUBLIC NICE SAVOY FR Saturday, September 18, 2010
  37. 37. Saturday, September 18, 2010
  38. 38. Always begin with the KEY 1st-the date/dates 10 0 10 20 30 2nd-the scale Saturday, September 18, 2010
  39. 39. Bonaparte’s first offensive The French army was strung out along the Riviera for 50 miles, holding the coastal highway and the Ligurian spur of the Apennines. From the summits could be seen Bonaparte’s promised land--the historical amphitheater of the Lombard Plain, bounded on three sides by mountains. The Kingdom of Piedmont and the hereditary Austrian possession of Milan occupied the western half of this region, with their combined armies facing the French along the northern slope of the Ligurian hills. Montross, War through the Ages, p. 462 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  40. 40. TO TURIN (capital of Piedmont) DEGO MONTENOTTE MONDOVI CEVA CARCARE the first action occurs as Laharpe’s division (7,500) attacks a much smaller Austrian force in Montenotte and drives it out, inflicting losses of 2,500 the San Giacomo road was actually a 15 mi mule trail, alternately mud & sharp rocks over a half-mile-high pass 5 0 5 Note change of scale Saturday, September 18, 2010
  41. 41. TO TURIN (capital of Piedmont) DEGO MONTENOTTE MONDOVI CEVA CARCARE the first action occurs as Laharpe’s division (7,500) attacks a much smaller Austrian force in Montenotte and drives it out, inflicting losses of 2,500 the San Giacomo road was actually a 15 mi mule trail, alternately mud & sharp rocks over a half-mile-high pass 5 0 5 Note change of scale Saturday, September 18, 2010
  42. 42. Undoubtedly, Bonaparte, lacking previous ser vice as an infantr y commander, had failed to appreciate the difficulties of such a night march. It was a fault that would affect many of his future operations. On the other hand, in this the first of his campaigns, he displayed some of the attributes that were to make him a great captain: the ability to assess rapidly and clearly the advantages and hazards inherent in an existing situation, directness of purpose, vigorous execution, and simplicity and flexibility of planning. Esposito & Elting, A Military History and Atlas of the Napoleonic Wars, commentary on MAP 4 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  43. 43. The Austrians sent to relieve On 13 April, Bonaparte was certain Dego fall back in confusion that he had wedged his army between Colli & Beaulieu. His problem now was to drive his wedge deeper and to separate them completely before they could react effectively. Massena captures Augereau Dego and skirmishes takes 4,000 westward to Austrian and ke e p C o l l i DEGO Sardinian occupied prisoners CEVA 5 0 5 10 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  44. 44. After extensive reconnaissance on 16 April, deciding that Beaulieu now would be definitely out of action long enough to permit the destruction of Colli’s army, Bonaparte began swiftly shifting his strength westward. Colli took up the new position as shown. He r e h e h o p e d to hold out until Beaulieu recovered. The fact remained that Vukassovich had stalled the French offensive throughout 15-16 April; but Beaulieu was not the man to take advantage of this opportunity T Saturday, September 18, 2010
  45. 45. Much of 22 April had to be spent cuffing the French army--reveling in the fat, unforaged country around it--back into its ranks; local procurement of supplies had to be organized. K i n g Vi c t o r A m a d e u s o f S a r d i n i a , considering his situation hopeless, told Colli to ask for an armistice. On 26 April he accepted Bonaparte’s terms Saturday, September 18, 2010
  46. 46. "Soldiers, You have descended like a torrent from the summit of the Apennines, you have overthrown, scattered everything that opposed your progress. . . . . . your fellow-citizens will point to you and say: "He was of the Army of Italy !" - Bonaparte, 1796 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  47. 47. Saturday, September 18, 2010
  48. 48. The Battle of Lodi Louis-François, Baron Lejeune, c. 1804 Musée National des Châteaux de Versailles Saturday, September 18, 2010
  49. 49. The French artillery suddenly doubled its rate of fire. Out of the smoke, straight across the bridge, roared Dallemagne’s column (3,000). With men dropping at each stride, it got to the center of the bridge (some 200 yards long) before Austrian infantry fire smashed its head into a tangle of dead and wounded. Somehow untouched, red-bearded Major Dupas, commanding the leading battalion, shouted his men on. The column staggered, but Berthier seized a flag and went forward. Massena, Lannes, Dallemagne--a crowd of officers and men mixed together--followed. Some carabiniers, dropping from the bridge onto a sand bank in the river, gave the rush fire support…. Later, Bonaparte would say that it was Lodi that made him certain he could be a man of high destiny. Esposito & Elting, commentary on maps 10 & 11 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  50. 50. Reproduction of a painting by Felicien de Myrbach-Rheinfeld Caption: Where after seizing the bridge over the Adda, the French defeated the Austrians and proceeded to occupy Milan. Source: Life of Napoleon Bonaparte by William M. Sloane. New York: Century, vol. 1 (1906) Saturday, September 18, 2010
