Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Early Russian History
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Early Russian History

3,508
views

Published on

Introduction to the Russian Revolution course. This presentation begins with geography and then describes major periods in Russian history; Kievan Rus, Mongols, Rise of Muscovy, Third Rome, Time of …

Introduction to the Russian Revolution course. This presentation begins with geography and then describes major periods in Russian history; Kievan Rus, Mongols, Rise of Muscovy, Third Rome, Time of Troubles, Peter the Great, Catherine the Great


0 Comments
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
3,508
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
173
Comments
0
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • •Unity Day, Day of People’s Unity (or National Unity Day; Russian: День народного единства) was first celebrated in Russia in 2005. Held on November 4, it commemorates the popular uprising which expelled the Polish-Lithuanian occupation force from Moscow in November 1612, and more generally the end of the Time of Troubles and foreign intervention in Russia in the Polish-Muscovite War (1605–1618). Its name alludes to the idea that all the classes of Russian society willingly united to preserve Russian statehood when its demise seemed inevitable, even though there was neither Tsar nor Patriarch to guide them. In 1613 tsar Mikhail Romanov instituted a holiday named Day of Moscow’s Liberation from Polish Invaders[1]. The holiday, held in October, was abandoned in 1917. November 4 is also the feast day for Our Lady of Kazan, the holy icon which the Russian Orthodox Church probably venerates most. The Day of People's Unity is used by Russian ultra-nationalists and neo-Nazis to parade through their cities to warn that "Russia is for Russians."[2]
  • • Morning of execution of streltsy by tsar Peter I. Painting of 218х379 cm. Artist: russian painter Vasily Ivanovich Surikov (1848-1916) Creation data: 1881 Source: [1]
  • • enlarge in Preview to read the balloon speeches
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Russian Revolution 1815-1924 Session 1 The Setting; 862-1796
    • 2. Major Points of This Session • Geography • Широка Страна Моя Родная (SheroKA StranA MoYA RodNAya--Broad is my native land) • The Importance of Rivers; The Search for a Warm Water Port • Major Themes of Russian History • The Rus • Under the Mongol Yoke • Expansion of the Duchy of Muscovy • Third Rome • Tsar
    • 3. Major Points of This Session • Dynastic Change • Time of Troubles • The Romanovs • Two Great Rulers • Peter I (1672-1682-1696-1725) • Catherine II (1729-1762-1796)
    • 4. Geography
    • 5. The Russian Lands
    • 6. The Russian Lands
    • 7. днепр Dnepr Dnieper
    • 8. днепр Dnepr Dnieper KIEV “The Road from the Varangians to the Greeks”
    • 9. Волга, Волга, Мать Родная Kama Ural
    • 10. White Sea Baltic Ob River Black Sea Caspian Sea
    • 11. White Sea Baltic Ob River Volga River Black Sea Caspian Sea
    • 12. White Sea Baltic Ob River Volga Don River River Black Sea Caspian Sea
    • 13. White Sea Baltic Ob River Dnepr (Dnieper) River Volga Don River River Black Sea Caspian Sea
    • 14. White Sea Baltic Neva Western River NOVGOROD Volkov River Dvina River Route of the Ob Kievan Rus River Dnepr KIEV (Dnieper) River Volga Don River River Black Sea Caspian Sea
    • 15. The Search for a Warm Water Port
    • 16. The Search for a Warm Water Port • 1703--the Russian State was land-locked until Peter the Great’s “Window on the West” (St Petersburg)
    • 17. The Search for a Warm Water Port • 1703--the Russian State was land-locked until Peter the Great’s “Window on the West” (St Petersburg) • but then the Swedes controlled the Baltic and Denmark-Norway its access to the world’s oceans
