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Ancien Régime
The Old Order; Development
  of the French Monarchy
Ancien Régime              17th century
                               print of
                              Louis XIV
  ...
Celui qui n'a pas vécu au dix-huitième siècle avant la Révolution ne connaît pas la douceur de vivre
("Those who haven't l...
le Peuple sous l’ancien Regime
The people under the Ancien Regime
Major topics for this session

• Origins

• Medieval Monarchy

• Development of the Nation State

• Sun King

• Great War ...
origins
origins




 The education of the children of Clovis,
      1861--Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema
Vercingétorix jette ses armes aux pieds de Jules César, 1899, par Lionel-Noël Royer.
Vercingetorix flings his sword at the ...
Gauls become Franks or Frankish people


• the Franci or gens Francorum (Lat.) were a West Germanic tribe living north
 an...
Bateme de Clovis
par Sainte Remy
      497

 Baptism of Clovis by Saint
         Remigius
            497




            ...
Bateme de Clovis
par Sainte Remy
      497

 Baptism of Clovis by Saint
         Remigius
            497




            ...
From Clovis to
Charlemagne
   481-814
Batai"e de Poitiers, en octobre 732
          (Battle of Tours, October 732)
Carl von Steuben (1788-1856) painted between ...
Charlemagne (742-768-800-814)
                       CAROLVS MAGNVS or Karl der Grosse




• 742-born the son of King Pépi...
Charlemagne (742-768-800-814)
                       CAROLVS MAGNVS or Karl der Grosse




• 742-born the son of King Pépi...
Division of the
  Holy Roman
Empire under the
Treaty of Verdun,
       843
Les Capétiens (the Capetian dynasty)

The first Capetian monarch was Hugh Capet (c.940–996), a Frankish nobleman from the
Î...
Periodization of Western Civilization
   Ancient History
Third Millennium BC (BCE)
     introduction of writing
          ...
Periodization of Medieval History
Dark Ages
  5th to 9th c.s
    (476-800)
  fall of Rome
to Charlemagne

                ...
the Two Swords of Pope Gelasius I
           letter to the Byzantine Emperor Anastasius in 494




 the Lords Spiritual
  ...
the Two Swords of Pope Gelasius I
           letter to the Byzantine Emperor Anastasius in 494




 the Lords Spiritual   ...
the Two Swords of Pope Gelasius I
                        letter to the Byzantine Emperor Anastasius in 494




There are ...
the Three Estates of France
                                                              percent in
                     ...
la Noblesse--feudalism
                               • lord (seigneur or liege)
                               • vassal (...
Medieval Monarchy
Très Riches Heures du Duc
                    de Berry (The Very Rich
Medieval Monarchy   Hours of the Duke of
           ...
Le Tiers État
                               the Manorial System



• demesne (demeine, O.F., from dominiun, Lat.)
• manor...
Generalized Plan
 of an English fief
 note the three-fields crop
  rotation system of the
     late Middle Ages
Krak des Chevaliers
one of the best preserved castles in the world, expanded by the knights Hospitalers,
                 ...
Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres
the last of at least five churches built and rebuilt after fire on this site,
            ...
Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres
the last of at least five churches built and rebuilt after fire on this site,
            ...
Medieval cities




Palace & Public Square




                             Lutece/Paris in 508
                    (when ...
ca. 1180
                               Le Temple




Chateau du Louvre




                                     Notre-Dam...
ca. 1223
            after the reign of Philippe Auguste
                    population 150,000 (?)




Les Ha"es
ca. 1422 to 1589



                                      Temple

                                                      Fa...
Hotel-de-Sens
built between 1475 and 1507, one of three remaining medieval buildings
Stadter Luft macht frei (City air makes a man free)

• medieval cities either grew upon the remains of ancient cities or o...
the Commercial Revolution; 12th-18th centuries

• 1095-1250--crusades led to the rise of banking, money economy, and
 dema...
Development of the Nation State
François I of France - Jean and
François Clouet (c.1535, oil on panel)
(Louvre).
How to create a nation from bickering feudal nobles



• one Lord must emerge supreme to exercise state sovereignty, the
 ...
Bombard-Mortar of the Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem Rhodes, 1480–1500. Founded at
the request of Pierre d'Aubusson, t...
Bombard-Mortar of the Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem Rhodes, 1480–1500. Founded at
      the request of Pierre d'Aubus...
By the 15th century, castle walls
proved no match for the crude
artillery which could be hired
by the besiegers
Le diverse et
artificiose machine
del capitano
1588 engraving
by Agostino Ramelli
How to create a nation from bickering feudal nobles



• one Lord must emerge supreme
• castles can no longer provide safe...
Burgundy


  source of contention between
France and the Habsburg Empire
    for the next two centuries
Burgundy


  source of contention between
France and the Habsburg Empire
    for the next two centuries




              ...
How to create a nation from bickering feudal nobles

• one Lord must emerge supreme
• castles can no longer provide safe r...
France’s first Renaissance monarch
                             • contemporary and ally of Suleiman the
                   ...
Francis receiving the last breath of Leonardo, painted by Ingres in 1818
Wars of Religion; 1517-1648
Wars of Religion; 1517-1648
Wars of Religion; 1517-1648
Wars of Religion; 1517-1648
Wars of Religion; 1517-1648
Wars of Religion; 1517-1648
                    French Wars of Religion;    1559-1598


• 1559-accidental jousting death o...
Paris vaut bien une messe
France during the Thirty Years War; 1618-1648