  51. 51. ...a few days after the Battle of Lodi [10 May 1796] he confided to Marmont, "They [the Directory] have seen nothing yet....In our days no one has conceived anything great; it is for me to set the example." Napoleon, age 26 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  52. 52. “Every soldier carries a marshal’s baton in his knapsack”-- Napoleon • one of the maxims of the Revolution was: les carrières s'ouvrent au talent (careers are open to talent) • nowhere did this seem to be so true as in the military • 1793-in the chaos and crisis atmosphere which produced the Terror, promotions were sudden and depended on only two things: political reliability & ability • although the officer class in the Ancien Regime had been predominently noble, now it was almost entirely non-aristocratic • Napoleon’s officers make a study in social André Masséna mobility l'Enfant chéri de la Victoire 1758-1817 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  53. 53. born in Nice, son of a shop b o r n i n Ve r s a i l l e s , s o n o f keeper, orphaned at 13, became military engineer, entered the cabin boy for 4 years. 1775-89 army at 17, went to Nor th private, then warrant officer in America with Rochambeau, the Royal Italian Regt. Brief returning as a colonel. During stint as a smuggler in Fr West the Rev, Chief of Staff of the Indies. 1791 enlisted as a private, Versailles Natl Guard, 1792, by 1792 made colonel served with Dumouriez Andre Massena Alexandre Berthier 1753-1815 born in Saarlouis, son of a born in Guyenne, son of an master barrel cooper & Seven innkeeper, joined the cavalry at Years War veteran, Co%ege des 20, 1792 made officer, brought Augustins, then notar y and Na p o l e o n’s c a n n o n o n 1 3 overseer of mines & forges. 1787 Vendémiare. Began the Italian enlisted in a hussar regiment. campaign as an aide-de-camp, Oct, 1792, commissioned, later commander of cavalry Joachim Murat Michel Ney 1767-1815 1769-1815 son of a Parisian fruit seller, born in Lyons, son of an silk e n l i s t e d a t 1 7, n o t e d m a n u f a c t u r e r, j o i n e d t h e swordsman & duelist. Killed national guard cavalry at 22, an officer in a duel, fled 1793, at the siege of Toulon made France. Served in the Russian, chef de batai%on. There he took Prussian & Neapolitan armies. G e n e r a l O ’ Ha r a p r i s o n e r. Back to France after the Severely wounded in the Italian Revolution. Fought in the Campaign, 1796 Vendée Pierre Augereau Louis Gabriel Suchet 1757-1816 1770-1826 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  54. 54. ! Saturday, September 18, 2010
  55. 55. The campaign [against Beaulieu] ended when Bonaparte again entered Milan, to be hailed as a liberator by crowds which had not yet fully experienced French looting and indiscipline. The city had been taken just after Lodi, and now the victor laid siege to the citadel to capture the heavy artillery needed for the investment of Mantua. Thus in each operation he made “war nourish war,” while never neglecting to send the impoverished Directory his regular offerings of jewels and Italian art treasures to be turned into cash. Montross, p. 466 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  56. 56. Saturday, September 18, 2010
  57. 57. PESCHIERA The Quadrilateral LEGNAGO Saturday, September 18, 2010
  58. 58. If more was expected of the French soldier and officer than their counterparts in other armies, so also were the rewards greater. Already the army of Italy had won booty such as had been gained by no European conqueror in generations. Personal violence to noncombatants was rare [this would not hold true in Spain, where both sides committed atrocities, jbp], but all ranks thieved like gypsies, with Bonaparte and the Directory setting the example…. Milan, Turin, Pavia and Bologna were stripped of gold, jewels and objects of art in addition to the usual requisitions of provisions. Even the pope, on making his peace, had to deliver 12,500,000 francs, 500 ancient manuscripts and 100 precious statues, paintings and vases. Montross, p. 467 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  59. 59. La batai%e de Castiglione (1-5 August 1796) by Victor Adam Musée national du Château de Versai%es,1836 here Bonaparte defeats Austria’s second general, Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser Saturday, September 18, 2010
  60. 60. Saturday, September 18, 2010
  61. 61. Austria 61,100 France 41,500 Austria sends her third army with a new general Saturday, September 18, 2010
  62. 62. With the defeat of the French armies DAVIDOVICH (off map to the north) The Third Attempt in Germany, a new major Austrian (18,400) offensive in Italy was certain. Not NOVEMBER 1796 having the strength for a major offensive of his own, Bonaparte would have to take full advantage of the terrain and try to wage a war of limited defensive-offensive operations. Alvintzy had been given command of the Austrian forces in Italy. The quality of the troops was very mixed. Most of Davidovich’s were probably veterans from Germany; part of Alvintzy’s were unwilling Poles and poorly trained conscripts and part exceptionally good Hungarian and The Quadrilateral Croat regiments 5 0 5 10 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  63. 