    • 18. The Search for a Warm Water Port • 1703--the Russian State was land-locked until Peter the Great’s “Window on the West” (St Petersburg) • but then the Swedes controlled the Baltic and Denmark-Norway its access to the world’s oceans • 1790s--Catherine the Great gained a permanent Black Seacoast
    • 19. The Search for a Warm Water Port • 1703--the Russian State was land-locked until Peter the Great’s “Window on the West” (St Petersburg) • but then the Swedes controlled the Baltic and Denmark-Norway its access to the world’s oceans • 1790s--Catherine the Great gained a permanent Black Seacoast • but then the Ottoman Turks controlled the Black Sea Straits
    • 20. The Search for a Warm Water Port • 1703--the Russian State was land-locked until Peter the Great’s “Window on the West” (St Petersburg) • but then the Swedes controlled the Baltic and Denmark-Norway its access to the world’s oceans • 1790s--Catherine the Great gained a permanent Black Seacoast • but then the Ottoman Turks controlled the Black Sea Straits • 1860--Alexander II gained Vladivostok (Might of the East)
    • 21. The Search for a Warm Water Port • 1703--the Russian State was land-locked until Peter the Great’s “Window on the West” (St Petersburg) • but then the Swedes controlled the Baltic and Denmark-Norway its access to the world’s oceans • 1790s--Catherine the Great gained a permanent Black Seacoast • but then the Ottoman Turks controlled the Black Sea Straits • 1860--Alexander II gained Vladivostok (Might of the East) • but it was iced over six months of the year and was far from the imperial center
    • 22. The Search for a Warm Water Port • 1703--the Russian State was land-locked until Peter the Great’s “Window on the West” (St Petersburg) • but then the Swedes controlled the Baltic and Denmark-Norway its access to the world’s oceans • 1790s--Catherine the Great gained a permanent Black Seacoast • but then the Ottoman Turks controlled the Black Sea Straits • 1860--Alexander II gained Vladivostok (Might of the East) • but it was iced over six months of the year and was far from the imperial center • 1897--Russia extracted a lease of Port Arthur from China, her first warm-water port which couldn’t be “bottled up”
    • 23. The Search for a Warm Water Port • 1703--the Russian State was land-locked until Peter the Great’s “Window on the West” (St Petersburg) • but then the Swedes controlled the Baltic and Denmark-Norway its access to the world’s oceans • 1790s--Catherine the Great gained a permanent Black Seacoast • but then the Ottoman Turks controlled the Black Sea Straits • 1860--Alexander II gained Vladivostok (Might of the East) • but it was iced over six months of the year and was far from the imperial center • 1897--Russia extracted a lease of Port Arthur from China, her first warm-water port which couldn’t be “bottled up” • resentment of this was one of the causes of the Russo-Japanese War, 1904-6
    • 24. Sankt Peterburg, 1703
    • 25. Sankt Peterburg, 1703
    • 26. Sankt Peterburg, 1703
    • 27. Sankt Peterburg, 1703
    • 28. Sankt Peterburg, 1703
    • 29. The Black Sea Coast, 1790s
    • 30. The Black Sea Coast, 1790s
    • 31. The Black Sea Coast, 1790s
    • 32. The Black Sea Coast, 1790s
    • 33. Vladivostok, 1860
    • 34. Vladivostok, 1860 Vladivostok
    • 35. Vladivostok, 1860
    • 36. Vladivostok, 1860
    • 37. Vladivostok, 1860
    • 38. Port Arthur, 1897
    • 39. Port Arthur, 1897 Vladivostok
    • 40. Port Arthur, 1897
    • 41. Port Arthur, 1897
    • 42. Port Arthur, 1897
    • 43. Port Arthur, 1897
    • 44. Major Themes of Russian History
    • 45. The Rus Justice in Kievan Rus
    • 46. • Н.К.Рерих "Заморские гости". Серия "Начало Руси. Славяне". 1901. Холст, масло. 85x112,5 см. Государственная Третьяковская галерея, Москва. • Nicholas Roerich "Guests from Overseas". The Series “The First Rus. Slavdom”. 1901 … in the Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.