• last of the “wars of religion,” it was also about
 the balance of power i...
Le Roi Soleil
          The Sun King
          1638-1643-1661-1715
seventy-two years, three months, eighteen days
Le Roi Soleil
                                                 by Hyacinthe
          The Sun King                        ...
The history of the Capetian monarchy had in fact been largely the story of
its struggle against the aristocracy. Sometimes...
The Fronde
                                                                                            A civil war in Fran...
Louis as Jupiter conquering
        the Fronde
       artist unknown
     painted 1655-1667 (?)
"L'État, c'est moi" ("I am the State")
                        frequently attributed to him, though considered an inaccura...
Fouquet’s grandiose château
     Vaux-le-Vicomte
built 1658-1661, 55 km southeast of
     Fouquet’sParis
                grandiose château
          Vaux-le-Vicomte
built 1658-1661, 55 km southeast of
     Fouquet’sParis
                grandiose château
          Vaux-le-Vicomte
Fouquet’s successor, Jean-Baptiste Colbert

                      • like Fouquet, one of Cardinal Mazarin’s
              ...
Fouquet’s successor, Jean-Baptiste Colbert

                      • like Fouquet, one of Cardinal Mazarin’s
              ...
Fouquet’s successor, Jean-Baptiste Colbert

                      • like Fouquet, one of Cardinal Mazarin’s
              ...
“The art of taxation consists in plucking the goose in such a manner as to obtain the
       largest amount of feathers wi...
principles of Mercantilism


I.Bullionism-the true measure of national wealth is the amount of
  precious metal in the nat...
divine right absolutism

                          • le roi, Jesus-Christ et l’Eglise, Dieu en ces trois noms
            ...
Bossuet’s political theories

We have already seen that all power is of God. The ruler, adds St. Paul, "is the minister of...
Louis’ Minister of War
• 1666-Louvois succeeded his father, Michel
 le Tellier, as Minister of War

• 1667-68--almost imme...
How to fortify in the age of cannons?



• Marshall of France, foremost military
 engineer of his age

• famed for his ski...
Vauban’s answer to the castle vs gunpowder
Vauban’s answer to the castle vs gunpowder
Vauban’s answer to the castle vs gunpowder
Vauban’s answer to the castle vs gunpowder
Vauban’s answer to the castle vs gunpowder
Vauban’s answer to the castle vs gunpowder
Vauban’s answer to the castle vs gunpowder
Vauban’s answer to the castle vs gunpowder
Vauban’s answer to the castle vs gunpowder
Vauban’s answer to the castle vs gunpowder
Louis XIV’s four wars

1.War of Devolution (1667-68) by his marriage to the Spanish princess,
  he claimed much of the Spa...
warfare as siegecraft
warfare as siegecraft
trenches are used in siegecraft to
encircle and approach the besieged
           fortress cities

     Louis XIV in a tren...
Note the trenches used to approach the walls
going to war in style




Louis XIV. and Maria Teresa in Arras 1667 during the War of Devolution
                    Adam ...
Louis XIV’s four wars (cont.)
3.War of the League of Augsburg (1688-1697) the “first world war”
  called King William’s War...
world war
world war
world war
   1700
world war




1713-Provisions of the Treaty of Utrecht
French expansion; 1552-1798
the Austrian
Netherlands
Great War for the Empire
Great War for the Empire




The Death of Wolfe by BenjaminWest,   1770
far flung riches
far flung riches
far flung riches
far flung riches
far flung riches
far flung riches
far flung riches
far flung riches
far flung riches
far flung riches
far flung riches
King George’s War; 1744-48-- War of the Austrian
                           Succession; 1740-48


• 1739-The War of Jenkin...
Louisbourg; the Gibraltar of New France
Louisbourg; the Gibraltar of New France

          • 1745-as the war progressed, Massachusetts took the
           lead in...
Louisbourg; the Gibraltar of New France

          • 1745-as the war progressed, Massachusetts took the
           lead in...
Louisbourg; the Gibraltar of New France

          • 1745-as the war progressed, Massachusetts took the
           lead in...
French and Indian War; 1754-63--Seven Years War;
                                  1756-63



• the climax of Gipson’s “Gr...
The Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
maps of the theater of the siege of Quebec
maps of the theater of the siege of Quebec
maps of the theater of the siege of Quebec
maps of the campaign; June-September, 1759
maps of the campaign; June-September, 1759
maps of the battle of September 13, 1759
maps of the battle of September 13, 1759
maps of the battle of September 13, 1759
maps of the battle of September 13, 1759
maps of the battle of September 13, 1759
maps of the battle of September 13, 1759
illustrations of the Battle of Quebec, 1759
illustrations of the Battle of Quebec, 1759
illustrations of the Battle of Quebec, 1759
illustrations of the Battle of Quebec, 1759
illustrations of the Battle of Quebec, 1759
Major General James Wolfe; 1727-13 September 1759
• 1743-age 15, began his career in the War of
 the Austrian Succession a...
Louis-Joseph de Montcalm-Gozon, Marquis de Saint-Veran; 1712 – September 14, 1759



                                • lik...
both are memorialized at Quebec’s Assembly building
JE ME SOUVIENS


both are memorialized at Quebec’s Assembly building
1763-the Peace of Paris

• Britain obtained all of New France (Canada) and other gains in India and
 the West Indies


• b...
France and the American Revolution
France and the American Revolution




 Washington and Lafayette at Mount Vernon, 1784
   by Thomas Prichard Rossiter and ...
The government crisis went back to the American war. The revolt of the
English colonies may in fact be considered the prin...
Boston’s Tea Party
   16 December 1773
the Rape of Boston
 the Boston Port Bill, 1774
19th of April, ’75
  “Here the embattled farmers stood,
and fired the shot heard round the world”
Bunker Hill
 17 June 1775
Roderigue Hortalez and
           Company


In early 1776 Beaumarchais was authorized by
Louis XV to set up a fictitious Fr...
Minister to France; 1776-1785
              • celebrated worldwide as a natural
               philosopher and sage, he wa...
Minister to France; 1776-1785
              • celebrated worldwide as a natural
               philosopher and sage, he wa...
Minister to France; 1776-1785
              • celebrated worldwide as a natural
               philosopher and sage, he wa...
John Paul Jones; “father of the American Navy”
• 14 February 1778-when he sailed Ranger
 into Brest, nine days after Frank...
The Crypt beneath the Naval Academy Chapel
      Teddy Roosevelt’s monument to navalism
       brought home from Paris, 19...
Washington’s surrogate son