63. Davidovich, with superior numbers, pushes Vaubois south of Trent (3-4 November) then, threatening to outflank them, sends them in disarray even farther south (6-7 November) Bonaparte brings Massena (his mountain-warfare expert) to advise. From the 2nd to the 6th the French had lost 5,000 men and their morale was beginning to falter. Fortunately for Bonaparte, Davidovich did not advance aggressively to exploit his initial successes. Bonapar te, confident in the quality of his troops, decides to strike Alvintzy’s advance guards. He is unpleasantly surprised at the good quality of the unseasoned heterogeneous Au s t r i a n s . Alvintzy--whose skill, flexibility and moral courage were limited-- had lumbered as far as Vicenza and showed little inclination to push beyond. Situation 9 November & Movements Since 2 November 1796 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  64. 64. At about 1400 the Austrian artillery--well posted and well-handled--shot Augereau back out of Caldiero. A great general must say several times a day to himself, ‘What should I do if the enemy appeared at my &ont, on my right, or on my le' Greatly outnumbered, the French were flank?’ If he finds it difficult to gradually forced back. In the evening answer such questions, he is not in a Bonaparte broke contact and withdrew into good position, or a% is not as it Verona. should be, and he must alter it. Two thousand French had been lost, and the survivors were badly discouraged by this new reverse--suffered by Bonaparte himself. He who wishes to make quite sure of everything in war, and never ventures, wi% always be at a disadvantage. Boldness is the acme of wisdom. Saturday, September 18, 2010
  65. 65. Bonaparte had completed his plans by the morning of 13 November. He had decided to make a main crossing at Ronco. There, the approaches of a former French pontoon bridge were still intact, and another bridge over the Adige could be constructed readily. Also, by keeping west of the Alpone, he would be in closer contact with Verona and better able to keep between Alvintzy and Davidovich. According to Bonaparte’s latest information, there were no large Austrian units around Arcola... Marsh Alpo Marsh n e Ri ver Adige Ri ver Swamp BATTLE OF ARCOLA Situation at Dark, 15 Nov 1796 untering only a few18, 2010 Saturday, September
  66. 66. Bonaparte had completed his plans by the morning of 13 November. He had decided to make a main crossing at Ronco. There, the approaches of a former French pontoon bridge were still intact, and another bridge over the Adige could be constructed readily. Also, by keeping west of the Alpone, he would be in closer contact with Verona and better able to keep between Alvintzy and Davidovich. According to Bonaparte’s latest information, there were no large Austrian units around Arcola... Marsh Alpo Marsh n e Ri ver Adige Ri ver Swamp RONCO BATTLE OF ARCOLA Situation at Dark, 15 Nov 1796 untering only a few18, 2010 Saturday, September
  67. 67. Bonaparte had completed his plans by the morning of 13 November. He had decided to make a main crossing at Ronco. There, the approaches of a former French pontoon bridge were still intact, and another bridge over the Adige could be constructed readily. Also, by keeping west of the Alpone, he would be in closer contact with Verona and better able to keep between Alvintzy and Davidovich. According to Bonaparte’s latest information, there were no large Austrian units around Arcola... Augereau’s column, encountering only a few scattered shots, had almost reached the Arcola bridge when it was suddenly taken in flank and pinned down by the musketry and cannon fire of Brigido’s troops from the other bank--at less than 100-yard range. Augereau, flag in hand, led his men in a rush, but could not get them within Marsh Alpo Marsh 200 yards of the bridge. n e Ri ver Adige Ri ARCOLA ver Swamp RONCO BATTLE OF ARCOLA Situation at Dark, 15 Nov 1796 untering only a few18, 2010 Saturday, September
  68. 68. Bonaparte had completed his plans by the morning of 13 November. He had decided to make a main crossing at Ronco. There, the approaches of a former French pontoon bridge were still intact, and another bridge over the Adige could be constructed readily. Also, by keeping west of the Alpone, he would be in closer contact with Verona and better able to keep between Alvintzy and Davidovich. According to Bonaparte’s latest information, there were no large Austrian units around Arcola... Augereau’s column, encountering only a few scattered shots, had almost reached the Arcola bridge when it was suddenly taken in flank and pinned down by the musketry and cannon fire of Brigido’s troops from the other bank--at less than 100-yard range. Augereau, flag in hand, led his men in a rush, but could not get them within Marsh Alpo Marsh 200 yards of the bridge. n e Ri ver Bonaparte himself then took charge. Guieu (3,000) was ordered to cross by A dige Riv ARCOLA boat below, near Albaredo, and outflank Arcola. As this would take time, er Bonaparte seized the flag, harangued the troops, and led them on a new charge. They got almost to the bridge, then were broken up by two Austrian guns, which swept the crossing. Lannes was badly wounded covering Bonaparte with his body. The column was thrown back in considerable disorder, and Bonaparte’s horse pitched him into the marsh. Swamp RONCO BATTLE OF ARCOLA Situation at Dark, 15 Nov 1796 untering only a few18, 2010 Saturday, September