    • 47. Rurik Mythical(?) Historic(?) founder of the dynasty which ruled Kievan Rus, later Muscovy, 862-1598 from Teutonic Myth and Legend, 1912
    • 48. Saint Vladimir (980-1015) • first of the great Kievan princes • pagan, warrior • 987-sought “the best religion” Icon of St. Vladimir • 988-chose Christianity in Cherson to Novgorod win the Byzantine princess Anna 16th century • forcibly converted his subjects to Orthodox Christianity • last of the Varangian, first of the Christian rulers, begins the tie to East (Second ) Rome, i.e., Byzantium
    • 49. CAMPAIGNS OF THE KIEVAN PRINCES:
    • 50. CAMPAIGNS OF THE KIEVAN PRINCES: VLADIMIR 981-989
    • 51. CAMPAIGNS OF THE KIEVAN PRINCES: VLADIMIR 981-989 YAROSLAV 1030-1040
    • 52. CAMPAIGNS OF THE KIEVAN PRINCES: VLADIMIR 981-989 YAROSLAV 1030-1040 YAROSLAV’S SONS AGAINST BYZANTIUM 1043
    • 53. CAMPAIGNS OF THE KIEVAN PRINCES: VLADIMIR 981-989 YAROSLAV 1030-1040 YAROSLAV’S SONS AGAINST BYZANTIUM 1043 PECHENEG ATTACK IN KIEV 1036
    • 54. CAMPAIGNS OF THE KIEVAN PRINCES: VLADIMIR 981-989 YAROSLAV 1030-1040 YAROSLAV’S SONS AGAINST BYZANTIUM 1043 PECHENEG ATTACK IN KIEV 1036 TERRITORY OF THE KIEV STATE, end of the XI century
    • 55. CAMPAIGNS OF THE KIEVAN PRINCES: VLADIMIR 981-989 YAROSLAV 1030-1040 YAROSLAV’S SONS AGAINST BYZANTIUM 1043 PECHENEG ATTACK IN KIEV 1036 TERRITORY OF THE KIEV STATE, end of the XI century TERRITORY ADDED DURING THE X- beginning of the XI century
    • 56. CAMPAIGNS OF THE KIEVAN PRINCES: VLADIMIR 981-989 YAROSLAV 1030-1040 YAROSLAV’S SONS AGAINST BYZANTIUM 1043 PECHENEG ATTACK IN KIEV 1036 TERRITORY OF THE KIEV STATE, end of the XI century TERRITORY ADDED DURING THE X- beginning of the XI century BORDER OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE
    • 57. CAMPAIGNS OF THE KIEVAN PRINCES: VLADIMIR 981-989 YAROSLAV 1030-1040 YAROSLAV’S SONS AGAINST BYZANTIUM 1043 PECHENEG ATTACK IN KIEV 1036 TERRITORY OF THE KIEV STATE, end of the XI century TERRITORY ADDED DURING THE X- beginning of the XI century BORDER OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE RED LETTERS INDICATE SLAVS
    • 58. CAMPAIGNS OF THE KIEVAN PRINCES: VLADIMIR 981-989 YAROSLAV 1030-1040 YAROSLAV’S SONS AGAINST BYZANTIUM 1043 PECHENEG ATTACK IN KIEV 1036 TERRITORY OF THE KIEV STATE, end of the XI century TERRITORY ADDED DURING THE X- beginning of the XI century BORDER OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE RED LETTERS INDICATE SLAVS BLACK LETTERS=OTHER PEOPLES
    • 59. The Baptism of Saint Prince Vladimir -- 1890 sketch for a fresco by Victor Vasnetsov for Vladimir Cathedral
    • 60. 19th Century Saint Vladimir Cathedral
    • 61. 19th Century Saint Vladimir Cathedral • begun by Tsar Nicholas I to commemorate the 900th anniversary of Russian Christianity
    • 62. 19th Century Saint Vladimir Cathedral • begun by Tsar Nicholas I to commemorate the 900th anniversary of Russian Christianity • constructed 1862-1896
    • 63. 19th Century Saint Vladimir Cathedral • begun by Tsar Nicholas I to commemorate the 900th anniversary of Russian Christianity • constructed 1862-1896 • dedicated by Nicholas II and Tsaryevna Alexandra
    • 64. Baptism of the Kievan Rus--Lebedev, Klavdiy Vasilievich
    • 65. Yaroslav I “the Wise” c.978-1054
    • 66. Yaroslav I “the Wise” c.978-1054 • a younger son, out of wedlock?, or by Anna Porphyrogenita
    • 67. Yaroslav I “the Wise” c.978-1054 • a younger son, out of wedlock?, or by Anna Porphyrogenita • sent north to rule in Novgorod the Great
    • 68. Yaroslav I “the Wise” c.978-1054 • a younger son, out of wedlock?, or by Anna Porphyrogenita • sent north to rule in Novgorod the Great • figures prominently in the Norse sagas