                                                 • December 1776-age 19, arranged in Paris
   ...
Battle of the Virginia Capes; September 1781
     Admiral De Grasse defeats Admiral Graves
Washington and Rochambeau
     at Yorktown; October 1781
Cornwallis surrenders
to the French and American commands
           by John Trumbull
French Revenge
but at a Fatal Cost
"Give me leave, my dear General to present you with a picture of the Basti"e, just as it
looked a few days a-er I had orde...
the key as it sits today at
     Mount Vernon
French Revolution; session i, Ancien Regime
French Revolution; session i, Ancien Regime
French Revolution; session i, Ancien Regime
French Revolution; session i, Ancien Regime
French Revolution; session i, Ancien Regime
French Revolution; session i, Ancien Regime
French Revolution; session i, Ancien Regime
French Revolution; session i, Ancien Regime
French Revolution; session i, Ancien Regime
French Revolution; session i, Ancien Regime
French Revolution; session i, Ancien Regime
French Revolution; session i, Ancien Regime
French Revolution; session i, Ancien Regime
French Revolution; session i, Ancien Regime
French Revolution; session i, Ancien Regime
French Revolution; session i, Ancien Regime
French Revolution; session i, Ancien Regime
French Revolution; session i, Ancien Regime
French Revolution; session i, Ancien Regime
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French Revolution; session i, Ancien Regime

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This presentation traces the development of the Old Order in France from Caesar's Gallic Wars till 1789.

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Transcript of "French Revolution; session i, Ancien Regime"