  69. 69. Bonaparte had completed his plans by the morning of 13 November. He had decided to make a main crossing at Ronco. There, the approaches of a former French pontoon bridge were still intact, and another bridge over the Adige could be constructed readily. Also, by keeping west of the Alpone, he would be in closer contact with Verona and better able to keep between Alvintzy and Davidovich. According to Bonaparte’s latest information, there were no large Austrian units around Arcola... Augereau’s column, encountering only a few scattered shots, had almost reached the Arcola bridge when it was suddenly taken in flank and pinned down by the musketry and cannon fire of Brigido’s troops from the other bank--at less than 100-yard range. Augereau, flag in hand, led his men in a rush, but could not get them within Marsh Alpo Marsh 200 yards of the bridge. n e Ri ver Bonaparte himself then took charge. Guieu (3,000) was ordered to cross by A dige Riv ARCOLA boat below, near Albaredo, and outflank Arcola. As this would take time, er Bonaparte seized the flag, harangued the troops, and led them on a new charge. They got almost to the bridge, then were broken up by two Austrian guns, which swept the crossing. Lannes was badly wounded covering Bonaparte with his body. The column was thrown back in considerable disorder, and Bonaparte’s horse pitched him into the marsh. Swamp RONCO BATTLE OF ARCOLA The Austrians counterattacked furiously, almost capturing Bonaparte, Situation at Dark, 15 Nov 1796 but a staff officer rallied a party of grenadiers and broke the charge. Augereau’s division then fell back on Ronco. untering only a few18, 2010 Saturday, September
  70. 70. fanciful depictions Saturday, September 18, 2010
  71. 71. fanciful depictions Saturday, September 18, 2010
  72. 72. fanciful depictions Saturday, September 18, 2010
  73. 73. fanciful depictions Saturday, September 18, 2010
  74. 74. • Bonaparte had already detected a slowness in Alvintzy; it had not escaped his keen battle- wise eye that the Austrian forces were full of raw recruits • in the early hours Alvintzy put Provera and Mitrowsky forward, but Massena and Augereau pushed them both back • Alvintzy was discouraged and sent his supply trains back toward Montebello • Bonaparte now felt the battle was ripe. Engineers worked all night building a bridge across the Alpone, just above its mouth • a detachment crossed the Adige against little opposition--by boat at Albaredo to cover this bridge construction and Augereau’s crossing the next morning 3 2 1 0 5 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  75. 75. • the plan was for first Massena, then Augereau, to recross the Adige at Ronco early on the 17th • Massena would then threaten Arcola from the west and block Provera at Porcile, while Augereau would cross the new bridge and attack from the south • Massena lured Mitrowsky into an ambush capturing 3,000 • Augereau was initially blocked, but It w a s n o w n i g h t . B o t h Napoleon sent 25 guides with 4 armies, utterly worn out, slept trumpeters as a ruse. It worked on their arms. French losses for the past three days, 4,600; Au s t r i a n l os s e s e x ce e d e d 6,000 • the Legnano detachment was the final blow Saturday, September 18, 2010
  76. 76. Bonaparte must have thought of Arcola when he wrote: “The fate of a battle is a question of a single moment, a single thought;...the decisive moment arrives, the moral spark is kindled and the smallest reserve force settles the matter.” And again: “There is a moment in engagements where the least maneuver is decisive and gives the victory; it is the one drop of water which makes the vessel run over.” Bonaparte overcame Alvintzy and Davidovich through determination, superior energy, impetuosity, tenacity, and the ability to analyze situations and calculate the chances under the most difficult conditions. In t h e wo r d s o f G e n e r a l Pa t to n : The Austrian commander and his “Weapons change, but man changes not men, exhausted, discouraged and at all. To win battles, you do not beat harassed, had been psychologically weapons--you beat the soul of the vulnerable to the “one drop of enemy man.” water”--that tiny, but noisy and energetic, detachment of Guides and trumpeters that had set off a chain reaction of fear and despair among the Austrians. Saturday, September 18, 2010
  77. 77. In his report to the Directoire from Milan on December 7, 1796, General Henri Jacques Guillaume Clarke, then chief of the Topographical Bureau in the Ministry of War, wrote of Napoleon Bonaparte: 'The General-In-Chief has rendered the most important services….The fate of Italy has several times depended on his learned combinations. There is nobody here who does not look upon him as a man of genius, and he is effectively that. He is feared, loved, and respected in Italy….A healthy judgment, enlightened ideas, put him abreast of distinguishing the true from the false….His manner of execution is learned and well calculated. Bonaparte can bear himself with success in more than one career. His superior talents and his knowledge give him the means….Do not think, Citizen Directors, that I am speaking of him from enthusiasm. It is with calm that I write, and no interest guides me except that of making you know the truth. Bonaparte will be put by posterity in the rank of the greatest men.' Jeremy Green, “General Napoleon Bonaparte’s Italian Campaign” in Military History, (Apr, 1997) Saturday, September 18, 2010
  78. 78. Rivoli; 14-15 January 1797 Now, at last, the issue was to be staked on a single decisive battle. The clash promised to be a final test of the tactical merits of concentric columns as opposed to French grand tactics. The very terrain of Rivoli--a lakeside plateau approached by good roads from three directions--made it inevitable that the Austrians would rely on their favorite converging attack. Quite as inevitably, Bonaparte planned to make use of his interior lines in the hope of bringing up a local superiority of numbers at each threatened point. At Rivoli, however, Bonaparte’s greater skill was balanced by an enemy numerical advantage of more than two to one at the beginning of the battle. Montross, p. 473 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  79. 79. Napoleon at the Battle of Rivoli Felix Philipoteaux, 1845 Palace of Versailles, Ga%erie des Batai%es Saturday, September 18, 2010