    • 69. Yaroslav I “the Wise” c.978-1054 • a younger son, out of wedlock?, or by Anna Porphyrogenita • sent north to rule in Novgorod the Great • figures prominently in the Norse sagas • 1014-1016-fought his half-brothers for Kiev
    • 70. Yaroslav I “the Wise” c.978-1054 • a younger son, out of wedlock?, or by Anna Porphyrogenita • sent north to rule in Novgorod the Great • figures prominently in the Norse sagas • 1014-1016-fought his half-brothers for Kiev • established the first law code, Russkaya Pravda
    • 71. Yaroslav I “the Wise” c.978-1054 • a younger son, out of wedlock?, or by Anna Porphyrogenita • sent north to rule in Novgorod the Great • figures prominently in the Norse sagas • 1014-1016-fought his half-brothers for Kiev • established the first law code, Russkaya Pravda • 1036--conquered the Pechenegs
    • 72. Yaroslav I “the Wise” c.978-1054 • a younger son, out of wedlock?, or by Anna Porphyrogenita • sent north to rule in Novgorod the Great • figures prominently in the Norse sagas • 1014-1016-fought his half-brothers for Kiev • established the first law code, Russkaya Pravda • 1036--conquered the Pechenegs • 1037--built the cathedral Kievskaya Sophia
    • 73. Kievskaya Sophia 1037-mid xiii century
    • 74. Kievskaya Sophia 1037-mid xiii century
    • 75. Kievskaya Sophia 1037-mid xiii century
    • 76. Under the Mongol Yoke
    • 77. Under the Mongol Yoke Mongol Horse Archers
    • 78. Pre-Mongol Eurasia
    • 79. Pre-Mongol Eurasia Mongol homeland
    • 80. "For our sins", writes the Rus’ chronicler of the time, "unknown nations arrived. No one knew their origin or whence they came, or what religion they practiced. That is known only to God, and perhaps to wise men learned in books".
    • 81. Gengis Khan’s Empire History’s longest cavalry raid 5,000 miles 3 years
    • 82. Great Expansion under Ogedei Khan • 1227-Gengiz Khan dies • 1237-after conquering the peoples of the South Russian steppe, Batu Khan turned on the Rus • 1240-all the cities except for a few northern ones became tributaries of the Golden Horde • Mongol (indirect) rule would continue until the end of the fifteenth century • traditional histories equate Russian autocracy and submissiveness to the brutal experience of the Mongol The sacking of Suzdal, 1238 conquest from a 16th c. chronicle
    • 83. Drang nach Osten--1242-1942 • the Teutonic Knights tried to take advantage of Russia’s plight • 1242-German and Lithuanian invaders were thrown back by the Prince of Novgorod & Vladimir, Alexander Nevsky (c. 1220-1263) • the Rus actually felt that the Catholic Swedes and German crusaders were a greater threat than the Mongols • Alexander Nevsky paid tribute to the Mongols who weren’t out to change his religion “Whoever attacks us by the sword • this WW II poster, like the Eisenstein film of 1938, compared Hitler to the by the sword shall he die” unsuccessful Teutonic Knights ALEXANDER NEVSKY
    • 84. Expansion of the Duchy of Muscovy
    • 85. Early Foundations of Muscovy • 1263-Daniel Alexandrovich, Alexander Nevsky’s youngest son inherited Moscow, the least of his father’s possessions • like his father, Daniel, Grand Duke of Muscovy, held his title as a vassal of the Mongols • 1299-the head of the Russian Church, the Kiev Metropolitan fled to Moscow, further enhancing its status • mid 14th century-Mongol power was declining to the point that the Russian vassals felt strong enough to oppose Genrikh Semiradsky, Alexander them Nevsky in the Horde. 1876. Oil on canvas. The Russian Museum
    • 86. Dmitri Donskoy is blessed on his way to battle Эрнст ЛИССНЕР (1874-1941). Троице-Сергиева лавра. Бумага, акварель. 1907. English: Ernst Lissner. Trinity-Sergius Monastery. Paper, water-colour, 1907.