  1. 1. Ancien Régime The Old Order; Development of the French Monarchy
  2. 2. Ancien Régime 17th century print of Louis XIV as the sun The Old Order; Development of the French Monarchy
  3. 3. Celui qui n'a pas vécu au dix-huitième siècle avant la Révolution ne connaît pas la douceur de vivre ("Those who haven't lived in the eighteenth century before the Revolution do not know the sweetness of living") Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord 1754-1838
  4. 4. le Peuple sous l’ancien Regime The people under the Ancien Regime
  5. 5. Major topics for this session • Origins • Medieval Monarchy • Development of the Nation State • Sun King • Great War for the Empire • France and the American Revolution
  6. 6. origins
  7. 7. origins The education of the children of Clovis, 1861--Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema
  8. 8. Vercingétorix jette ses armes aux pieds de Jules César, 1899, par Lionel-Noël Royer. Vercingetorix flings his sword at the feet of Julius Caesar
  9. 9. Gauls become Franks or Frankish people • the Franci or gens Francorum (Lat.) were a West Germanic tribe living north and east of the Lower Rhine, first attested in the third century • 3rd-5th century-some raided Roman territory, others joined the Roman troops in Gaul • only the Salian Franks formed a kingdom on Roman-held soil that was acknowledged by the Romans after 357 • 5th century-as West Roman authority collapsed, all the Frankish tribes were united under the Merovingian kings (Clovis, c.466-481-511) • this Salian political elite would be one of the most active forces in spreading Christianity over western Europe
  10. 10. Bateme de Clovis par Sainte Remy 497 Baptism of Clovis by Saint Remigius 497 statue in front of Reims Cathedral, 1896
  11. 11. Bateme de Clovis par Sainte Remy 497 Baptism of Clovis by Saint Remigius 497 statue in front of Reims Cathedral, 1896 painting c. 1500
  12. 12. From Clovis to Charlemagne 481-814
  13. 13. Batai"e de Poitiers, en octobre 732 (Battle of Tours, October 732) Carl von Steuben (1788-1856) painted between 1834 and 1837
  14. 14. Charlemagne (742-768-800-814) CAROLVS MAGNVS or Karl der Grosse • 742-born the son of King Pépin le Bref (Pippin the Short) III, grandson of Charles Martel, victor of Tours. Beginning of the Carolingians • 768-at his father’s death he became king of the Franks, began his conquests Karl the Great & Pépin le Bossu 10th century copy of a lost original, which was made back between 829 and 836 in Fulda for Eberhard von Friaul
  15. 15. Charlemagne (742-768-800-814) CAROLVS MAGNVS or Karl der Grosse • 742-born the son of King Pépin le Bref (Pippin the Short) III, grandson of Charles Martel, victor of Tours. Beginning of the Carolingians • 768-at his father’s death he became king of the Franks, began his conquests • 25 December 800--crowned as Holy Roman Emperor in Aachen (Aix la Chape"e) • 814-at his death the empire is divided between his sons and interminable wars follow during the early middle ages (9th-11th centuries)
  16. 16. Division of the Holy Roman Empire under the Treaty of Verdun, 843
  17. 17. Les Capétiens (the Capetian dynasty) The first Capetian monarch was Hugh Capet (c.940–996), a Frankish nobleman from the Île-de-France, who, following the death of Louis V of France (c.967–987) – the last Carolingian King – secured the throne of France by election. He then proceeded to make it hereditary in his family, by securing the election and coronation of his son, Robert II (972– 1031), as co-King. The throne thus passed securely to Robert on his father's death, who followed the same custom – as did many of his early successors. The Capetian Kings were initially weak rulers of the Kingdom – they directly ruled only small holdings in the Île-de-France and the Orléanais, all of which were plagued with disorder; the rest of France was controlled by potentates such as the Duke of Normandy, the Count of Blois, the Duke of Burgundy (himself a member of the Capetian Dynasty after 1032) and the Duke of Aquitaine (all of whom facing to a greater or lesser extent the same problems of controlling their subordinates). The House of Capet was, however, fortunate enough to have the support of the Church … Wikipedia
  18. 18. Periodization of Western Civilization Ancient History Third Millennium BC (BCE) introduction of writing to 476 AD (CE) fall of the West Roman Empire Medieval History 476 AD to 1500 AD Renaissance 1450s-printing, fall of Constantinople 1485-Tudor monarchy 1492-expulsion of the Moors from Spain Modern History Early Modern Europe 1500-1815
  19. 19. Periodization of Medieval History Dark Ages 5th to 9th c.s (476-800) fall of Rome to Charlemagne Early Medieval 9th through 11th c.s (800-1095-1099) to the First Crusade High Middle Ages 12th & 13th c.s (1100-1300) Late Medieval 14th & 15th (1300-1500)
  20. 20. the Two Swords of Pope Gelasius I letter to the Byzantine Emperor Anastasius in 494 the Lords Spiritual the higher clergy
  21. 21. the Two Swords of Pope Gelasius I letter to the Byzantine Emperor Anastasius in 494 the Lords Spiritual the Lords Temporal the higher clergy the nobility
  22. 22. the Two Swords of Pope Gelasius I letter to the Byzantine Emperor Anastasius in 494 There are two powers, august Emperor, by which this world is chiefly ruled, namely, the sacred authority of the priests and the royal power. Of these that of the priests is the more weighty, since they have to render an account for even the kings of men in the divine judgment. You are also aware, dear son, that while you are permitted honorably to rule over human kind, yet in things divine you bow your head humbly before the leaders of the clergy and await from their hands the means of your salvation. In the reception and proper disposition of the heavenly mysteries you recognize that you should be subordinate rather than superior to the religious order, and that in these matters you depend on their judgment rather than wish to force them to follow your will. letter to the Byzantine Emperor Anastasius in 494 the Lords Spiritual the Lords Temporal the higher clergy the nobility
  23. 23. the Three Estates of France percent in 1789 First Estate the Lords Spiritual Cardinal Archbishops, Archbishops, 0.5% Bishops, Abbots,even lower clergy Second Estate the Lords Temporal King, Princes of the Blood, Dukes, 1.5% Counts, Marquises, nobility of the sword, nobility of the robe Third Estate 98% 1st 2nd 3rd
  24. 24. la Noblesse--feudalism • lord (seigneur or liege) • vassal (vasseu) • fief (feodum, Lat.) land held by the vassal, conferred by the lord • homage • fealty • diffidatio • sovereignty (the monopoly of justice and power) 10th century representation of Roland swearing fealty • sovereign liege lord (king)
  25. 25. Medieval Monarchy
  26. 26. Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (The Very Rich Medieval Monarchy Hours of the Duke of Berry) commissioned around 1410
  27. 27. Le Tiers État the Manorial System • demesne (demeine, O.F., from dominiun, Lat.) • manor • seigneur (lord, either 1st or 2nd estate) • serf • vi"ein • cottagers • bordars • slaves (sclavus, Lat.)