  80. 80. It now became clear to Bonaparte that Alvintzy’s was the main attack force. Orders were promptly issued for a maximum concentration against him. Victor would move up to Villafranca; Rey to Castelnuovo; Murat would use the gunboat flotilla to ferry troops at Salo to Torri, then march to join Joubert. Massena would leave minimum garrisons in the Verona area and march for Rivoli. Augereau r ive would defend the Adige from Verona south. eR Bonaparte himself arrived at Rivoli at 0200 on the ig 14th. When his concentration was complete, he Ad would have approximately 23,000 men and some 30 to 40 guns to engage Alvintzy. For the fifth time in nine months, the Austrian state, displaying amazing vitality, rebuilt its army in Italy. Reinforcement poured in--new levies of SALO conscripts, the Vienna garrison, and volunteers. TORRI National spirit was high. The new army numbered RIVOLI 46,200 infantry and 2,800 cavalry. But it had two weaknesses. Its quality was uneven. Worse, Alvintzy was left in command. It probably was not appreciated in Vienna that it was Alvintzy, more than his army, who had lost Arcola. VILLAFRANCA ALVINTZYʼS SECOND ADVANCE Situation 11 January 1797 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  81. 81. Alvintzy originally advanced in five columns: 5 This advance had been designed to bring major weight on Joubert, then at La Corona. 1 2 3 4 Liptay 1 3/4 1/2 1/4 0 1 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  82. 82. Alvintzy originally advanced in five columns: 5 LA CORONA 1 2 3 4 Liptay 1 3/4 1/2 1/4 0 1 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  83. 83. Alvintzy originally advanced in five columns: 5 Joubert, afraid of being enveloped, fell back to the town of Rivoli during the night of 13-14 January. 1 2 3 4 Liptay 1 3/4 1/2 1/4 0 1 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  84. 84. Alvintzy originally advanced in five columns: 5 Joubert, afraid of being enveloped, fell back to the town of Rivoli during the night of 13-14 January. 1 2 3 4 Liptay RIVOLI 1 3/4 1/2 1/4 0 1 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  85. 85. Alvintzy originally advanced in five columns: 5 That same night, the Austrian columns moved to the positions indicated by the open red symbols 1 Napoleon, arriving at Rivoli at 0200 14 Jan surveyed the situation. By now he had great situational awareness. The night was clear, the Austrian campfires lit up the mountains. He 2 3 4 ordered Joubert to seize the key feature, the Trombalora Heights. Liptay TROMBALORA HEIGHTS RIVOLI 1 3/4 1/2 1/4 0 1 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  86. 86. Alvintzy originally advanced in five columns: 5 That same night, the Austrian columns moved to the positions indicated by the open red symbols 1 2 3 4 Liptay TROMBALORA HEIGHTS RIVOLI 1 3/4 1/2 1/4 0 1 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  87. 87. panorama of Rivoli West (W) The views were taken from Monte Ceredello, roughly in the centre of the French positions. The compass directions given for each photograph are only approximate. Saturday, September 18, 2010
  88. 88. panorama of Rivoli View along the Trombalora Heights, the main French defensive position. West (W) The views were taken from Monte Ceredello, roughly in the centre of the French positions. The compass directions given for each photograph are only approximate. Saturday, September 18, 2010
  89. 89. panorama of Rivoli Looking towards Caprino. WNW Saturday, September 18, 2010
  90. 90. panorama of Rivoli View towards southern end of Monte Baldo. NW Saturday, September 18, 2010
  91. 91. panorama of Rivoli The area where the 14th Line infantr y regiment must have placed its guns. NNW Saturday, September 18, 2010
  92. 92. panorama of Rivoli Looking towards La Corona N Saturday, September 18, 2010
  93. 93. panorama of Rivoli The ridge along which Joubert's troops retreated, and where they fought for most of the battle. NNE Saturday, September 18, 2010
  94. 94. panorama of Rivoli Looking directly towards San Marco. The higher peaks are on the far side of the River Adige. E Saturday, September 18, 2010
  95. 95. panorama of Rivoli The ridge continues ESE Saturday, September 18, 2010
  96. 96. panorama of Rivoli The terrain between Monte Ceredello and the route down into the Adige valley. SE Saturday, September 18, 2010
  97. 97. Between 0600 and 0700 Liptay attacked vigorously, slightly overlapping the French left LA CORONA flank. Immediately, the 85th and 29th Demi- brigades, on Joubert’s left, broke and started a stampede. Liptay RIVOLI Saturday, September 18, 2010
  98. 98. LA CORONA Fortunatel y, the 14th Demi-brigade, at Joubert’s center, steadied by Berthier, drew back its left flank and held firm. Liptay RIVOLI Saturday, September 18, 2010
  99. 99. LA CORONA Now (at 1000) Massena’s two leading demi- brigades came panting up through Rivoli, and Liptay were quickly put in with the bayonet to clear Trombalora Heights. This they did with dispatch….Most of Joubert’s retreating left wing apparently rallied to join them. RIVOLI Saturday, September 18, 2010