    • 87. The Battle of Kulikovo, 1380 • 1370-Tatar warlord Mamai took power in the Golden Horde • 1378-he sent forces to Moscow to enforce obedience. They were defeated • Mamai enlisted the aid of Russian rival Prince Oleg of Ryazan and Lithuania • Dmitri of Moscow, Grand Prince of Vladimir, with other Russian allies marched south to confront the Mongols • after a three hour battle with heavy casualties on both sides the Russians prevailed The Battle of Kulikovo (1850). Huge canvas from the Grand Kremlin Palace • final emancipation came a century later
    • 88. The “Third Rome” Concept Byzantine eagle
    • 89. The “Third Rome” Concept Russian eagle
    • 90. Ivan III 1440-1505 • 1462-Grand Prince of Moscow, Grand Prince of All Russia, Gatherer of the Russian Lands • tripled the territory of his state • renovated the Moscow Kremlin • laid the foundations of the Russian state • one of the longest-reigning rulers in Russian history
    • 91. Sophia Palaiologina (c. 1455-1503) • niece of the last Byzantine emperor Constantine XI Palaeologus • second wife of Ivan III • born in Morea (Greece), she was taken to Rome as a child after the Ottoman conquest in 1460 • 1469-Pope Paul II offered her to the widowed Russian prince hoping to unite Catholic and Orthodox churches • 1472-wedding took place in the Dormition cathedral, Moscow • Sophia introduced Byzantine ceremonies to the Kremlin
    • 92. Destruction of the Novgorod Republic by Ivan III Klavdie Vasilivich Lebedev, 1904
    • 93. Ivan III tears up the Khan’s letter, 1480 Aleksey Kivshenko (1851-1896)
    • 94. Tsar
    • 95. Tsar Helmet of Ivan IV 1547 Kremlin Museum
    • 96. Царь • older transliteration--”Czar” • modern, “Tsar” • the character at the end is not a letter, rather an operator (called “soft sign”) affecting the pronunciation of the “r” • the Slavic spelling of “Caesar” • just as the Germanic title of emperor is “Kaiser” • although Ivan III used it in his correspondence with western rulers and was accorded the rank of emperor (Imperator, Lat.) by them, his grandson Ivan IV would be the first to be crowned as Tsar of All the Russias in 1547
    • 97. Ivan IV Vasilyevich 1530-1584 • the sobriquet “Terrible” is better rendered “Awe Inspiring” or “Dread” • 1533-Grand Prince of Moscow at his father’s death • 1547-assumes the title “Tsar of all the Russias” Царство Русское Portrait of Ivan IV by Viktor Vasnetsov, 1897 (Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow)
    • 98. Ivan’s Accomplishments • war against the Mongol borderlands • capturing Kazan (1552) and Astrakhan (1556) • bringing the entire Volga basin under Russian control and opening Siberia • opening the Caspian Sea, Persia and Central Asia to commercial and diplomatic relations • 1558-1582-war against the Livonian Order of the German Knights • establishment of autocratic government over the boyars (nobles) • his “secret police” prototypes, the oprichnina • Caesaro-papism • 1555-began trade with England through Arkangel & the Muscovy Co. • 1574-began the expansion into Siberia
    • 99. Loe thus I make an ende None other news to thee But that the country is too cold, The people beastly bee. Ambassador George Turbeville Reporting to Queen Elizabeth I
    • 100. “Ivan IV shows his treasure to Jerome Horsey” Alexander Litovchenko, 1875
    • 101. Yermak the Cossack invades Siberia “Yermak’s conquest of Siberia” by Vasily Surikov, 1895
    • 102. Иван Грозный и сын его Иван 16 ноября 1581 года Ivan the Dread and his son Ivan 16 November 1581
    • 103. The End of Rurik’s Dynasty • Ivan’s second son was mentally retarded • his brother-in-law, the boyar Boris Godunov, ruled as quasi- regent • Feodor spent his time in prayer • at his death in 1598 he left no male issue • Russia was devastated by the ensuing succession strife Tsar Feodor I (1557-1584-1598)
    • 104. Dynastic Change
    • 105. Dynastic Change “The Cap of Monomakh” Traditional crown of Russia’s tsars