  28. 28. Generalized Plan of an English fief note the three-fields crop rotation system of the late Middle Ages
  29. 29. Krak des Chevaliers one of the best preserved castles in the world, expanded by the knights Hospitalers, 1150-1250 on the modern Syrian-Lebanese border
  30. 30. Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres the last of at least five churches built and rebuilt after fire on this site, 9th c. to 1260
  31. 31. Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Chartres the last of at least five churches built and rebuilt after fire on this site, 9th c. to 1260
  32. 32. Medieval cities Palace & Public Square Lutece/Paris in 508 (when Clovis established it as his capital) as drawn by Jean-Baptiste d’Anville in 1705
  33. 33. ca. 1180 Le Temple Chateau du Louvre Notre-Dame de Paris (begun 1163)
  34. 34. ca. 1223 after the reign of Philippe Auguste population 150,000 (?) Les Ha"es
  35. 35. ca. 1422 to 1589 Temple Faubourg St Antoine Tuileries Palais & Jardin Bastion de St Antoine (later known as the Bastille) Louvre 1370-1383
  36. 36. Hotel-de-Sens built between 1475 and 1507, one of three remaining medieval buildings
  37. 37. Stadter Luft macht frei (City air makes a man free) • medieval cities either grew upon the remains of ancient cities or out of the villages huddled outside castle walls • castles were built upon high ground (berg burg, Ger., bourg, Fr.) • the city people were thus burgers or bourgeois • in the Holy Roman Empire, cities gained charters granting certain liberties from the feudal lord. He was willing to grant these because of the taxes, stemming from commerce, which the city paid • a famous such liberty was that runaway serfs who lived in the city for a year and a day became free men • tradesmen formed guilds to protect their economic interests • city populations, a small minority, broke down the feudal system
  38. 38. the Commercial Revolution; 12th-18th centuries • 1095-1250--crusades led to the rise of banking, money economy, and demand for the eastern goods such as: • spices, silks, ivory, jade, diamonds, improved glass-manufacturing techniques, early forms of gun powder, oranges, apples, and other Asian crops, and many other products • the Knights Templars, with their headquarters in Paris and chapter houses in all the major European cities, functioned as bankers for their order and for laymen who carried on trade • other medieval banking houses were the Medici of Florence (1397) and the Fuggers of Augsburg (15th cent.) • 1451--when the Ottomans conquered Constantinople, the pressure to establish an all-water trade route to the East grew intense, and the rest is, as they say, “history.” Modern History
  39. 39. Development of the Nation State
  40. 40. François I of France - Jean and François Clouet (c.1535, oil on panel) (Louvre).
  41. 41. How to create a nation from bickering feudal nobles • one Lord must emerge supreme to exercise state sovereignty, the monopoly of justice and power • castles must no longer provide safe refuges from which rebellious nobles can defy their sovereign liege • in order to accomplish this, kings need greater sources of revenue through taxes on the new commerce • this enables them to buy the mercenaries and the artillery to reduce the rebels’ castles
  42. 42. Bombard-Mortar of the Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem Rhodes, 1480–1500. Founded at the request of Pierre d'Aubusson, the bombard was used for close defense of the wa"s (100–200 meters) at the Siege of Rhodes. It fired 260 kg granite ba"s. The bombard weighs about 3,325 kg. Musée de l'Armée.
  43. 43. Bombard-Mortar of the Knights of Saint John of Jerusalem Rhodes, 1480–1500. Founded at the request of Pierre d'Aubusson, the bombard was used for close defense of the wa"s (100–200 meters) at the Siege of Rhodes. It fired 260 kg granite ba"s. The bombard weighs about 3,325 early 15th century kg. Musée de l'Armée. Austrian Pumhart von Steyr Army History Museum, Vienna
  44. 44. By the 15th century, castle walls proved no match for the crude artillery which could be hired by the besiegers
  45. 45. Le diverse et artificiose machine del capitano 1588 engraving by Agostino Ramelli
  46. 46. How to create a nation from bickering feudal nobles • one Lord must emerge supreme • castles can no longer provide safe refuges from which rebellious nobles can defy their sovereign liege • kings need greater sources of revenue through taxes on the new commerce • this enables them to buy the mercenaries and the artillery to reduce the rebels’ castles • 15th century-France saw the end of England’s ambitions in the Hundred Years’ War (1336-1454) and the absorption of southern Burgundy, after the death of Charles the Bold (1477)
  47. 47. Burgundy source of contention between France and the Habsburg Empire for the next two centuries
  48. 48. Burgundy source of contention between France and the Habsburg Empire for the next two centuries Charles le Temeraire 1433-1467-1477
  49. 49. How to create a nation from bickering feudal nobles • one Lord must emerge supreme • castles can no longer provide safe refuges from which rebellious nobles can defy their sovereign liege • kings need greater sources of revenue through taxes on the new commerce • this enables them to buy the mercenaries and the artillery to reduce the rebels’ castles • 15th century-France saw the end of England’s ambitions in the Hundred Years’ War (1336-1454) and the absorption of southern Burgundy, after the death of Charles the Bold (1477) • these events set the stage for the 16th century emergence of the French nation-state under Francis I (1494-1515-1547)
  50. 50. France’s first Renaissance monarch • contemporary and ally of Suleiman the Magnificent, and of England’s Henry VIII and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, his great rivals • man of letters, expanded the royal library and opened it to scholars, he actually read the books! • patron of Cellini and Leonardo de Vinci • 1530s--began the exploration and settlement of New France • 1515-46--fought a series of wars with Charles V in Italy, actually captured on the battlefield of Pavia (1525) Francis 1 (1494-1515-1547) painted in 1515
  51. 51. Francis receiving the last breath of Leonardo, painted by Ingres in 1818
  52. 52. Wars of Religion; 1517-1648
  53. 53. Wars of Religion; 1517-1648
  54. 54. Wars of Religion; 1517-1648
  55. 55. Wars of Religion; 1517-1648
  56. 56. Wars of Religion; 1517-1648
  57. 57. Wars of Religion; 1517-1648 French Wars of Religion; 1559-1598 • 1559-accidental jousting death of King Henry II (Nostradamus) rise of the ultra-Catholic house of Guise • Huguenot iconoclasm and Catholic bloody reprisals • 1562-1570-first three wars • 1572-73-St Bartholomew's Day Massacre and after, the “Fourth War” • 1574-1580-wars five-seven. Formation of the Catholic League under the Guises • 1585-1598-”War of the Three Henries”-King Henry III, Henry Duc de Guise & Henri du Navarre finally King Henry IV, the first of the Bourbons • 1598- Edict of Nantes
  58. 58. Paris vaut bien une messe