  100. 100. LA CORONA Liptay Meanwhile Joubert had trouble on his right RIVOLI In this crisis, with the French rear seriousl y threatened, someone (apparently Berthier again) hastily massed 15 guns to smash the head of Quasdanovich’s column. Amid this growing jumble of fleeing troops and of artillery still trying to go forward, some ammunition wagons suddenly exploded. The retreat became a headlong flight. Saturday, September 18, 2010
  101. 101. LA CORONA Liptay Meanwhile Joubert had trouble on his right RIVOLI In this crisis, with the French rear seriousl y threatened, someone (apparently Berthier again) hastily massed 15 guns to smash the head of Quasdanovich’s column. Amid this growing jumble of fleeing troops and of artillery still trying to go forward, some ammunition wagons suddenly exploded. The retreat became a headlong flight. Saturday, September 18, 2010
  102. 102. The Battle of Rivoli Baron Louis Albert Bacler d'Albe. Saturday, September 18, 2010
  103. 103. Vue de Bassin de Rivoli entre les monts Corona et Pipolo. 25 Nivose An V detail from a watercolor done by combat painter Giuseppi Pietro Bagetti 99.5cm x 59cm Saturday, September 18, 2010
  104. 104. closeup of Bagetti’s watercolor Saturday, September 18, 2010
  105. 105. closeup of Bagetti’s watercolor Saturday, September 18, 2010
  106. 106. closeup of Bagetti’s watercolor Saturday, September 18, 2010
  107. 107. closeup of Bagetti’s watercolor Saturday, September 18, 2010
  108. 108. Some 28,000 men had advanced with Alvintzy from Austria as the new year began; on the 16th, a bare 7,000 streamed frantically back towards the Brenner pass. Of the remainder, 13,000 were prisoners in French hands; the others were stragglers, deserters or dead. BATTLE OF RIVOLI Operations afternoon of 14 January 1797 and Pursuit after the Battle, 15 January Saturday, September 18, 2010
  109. 109. ALVINTZY’S SECOND ADVANCE Situation Morning of 16 January Saturday, September 18, 2010
  110. 110. Würmser’s fate in Mantua was now sealed. He still held out, but it was obvious that he could hardly do so much longer. It would be spring before Austria could assemble and dispatch another army of relief; hunger and disease, Würmsers' immediate foes, would triumph before then. On 2 February, in desperate straits, he finally surrendered to Serurier. During late January, February and e a r l y Ma r c h , t h e p r o m i s e d reinforcements began to reach Bonaparte, giving him a field army of at least 40,000. He was now ready to seize the strategic offensive. ALVINTZY’S SECOND ADVANCE Situation Morning of 16 January Saturday, September 18, 2010
  111. 111. Bonaparte had won Rivoli at a moment when the Directory, shaking under new defeats along the Rhine and growing political opposition at home, had been willing to make peace on bargain terms. Now, its members saw unlimited prospects of further conquests and loot, and all thoughts of peace were discarded. The main French effort would be shifted from the Rhine to northern Italy; Bonaparte would be reinforced and given a free hand for an advance on Vienna; Moreau would advance into southern Germany to clear the Tyrol and cover Bonaparte’s left flank. Believing that a decisive victory over Bonaparte would completely capsize the reeling French war effort, the Austrians decided to stand on the defensive in Germany and concentrate an army of 90,000 in northern Italy. The Archduke Charles, conqueror of Jourdan and Moreau, was placed in command. Esposito & Elting, commentary on MAP 30 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  112. 112. When Charles reached Italy in February, he found some 44,000 regulars and militia on hand--mostly survivors of recent defeats, too disorganized and demoralized for another offensive. As the promised GRAZ reinforcements slowly trickled in, the Archduke, forced on the defensive, disposed his troops as shown by the open dashed symbols to cover the routes leading to the heart of Austria. ITALIAN CAMPAIGNS, 1796-97 CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE ARCHDUKE CHARLES Situation 11 March 1797, and Operations 11-25 March Saturday, September 18, 2010
  113. 113. When Charles reached Italy in February, he found some 44,000 regulars and militia on hand--mostly survivors of recent defeats, too disorganized and demoralized for another offensive. As the promised GRAZ reinforcements slowly trickled in, the Archduke, forced on the defensive, disposed his troops as shown by the open dashed symbols to cover the routes leading to the heart of Austria. TARVISO Of the 50,000 reinforcements promised by the Directory, 23,000, mostly seasoned troops, had arrived by early March. A series of skirmishes soon gave ITALIAN CAMPAIGNS, Bonaparte a clear picture of the Austrian positions and 1796-97 their low state of morale. He decided to attack at once CAMPAIGN AGAINST THE with the troops on hand. On 11 March he moved ARCHDUKE CHARLES forward in an effort to cut the Austrians off from the Situation 11 March 1797, and Operations 11-25 March Tarviso Pass. Saturday, September 18, 2010
  114. 114. Though the forces confronting Bonaparte were weak, there were stil l 80,000 Austrians along the Rhine. If the French there remained motionless, the Austrians could easily shift troops from the Rhine, overwhelm Joubert, and drive down the Adige to cut the Army of Italy from its roots. To gain time Bonaparte requested an armistice. Saturday, September 18, 2010