    • 106. Time of Troubles Смутное Время (Smutnoe Vremya)
    • 107. Time of Troubles Смутное Время (Smutnoe Vremya) памятник Минину и Пожарскому (pamyatnik Mininu i Pozharskomu) monument to Minin and Pozharsky 1612-1812, unveiled in 1818
    • 108. Patriotic WW II Poster
    • 109. Patriotic WW II Poster OUR MIGHT UNDIMINISHED
    • 110. Chronology of the Time of Troubles • 1598-1605-Tsar Boris Godunov’s troubled reign • 1603-1606-False Dmitry and Polish noble supporters • 1606-1607-peasant uprising led by Ivan Bolotnikov • 1606-1610-Prince/Tsar Vasily Shuisky and second Polish invasion • 1610-1612-throne vacant, national uprising led by Minin & Pozharsky • 1612-1619-Tsar Michael Romanov consolidates his reign against Polish and Swedish invaders
    • 111. Rzeczpospolita (Polish-Lithuanian Republic)
    • 112. Scenes from the Time of Troubles
    • 113. Scenes from the Time of Troubles
    • 114. Scenes from the Time of Troubles
    • 115. Scenes from the Time of Troubles
    • 116. Scenes from the Time of Troubles
    • 117. Scenes from the Time of Troubles
    • 118. Scenes from the Time of Troubles
    • 119. Scenes from the Time of Troubles
    • 120. Scenes from the Time of Troubles
    • 121. Scenes from the Time of Troubles
    • 122. Scenes from the Time of Troubles
    • 123. Scenes from the Time of Troubles
    • 124. Scenes from the Time of Troubles
    • 125. Scenes from the Time of Troubles
    • 126. День народного единства Icon of Our Lady of Kazan (Dyen na rod novo ye din stva) Putin at Easter Mass Day of National Unity 4 November 2005
    • 127. The Ro•man•ovs, 1613-1917
    • 128. The Ro•man•ovs, 1613-1917 A crowd at the Ipatiev Monastery imploring Mikhail Romanov's mother to let him go to Moscow and become their tsar (Illumination from a book dated 1673)
    • 129. Russia under the First Romanovs, 1613-1682 Romanov Yurevich Anastasia Romanova Nikita Romanov (wife of Ivan IV) Philaret (Patriarch, 1619-33) Michael (1613-45) Alexis I (1645-76) Feodor III (1676-82)
    • 130. Michael (1613-1645) his father, the Patriarch Philaret was his powerful chief minister. The first job was restoration of order.
    • 131. Alexis I (1645-1676) in alliance with the cossacks he began the war against Poland known there as “The Deluge” (1654-1667) Russia gains Kiev and Smolensk
    • 132. The Commonwealth’s losses-1667-1686
    • 133. Stenka Razin’s cossack revolt, 1670-1671 by Surikov, 1906
    • 134. Feodor III (1676-1682) “hopeless invalid from birth” his death led to the Streltsy Uprising and the dual monarchy of Ivan V & Peter under their sister’s regency
    • 135. Scene from the Streltsy Uprising Ohrenburgsky-xix century
    • 136. Two Great Rulers
    • 137. Two Great Rulers With Peter I’s coronation the Imperial Crown replaces the “Cap of Monomakh” Crown
    • 138. Peter I (1682-1696-1725)
    • 139. Peter I (1682-1696-1725) by Paul Delaroche 1838
    • 140. Великое Посолство (Grand Embassy) Velikoye Posolstvo 1697-1698
    • 141. Великое Посолство (Grand Embassy) Velikoye Posolstvo 1697-1698 Statue in Skt Peterburg showing Peter working incognito in the Dutch East India shipyard
    • 142. Peter as “Westernizer”
    • 143. 17th century Nemetskaya Svoboda (German “Freedom” Settlement)
    • 144. 1698 Uprising by the Moscow Streltsy Regiments Text “Morning of the execution of the Streltsy by tsar Peter I”--Vasily Ivanovich Surikov 1881
    • 145. Bulavin’s Cossack revolt, 1707-1708 by Repin
    • 146. The Great Northern War, 1700-1721 • bringing down Sweden, the Baltic great power since the Thirty Years War • Peter allies with Denmark-Norway, Saxony and Poland-Lithuania • 1700-Narva, an instructive defeat. Peter’s army reforms along Western lines • Charles XII turns to fight the Poles and Saxons 1704-Peter takes Narva • 1708- Charles invades Russia, suffers first defeat, invades the Ukraine • 1709-along with cossack ally Mazeppa is defeated at Poltava • 1714-Peter’s galley fleet defeats Swedes at Gangut (Hanko Head) • 1721-Treaty of Nystadt strips Sweden of her “overseas” territories. Russia gains Livonia, Ingria and much of Karelia. Sweden becomes a second class power and Russia a great power