  59. 59. France during the Thirty Years War; 1618-1648 • last of the “wars of religion,” it was also about the balance of power in Europe • France was “encircled” by the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs • 1624-beginning secretly, chief minister Richelieu aided the German Protestant princes against their Catholic Habsburg Emperor • this continued the politique policy of Henri IV • 1630s-Richelieu subsidized the Swedish Lutheran forces of Gustavus Adolphus to enter the war • he functioned as the virtual ruler of France and Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu was succeeded in this role by Cardinal Mazarin Cardinal-Duc de Richelieu (1585 – 1642) French clergyman, noble, and statesman.
  60. 60. Le Roi Soleil The Sun King 1638-1643-1661-1715 seventy-two years, three months, eighteen days
  61. 61. Le Roi Soleil by Hyacinthe The Sun King Rigaud, 1701 1638-1643-1661-1715 seventy-two years, three months, eighteen days
  62. 62. The history of the Capetian monarchy had in fact been largely the story of its struggle against the aristocracy. Sometimes the royal power had won out, as under Francis I and Henry II, to go back no further, or under Henry IV and Richelieu. Sometimes the aristocracy had regained the advantage, through the wars of religion, the minority of Louis XIII or the Fronde. Under Louis XIV the conflict seemed to be over… Georges Lefebvre, The Coming of the French Revolution, p. 16
  63. 63. The Fronde A civil war in France (1648- 1653) at the end of the Thirty Years War. Aristocratic leaders of armed bands challenged the royal authority during the minority of Louis XIV. Thus he was determined to develop an absolute monarchy and break the political power of the nobility forever. Episode of the Fronde at the Faubourg Saint-Antoine by the Walls of the Bastille, c. 1648
  64. 64. Louis as Jupiter conquering the Fronde artist unknown painted 1655-1667 (?)
  65. 65. "L'État, c'est moi" ("I am the State") frequently attributed to him, though considered an inaccuracy by historians • 1638-born after twenty-three years of his parents’ childlessness, hence Louis Dieu-donné • 1643-at his father’s death, he becomes king under his mother’s regency and the guidance of First Minister Cardinal Mazarin • 1661-at Mazarin’s death Louis’ ministers inquired, “Sire, to whom shall we report?” • the self-assured monarch replied, “To me” • unlike both his parents, he intended to rule in his own right, not delegate the business of state to an all- powerful minister-in-chief • his first step was to investigate and imprison his finance minister, Nicholas Fouquet, for enriching himself from in 1661 the royal treasury
  66. 66. Fouquet’s grandiose château Vaux-le-Vicomte
  67. 67. built 1658-1661, 55 km southeast of Fouquet’sParis grandiose château Vaux-le-Vicomte
  68. 68. built 1658-1661, 55 km southeast of Fouquet’sParis grandiose château Vaux-le-Vicomte
  69. 69. Fouquet’s successor, Jean-Baptiste Colbert • like Fouquet, one of Cardinal Mazarin’s protégés • both honest and ambitious, he brought Fouquet’s corruption to Louis’ attention • 1664-Superintendent of Buildings in 1666
  70. 70. Fouquet’s successor, Jean-Baptiste Colbert • like Fouquet, one of Cardinal Mazarin’s protégés • both honest and ambitious, he brought Fouquet’s corruption to Louis’ attention • 1664-Superintendent of Buildings • 1665-Controller-General of Finances in 1666 en grande tenue
  71. 71. Fouquet’s successor, Jean-Baptiste Colbert • like Fouquet, one of Cardinal Mazarin’s protégés • both honest and ambitious, he brought Fouquet’s corruption to Louis’ attention • 1664-Superintendent of Buildings • 1665-Controller-General of Finances • 1669-Secretary of the Navy, also gained appointments as minister of commerce, of the colonies and of the palace. In short, he acquired power in every department except that of war in 1685
  72. 72. “The art of taxation consists in plucking the goose in such a manner as to obtain the largest amount of feathers with the least possible amount of hissing”--J-B Colbert His relentless hard work and thrift made him an esteemed minister. He achieved a reputation for his work of improving the state of French manufacturing and bringing the economy back from the brink of bankruptcy. Historians note that, despite Colbert's efforts, France actually became increasingly impoverished because of the King's excessive spending on wars. Colbert worked to create a favorable balance of trade and increase France's colonial holdings. Historians of mercantilism consider Colbert a key figure. Colbert's market reforms included the foundation of the Manufacture royale de glaces de miroirs in 1665 to supplant the importation of Venetian glass (forbidden in 1672, as soon as French glass manufacture was on a sound basis) and to encourage the technical expertise of Flemish cloth manufacturing in France. He also founded royal tapestry works at Gobelins and supported those at Beauvais. Colbert worked to improve the economy via tariffs and the construction of internal improvements. In regard to foreign markets, Colbert aimed to ensure that the French East India Company could obtain coffee, cotton, dyewoods, fur, pepper, and sugar. In addition, Colbert founded a French merchant marine. Wikipedia
  73. 73. principles of Mercantilism I.Bullionism-the true measure of national wealth is the amount of precious metal in the national treasury II.Maintenance of a favorable balance of trade-the value of the nation’s exports must exceed the cost of its imports. Thus, gold accumulates. I. inevitably, this requires protectionism, protective tariffs on imports and the promotion of domestic manufactures III.Vigorous search for colonies, overseas empire-as both a source of raw materials and a market for manufactured exports 1. rules prohibiting the colonies from trading with other nations and from competing with the Mother Country by manufacturing goods themselves
  74. 74. divine right absolutism • le roi, Jesus-Christ et l’Eglise, Dieu en ces trois noms (the king, Jesus Christ and the Church, God in these three names) he wrote in a characteristic letter • a strong advocate of political absolutism and the divine right of kings • 1657-St Vincent de Paul convinced him to move to Paris and devote himself entirely to preaching • 1660-he was preaching regularly before the court in the Chapel Royal • 1662-he preached his famous sermon “On the Duties of Kings” to Louis XIV in the Louvre Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet 1627-1704
  75. 75. Bossuet’s political theories We have already seen that all power is of God. The ruler, adds St. Paul, "is the minister of God to thee for good. But if thou do that which is evil, be afraid; for he beareth not the sword in vain : for he is the minister of God, a revenger to execute wrath upon him that doeth evil." Rulers then act as the ministers of God and as his lieutenants on earth. it is through them that God exercises his empire... It appears from all this that the person of the king is sacred, and that to attack him in any way is sacrilege. God has the kings anointed by his prophets with the holy unction in like manner as he has bishops and altars anointed.. . There is something religious in the respect accorded to a prince. The service of God and the respect for kings are bound together. St. Peter unites these two duties when he says, "Fear God. Honour the king.". . . The royal power is absolute. With the aim of making this truth hateful and insufferable, many writers have tried to confound absolute government with arbitrary government. But no two things could be more unlike, as we shall show when we come to speak of justice. Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet, Politique tiree des propres paroles de l' Ecriture sainte