  115. 115. Massena, the wily mountain f i g h t e r, l e d t h e Fre n c h advance, utilizing his superior numbers to maneuver and batter the Archduke back through Neumarkt (1 Apr) to Leoben (7 Apr) Though the forces confronting Bonaparte were weak, there were stil l 80,000 Austrians along the Rhine. If the French there remained motionless, the Austrians could easily shift troops from the Rhine, overwhelm Joubert, and drive down the Adige to cut the Army of Italy from its roots. To gain time Bonaparte requested an armistice. Saturday, September 18, 2010
  116. 116. News that Bonaparte might bring France peace having a ro u s e d p o t e n t p o p u l a r f e e l i n g i n h i s f a v o r, t h e Directory reluctantly gave him full powers to treat. Massena, the wily mountain f i g h t e r, l e d t h e Fre n c h advance, utilizing his superior numbers to maneuver and batter the Archduke back through Neumarkt (1 Apr) to Leoben (7 Apr) Though the forces confronting Bonaparte were weak, there were stil l 80,000 Austrians along the Rhine. If the French there remained motionless, the Austrians could easily shift troops from the Rhine, overwhelm Joubert, and drive down the Adige to cut the Army of Italy from its roots. To gain time Bonaparte requested an armistice. Saturday, September 18, 2010
  117. 117. Johann Peter Beaulieu de Jozsef Alvinczi von Borberek Marconnay 1735-1810 1725-1819 Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser Archduke Charles von Habsburg 1724-1797 1771-1847 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  118. 118. Address to the Troops on the Conclusion of the First Italian Campaign, March, 1797 "Soldiers: The campaign just ended has given you imperishable renown. You have been victorious in fourteen pitched battles and seventy actions. You have taken more than a hundred thousand prisoners, five hundred field-pieces, two thousand heavy guns, and four pontoon trains. You have maintained the army during the whole campaign. In addition to this, you have sent six mi%ions of do%ars to the public treasury, and have enriched the National Museum with three hundred masterpieces of the arts of ancient and modern Italy, which it has required thirty centuries to produce. You have conquered the finest countries in Europe. The French flag waves for the first time upon the Adriatic opposite to Macedon, the native country of Alexander [the Great]. Sti% higher destinies await you. I know that you wi% not prove unworthy of them. Of a% the foes that conspired to stifle the Republic in its birth, The Austrian Emperor alone remains before you. To obtain peace we must seek it in the heart of his hereditary State. You wi% there find a brave people, whose religion and customs you wi% respect, and whose prosperity you wi% hold sacred. Remember that it is liberty you carry to the brave Hungarian nation." Saturday, September 18, 2010
  119. 119. • 17 October 1797-the Treaty of Campo Formio cemented Bonaparte’s Italian triumph • Nice and Savoy are ceded by Sardinia-Piedmont • the rest of the Riviera and the Republic of Genoa become the Ligurian Republic • the Cisalpine Republic contains Lombardy (formerly Austrian), the western territory of the Venetian Republic and several smaller states • both republics are French satellites • the former Republic of Venice, including Istria and Dalmatia, becomes an Austrian territory • Austria cedes the Austrian Netherlands and the Rhine becomes the eastern border of France Saturday, September 18, 2010
  120. 120. The Cisalpine Republic The Cisalpine Republic was for many years under the domination of the Empire of Austria. The French Republic acquired it by right of conquest. She renounces dominion over it on this day, and the Cisalpine Republic is now &ee and independent. Recognized by France and by the Emperor, as it wi% soon be likewise by a% of Europe. The Executive Directory of the French Republic, not content with having expended its influence and the victories of the republican armies to ensure the political existence of the Cisalpine Republic, pushes more faraway its promptnesses; and being convinced that, if liberty is first among a% good things, a revolution leaves behind itself the worst of a% scourges, now gives to the Cisalpine people its Constitution, which is the result of the knowledge of the most enlightened nation. From a military regime, the Cisalpine people must therefore pass to a constitutional regime. In order that this passage sha% be effected without disruption, without anarchy, the Executive Directory has decided only this once to appoint the members of the government and of the legislative branch, so that the people sha% not, until one year, appoint officials to fi% vacant offices according to the Constitution. In reality, no republics have existed in Italy for many years. The holy fire of liberty was stifled, and the most beautiful part of Europe lived under the yoke of foreigners. It is up to the Cisalpine Republic to show to the world with its wisdom and energy, and with the good organization of its armies, that modern Italy has not degenerated, and that it is sti% worthy of &eedom. Signed, Bonaparte. —Preamble to the Constitution of the Cisalpine Republic, Messidor 20, l’an V (July 7, 1797). Saturday, September 18, 2010
  121. 121. The Cisalpine Republic Saturday, September 18, 2010
  122. 122. The Cisalpine Republic Saturday, September 18, 2010
  123. 123. before the conquest VENETIAN REPUBLIC Saturday, September 18, 2010
  124. 124. after CEDED TO AUSTRIA Saturday, September 18, 2010