    • 147. Scenes from the Great Northern War
    • 148. Scenes from the Great Northern War
    • 149. Scenes from the Great Northern War
    • 150. Scenes from the Great Northern War
    • 151. Scenes from the Great Northern War
    • 152. Founding of Sankt-Peterburg, 1703
    • 153. Founding of Sankt-Peterburg, 1703 Commemorative medallion from the Tricentennial, 2003
    • 154. The Bronze Horseman--медный всадник
    • 155. The Bronze Horseman--медный всадник
    • 156. Pushkin’s poem, 1833--окно к западе And thus He mused: "From here, indeed Shall we strike terror in the Swede; And here a city by our labor Founded, shall gall our haughty neighbor; 'Here cut'--so Nature gives command-- 'Your window through on Europe ; stand Firm-footed by the sea, unchanging!' Ay, ships of every flag shall come By waters they had never swum, And we shall revel, freely ranging."
    • 157. Alexandre Benois. Peter the Great Meditating the Idea of Building St Petersburg at the Shore of the Baltic Sea. 1916
    • 158. Model of the Swedish fort at the mouth of the Neva Captured in 1703 during the Great Northern War (1700-1721)
    • 159. Petropavlovka (the fortress of Peter and Paul) Peter’s first construction in his new city, 1703 picture in a postcard, 1900
    • 160. Peterhof Text Peter’s “Versailles” completed in 1724
    • 161. Peter’s domestic reforms • 1700-when the Patriarchate of Moscow fell vacant, he refused to appoint a successor. Twenty-one years later he created the Holy Synod, a ten man body with a lay head to govern the church • 1714-required the sons of the nobility to receive education in the sciences • 1722-the Table of Ranks reduced the independence of the nobility. Traditional precedence was replaced by merit and service to the empire • replaced previous land based tax structure with a resented soul (poll) tax which brought in more revenue • the famous and exaggerated proscription against beards and traditional long coats
    • 162. Peter interrogating the tsarevich Alexei Repin
    • 163. Final Thoughts
    • 164. The Throne Under Stress: 1725-1762
    • 165. The Throne Under Stress: 1725-1762 The years between [Peter I and Catherine II] included the reigns of six rulers, three female and three male. Of the women, the first was amiable but incapable, the second neither amiable nor capable, and the third reasonably acceptable. Of the males, the first was a child, the second an infant, and the third an adult with the personality of a child. The situation invited the results which were produced during the period: an upset of the balance, a redistribution of power, and a weakening of the throne. Harcave, Russia, p. 116
    • 166. Catherine II
    • 167. Catherine II Note the Imperial Crown, Orb & Scepter
    • 168. a loveless marriage • 1729- born in Stettin, a German princess of Anhalt-Zerbst • 1745- married at age 16, after instruction in the Orthodox faith and the Russian language • during the long wait for the throne, both took lovers • January, 1762-Empress Elizabeth died, and the couple acceded to the throne • the “Miracle of the House of Hohenzollern” • June, 1762-the bloodless coup • July, 1762-Peter is assassinated Peter III and the tsarina and tsarevich
    • 169. patroness of the arts • her art collection formed the basis for the Hermitage Museum in the Winter Palace • Catherine's patronage furthered the evolution of the arts in Russia more than that of any Russian sovereign before or after her. (Wikipedia) • 1764-she founded the Smolny Institute to educate the daughters of the nobility • she wrote a manual for the education of young children based on the writings of John Locke circa 1770