  76. 76. Louis’ Minister of War • 1666-Louvois succeeded his father, Michel le Tellier, as Minister of War • 1667-68--almost immediately he was tested in the first of Louis’ four wars, the War of Devolution in the Netherlands • over the next decades he would build the largest army in Europe, 400,000 men • he created many of the modern features such as long enlistments, barracks, depots, drill, a professional career officer class, frontier Vauban fortresses • IG Lieutenant Colonel Jean Martinet François Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois (1641 – 1691) • he died suddenly, some suggest of poison
  77. 77. How to fortify in the age of cannons? • Marshall of France, foremost military engineer of his age • famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and breaking through them • 1667-1714--the wars of Louis XIV saw the revolution in fortifications known as the Vauban system Sebastien Le Prestre de Vauban 1633-1707
  78. 78. Vauban’s answer to the castle vs gunpowder
  79. 79. Vauban’s answer to the castle vs gunpowder
  80. 80. Vauban’s answer to the castle vs gunpowder
  81. 81. Vauban’s answer to the castle vs gunpowder
  82. 82. Vauban’s answer to the castle vs gunpowder
  83. 83. Vauban’s answer to the castle vs gunpowder
  84. 84. Vauban’s answer to the castle vs gunpowder
  85. 85. Vauban’s answer to the castle vs gunpowder
  86. 86. Vauban’s answer to the castle vs gunpowder
  87. 87. Vauban’s answer to the castle vs gunpowder
  88. 88. Louis XIV’s four wars 1.War of Devolution (1667-68) by his marriage to the Spanish princess, he claimed much of the Spanish Netherlands (modern Belgium) 1.Opponents: United Provinces (Dutch Netherlands), Spain, England, Sweden 2.Allies: none 3.Peace Treaty: Aix-la-Chapelle 2. Dutch War (1672-78) 1.Opponents: United Provinces, Spain, Holy Roman Empire, Denmark, Prussia, Lorraine 2.Allies: Sweden and England 3.Peace Treaty: Treaties of Nijmegen (1678-79)
  89. 89. warfare as siegecraft
  90. 90. warfare as siegecraft
  91. 91. trenches are used in siegecraft to encircle and approach the besieged fortress cities Louis XIV in a trench before a besieged city during the War of Devolution by Charles le Brun, 1667
  92. 92. Note the trenches used to approach the walls
  93. 93. going to war in style Louis XIV. and Maria Teresa in Arras 1667 during the War of Devolution Adam Frans van der Meulen (1632-1690)
  94. 94. Louis XIV’s four wars (cont.) 3.War of the League of Augsburg (1688-1697) the “first world war” called King William’s War in British North America, the first of Gipson’s “Great War for the Empire” 1.Opponents: England, United Provinces, Spain,Holy Roman Empire, Sweden, Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria, and Savoy (all united in the League of Augsburg) 2.Allies: none 3.Peace Treaty: Treaty of Ryswick (1697)--Spain recognizes Saint-Domingue (Haiti) 4.War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) also called Queen Anne’s War 1.Opponents: England, United Provinces, Holy Roman Empire, Sweden, Prussia, Denmark, Portugal, Savoy, and several small states (all members of the Grand Alliance) 2.Allies: Spain and Bavaria 3.Peace Treaty: Peace of Utrecht (1713-14) consisting of the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), Treaty of Rastatt (1714) and the Treaty of Baden (1714)
  95. 95. world war
  96. 96. world war
  97. 97. world war 1700
  98. 98. world war 1713-Provisions of the Treaty of Utrecht
  99. 99. French expansion; 1552-1798
  100. 100. the Austrian Netherlands
  101. 101. Great War for the Empire
  102. 102. Great War for the Empire The Death of Wolfe by BenjaminWest, 1770
  103. 103. far flung riches
  104. 104. far flung riches
  105. 105. far flung riches
  106. 106. far flung riches
  107. 107. far flung riches
  108. 108. far flung riches
  109. 109. far flung riches
  110. 110. far flung riches
  111. 111. far flung riches
  112. 112. far flung riches
  113. 113. far flung riches
  114. 114. King George’s War; 1744-48-- War of the Austrian Succession; 1740-48 • 1739-The War of Jenkin’s Ear • 1740-France responded to the wars begun by her rival Britain against her ally Spain, and her ally Prussia against the ancient Habsburg enemy • the combatants expanded to include all the European continent except Portugal and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth • in North America both sides used their Indian allies in savage frontier warfare • 1745-France used the Jacobite Pretender “Bonnie Prince Charlie” to raise an almost successful rebellion in Britain • the other theaters included the West Indies, India, the Caribbean, Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean
  115. 115. Louisbourg; the Gibraltar of New France
  116. 116. Louisbourg; the Gibraltar of New France • 1745-as the war progressed, Massachusetts took the lead in besieging this fortress • 1995-your instructor spent nine days at the reenactment of this famous battle
  117. 117. Louisbourg; the Gibraltar of New France • 1745-as the war progressed, Massachusetts took the lead in besieging this fortress • 1995-your instructor spent nine days at the reenactment of this famous battle • the fortress fell to combined provincial and British regular forces • 1748-but in the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle Britain returned the fortress in return for Madras, India
  118. 118. Louisbourg; the Gibraltar of New France • 1745-as the war progressed, Massachusetts took the lead in besieging this fortress • 1995-your instructor spent nine days at the reenactment of this famous battle • the fortress fell to combined provincial and British regular forces • 1748-but in the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle Britain returned the fortress in return for Madras, India • 1758-Louisbourg had to be taken a second time. • 1760-this time it was demolished, not a stone left standing • 1970s-Parks Canada restored it into the wonderful site we can visit today
  119. 119. French and Indian War; 1754-63--Seven Years War; 1756-63 • the climax of Gipson’s “Great War for the Empire” between Britain and France. It involved virtually every European state and their overseas possessions • 4 July 1754-origins in the New World, Col. Washington’s failed mission to secure “the Forks of the Ohio” for British North America • as a result of balance of power diplomacy Britain and France exchanged “partners” in the “stately quadrille” known as the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756 • Frederick the Great, the “star” of the previous war, now faced an encirclement which foreshadowed the twentieth century • again, the war was fought worldwide, on land and sea