  125. 125. America’s Quasi-war with France Saturday, September 18, 2010
  126. 126. America’s Quasi-war with France USS Constellation vs Insurgente; 9 February 1799 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  127. 127. The U.S. Naval Academy, Memorial Hall (the heart of Bancroft Hall, built 1901-1906) Saturday, September 18, 2010
  128. 128. The U.S. Naval Academy, Memorial Hall (the heart of Bancroft Hall, built 1901-1906) Saturday, September 18, 2010
  129. 129. The U.S. Naval Academy, Memorial Hall (the heart of Bancroft Hall, built 1901-1906) Saturday, September 18, 2010
  130. 130. The U.S. Naval Academy, Memorial Hall (the heart of Bancroft Hall, built 1901-1906) Saturday, September 18, 2010
  131. 131. The U.S. Naval Academy, Memorial Hall (the heart of Bancroft Hall, built 1901-1906) Saturday, September 18, 2010
  132. 132. The U.S. Naval Academy, Memorial Hall (the heart of Bancroft Hall, built 1901-1906) Saturday, September 18, 2010
  133. 133. The U.S. Naval Academy, Memorial Hall (the heart of Bancroft Hall, built 1901-1906) Saturday, September 18, 2010
  134. 134. British economic-diplomatic-military-naval strategy ...the British blockade. The English refused to allow neutral flags [ships flying the flag of a neutral country] to cover enemy merchandise, and, in order to seize the merchandise as well as contraband of war, arrogated to themselves the right of search on the high seas. In reality, they granted all sorts of licenses which considerably attenuated the harshness of these rules, because they were aimed much less at ruining the enemy’s military power than at enabling the English merchants to earn money in his place. From this point of view, there was no objection to even selling to the enemy in order to obtain his currency; the blockade was mercantile rather than warlike. Lefebvre, p. 358 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  135. 135. British economic-diplomatic-military-naval strategy For twenty-three years, almost without interruption, the Royal Navy maintained a blockade off the French coast ...the British blockade. The English refused to allow neutral flags [ships flying the flag of a neutral country] to cover enemy merchandise, and, in order to seize the merchandise as well as contraband of war, arrogated to themselves the right of search on the high seas. In reality, they granted all sorts of licenses which considerably attenuated the harshness of these rules, because they were aimed much less at ruining the enemy’s military power than at enabling the English merchants to earn money in his place. From this point of view, there was no objection to even selling to the enemy in order to obtain his currency; the blockade was mercantile rather than warlike. Lefebvre, p. 358 Saturday, September 18, 2010
  136. 136. The three-legged stool of British Foreign Policy 1 Maintain the 2 Keep the mouth Balance of Power of Scheldt (the in Europe Netherlands) in 1 2 weak/friendly hands 3 3 Seapower Saturday, September 18, 2010
  137. 137. French retaliation • 1793- the beginning of war with Britain, the French navy had ventured out to protect their trade as best they could and commissioned privateers to seize enemy merchant ships • 1795-America signed the Jay Treaty to resolve disputes remaining from the war for independence. France interpreted as British-American alliance and soon began seizing American merchant ships, over 300 in the first two years • December 1796-Hoche was ordered to embark ships for Ireland to aid a rebellion there by the United Irishmen. Only a storm brought ruin the next year, as we have seen Saturday, September 18, 2010
  138. 138. French retaliation • 1793- the beginning of war with Britain, the French navy had ventured out to protect their trade as best they could and commissioned privateers to seize enemy merchant ships • 1795-America signed the Jay Treaty to resolve disputes remaining from the war for independence. France interpreted as British-American alliance and soon began seizing American merchant ships, over 300 in the first two years • December 1796-Hoche was ordered to embark ships for Ireland to aid a rebellion there by the United Irishmen. Only a storm brought ruin the next year, as we have seen Saturday, September 18, 2010
  139. 139. French retaliation • 1793- the beginning of war with Britain, the French navy had ventured out to protect their trade as best they could and commissioned privateers to seize enemy merchant ships • 1795-America signed the Jay Treaty to resolve disputes remaining from the war for independence. France interpreted as British-American alliance and soon began seizing American merchant ships, over 300 in the first two years • December 1796-Hoche was ordered to embark ships for Ireland to aid a rebellion there by the United Irishmen. Only a storm brought ruin the next year, as we have seen • 1796-97-the XYZ Affair involved three American diplomats, CC Pinckney, Elbridge Gerry and John Marshall sent by President Adams to gain satisfaction for the seizures. They were told by French agents, the mysterious monsieurs “X,” “Y” and “Z,” that a bribe to Foreign Minister Talleyrand of $250,000 was a necessary preliminary. Then a $10 million loan to the French government • “Not one sixpence, sir! Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute!” -Charles Cotesworth Pinckney Saturday, September 18, 2010
  140. 140. Saturday, September 18, 2010

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