  120. 120. The Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
  121. 121. maps of the theater of the siege of Quebec
  122. 122. maps of the theater of the siege of Quebec
  123. 123. maps of the theater of the siege of Quebec
  124. 124. maps of the campaign; June-September, 1759
  125. 125. maps of the campaign; June-September, 1759
  126. 126. maps of the battle of September 13, 1759
  127. 127. maps of the battle of September 13, 1759
  128. 128. maps of the battle of September 13, 1759
  129. 129. maps of the battle of September 13, 1759
  130. 130. maps of the battle of September 13, 1759
  131. 131. maps of the battle of September 13, 1759
  132. 132. illustrations of the Battle of Quebec, 1759
  133. 133. illustrations of the Battle of Quebec, 1759
  134. 134. illustrations of the Battle of Quebec, 1759
  135. 135. illustrations of the Battle of Quebec, 1759
  136. 136. illustrations of the Battle of Quebec, 1759
  137. 137. Major General James Wolfe; 1727-13 September 1759 • 1743-age 15, began his career in the War of the Austrian Succession at Dettingen • 1745-fought at Culloden to defeat the Jacobite rebels of “Bonnie Prince Charlie” • famously refused to shoot a wounded Highlander when so ordered by “Butcher Cumberland” • 1758-distinguished himself at Louisbourg • 1759-Pitt chose him to lead the expedition against Quebec Who, at the Expence of his Life, purchas'd immortal Honour for his Country, and planted,with his own Hand, the British Laurel, • the night before the battle, he remarked on in the inhospitable Wilds of North America, By the Reduction of Quebec, Septr. 13th. 1759." Grey’s Elegy, “The paths of glory lead but to the grave”
  138. 138. Louis-Joseph de Montcalm-Gozon, Marquis de Saint-Veran; 1712 – September 14, 1759 • like Wolfe, he entered the army at a young age and served in the Continental wars of the Polish and Austrian Succession • 1756-sent by Louis XV to be in overall command of the defense of New France • 1756-58-using his Indian allies skillfully, he inflicted humiliating defeats on the British and colonial forces • 1759-against superior forces, he conducted the defense of Quebec until his mortal wounding on the Plains of Abraham • 1760-the last French capitulation occurred at Montreal. New France becomes Canada
  139. 139. both are memorialized at Quebec’s Assembly building
  140. 140. JE ME SOUVIENS both are memorialized at Quebec’s Assembly building
  141. 141. 1763-the Peace of Paris • Britain obtained all of New France (Canada) and other gains in India and the West Indies • but the cost was tremendous, the debt nearly doubled to £122 million • 1764-Lord North’s government attempted to recover some of the costs of defending North America with the Sugar and Stamp (1765) Acts • France was defeated but unreconciled to its loss in the Great War • in less than fifteen years, there would be a “re-match”
  142. 142. France and the American Revolution
  143. 143. France and the American Revolution Washington and Lafayette at Mount Vernon, 1784 by Thomas Prichard Rossiter and Louis Remy Mignot, 1859
  144. 144. The government crisis went back to the American war. The revolt of the English colonies may in fact be considered the principal direct cause of the French Revolution [emphasis added], both because in invoking the rights of man it stirred up great excitement in France, and because Louis XVI in supporting it got his finances into very bad condition. Necker carried on the war by loans. When peace was restored in 1783 the increase of taxes could not make up the deficit, so that his successor Calonne continued to borrow. When lenders showed themselves recalcitrant, in 1786, Calonne was obliged to notify the king that fiscal reform was absolutely necessary. Lefebvre, p. 21
  145. 145. Boston’s Tea Party 16 December 1773
  146. 146. the Rape of Boston the Boston Port Bill, 1774
  147. 147. 19th of April, ’75 “Here the embattled farmers stood, and fired the shot heard round the world”
  148. 148. Bunker Hill 17 June 1775
  149. 149. Roderigue Hortalez and Company In early 1776 Beaumarchais was authorized by Louis XV to set up a fictitious Franco-Spanish front company to secretly fund the American rebels Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais (1732 – 1799) best known for the three Figaro plays
  150. 150. Minister to France; 1776-1785 • celebrated worldwide as a natural philosopher and sage, he was a brilliant choice as our minister to France
  151. 151. Minister to France; 1776-1785 • celebrated worldwide as a natural philosopher and sage, he was a brilliant choice as our minister to France • he was feted in all the salons
  152. 152. Minister to France; 1776-1785 • celebrated worldwide as a natural philosopher and sage, he was a brilliant choice as our minister to France • he was feted in all the salons • 1778-after the victory at Saratoga, he accomplished his mission with the Treaties of Alliance and Amity & Commerce • the trickle of secret military support became a flow: money, munitions, military advisors, ships, French troops, the French fleet
  153. 153. John Paul Jones; “father of the American Navy” • 14 February 1778-when he sailed Ranger into Brest, nine days after Franklin’s treaty, the American flag received its first formal recognition, a nine-gun salute • after an interminable delay, Franklin obtained for him the Bonhomme Richard-42 • 23 Sept 1779-against HMS Serapis-50 and Countess of Scarborough-20 he would prevail • when invited to surrender by the British captain, he replied with the immortal Houdon’s second American sitter words, “I have not yet begun to fight!” (1781) after Franklin (1778)
  154. 154. The Crypt beneath the Naval Academy Chapel Teddy Roosevelt’s monument to navalism brought home from Paris, 1906; interred her in 1913
  155. 155. Washington’s surrogate son • December 1776-age 19, arranged in Paris to enter American service as a Major General • 1777-wounded at Brandywine, he still manages to organize a successful retreat • 1779-returning to France, he negotiates, with Franklin, a further 6,000 French regulars under General de Rochambeau • 1781-back in Virginia, he pens Cornwallis at Yorktown until Washington and Rochambeau can invest the British there Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, • 1834-he is buried in Paris under soil from the battlefield of Bunker Hill Marquis de La Fayette (1757 – 1834)
  156. 156. Battle of the Virginia Capes; September 1781 Admiral De Grasse defeats Admiral Graves
  157. 157. Washington and Rochambeau at Yorktown; October 1781
  158. 158. Cornwallis surrenders to the French and American commands by John Trumbull
  159. 159. French Revenge but at a Fatal Cost
  160. 160. "Give me leave, my dear General to present you with a picture of the Basti"e, just as it looked a few days a-er I had ordered its demolition,- with the main key of the fortress of despotism. It is a tribute, which I owe, as a son to my adoptive father, as an Aide-de- Camp to my General, as a Missionary of liberty to its Patriarch." - Marquis de Lafayette to George Washington, March 17, 1790
  161. 161. the key as it sits today at Mount Vernon
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