    • 170. Smolny Plan by its Italian architect. Quarenghi
    • 171. Enlightened Despot • widely read herself, she praised the French Encyclopedists, offering them refuge from Louis XV’s persecution • Voltaire repaid her correspondence by praising her • 1767- she praised Montesquieu’s Spirit of the Laws to her Legislative Commission • after more than 200 sittings the commission dissolved without getting beyond the realm of theory • 1777- she wrote to Voltaire that her legal innovations in apathetic Russia were progressing “little by little” Shubin’s statue of Catherine as Minerva
    • 172. Catherine’s Foreign Policy • wars added some 200,000 square miles mostly at the expense of the Ottoman Empire and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth • 1768-1774-First Russo-Turkish War • 1770-the naval victory at Chesme is considered the Russian navy’s “birth” • 1787-1792-Second Russo-Turkish War • begun by Turkey, proved catastrophic for them, legitimized Russia’s hold on the Crimea • Admiral John Paul Jones wins a victory in the Liman • three partitions of Poland; 1772, 1793, 1795 • Russia gains the lion’s share. Prussia and Austria devour the rest
    • 173. Winnings of the First Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774 site of the Potëmkin villages
    • 174. DNEPR LIMAN site of the principal battles of the Second Russo- Turkish War Winnings of the First Russo-Turkish War, 1768-1774 site of the Potëmkin villages
    • 175. The Chesme Column at Tsarskoe Celo constructed 1774-1778 by Rinaldi at the Catherine Palace
    • 176. James Gillray’s 1791 caricature of Britain’s effort to mediate in the Second Russo-Turkish War, 1787-1792
    • 177. 1st 3rd 1772 1795 2nd 1793
    • 178. Catherine becomes reactionary
    • 179. Catherine becomes reactionary • 1762-1769-more than 50 peasant revolts occurred protesting the nobles’ harsh treatment of their serfs
    • 180. Catherine becomes reactionary • 1762-1769-more than 50 peasant revolts occurred protesting the nobles’ harsh treatment of their serfs • 1773-1775-these culminated in the rebellion of cossack Emilyan Pugachev
    • 181. Catherine becomes reactionary • 1762-1769-more than 50 peasant revolts occurred protesting the nobles’ harsh treatment of their serfs • 1773-1775-these culminated in the rebellion of cossack Emilyan Pugachev • he claimed to be the murdered tsar Peter iii. He recruited Tatars and Bashkirs as well as his fellow cossacks
    • 182. Catherine becomes reactionary • 1762-1769-more than 50 peasant revolts occurred protesting the nobles’ harsh treatment of their serfs • 1773-1775-these culminated in the rebellion of cossack Emilyan Pugachev • he claimed to be the murdered tsar Peter iii. He recruited Tatars and Bashkirs as well as his fellow cossacks • finally defeated, he was brought in a cage to Moscow for execution
    • 183. Catherine becomes reactionary • 1762-1769-more than 50 peasant revolts occurred protesting the nobles’ harsh treatment of their serfs • 1773-1775-these culminated in the rebellion of cossack Emilyan Pugachev • he claimed to be the murdered tsar Peter iii. He recruited Tatars and Bashkirs as well as his fellow cossacks • finally defeated, he was brought in a cage to Moscow for execution • the American and especially the French Revolutions brought Catherine to reconsider her earlier endorsement of Enlightenment thought
    • 184. Catherine becomes reactionary • 1762-1769-more than 50 peasant revolts occurred protesting the nobles’ harsh treatment of their serfs • 1773-1775-these culminated in the rebellion of cossack Emilyan Pugachev • he claimed to be the murdered tsar Peter iii. He recruited Tatars and Bashkirs as well as his fellow cossacks • finally defeated, he was brought in a cage to Moscow for execution • the American and especially the French Revolutions brought Catherine to reconsider her earlier endorsement of Enlightenment thought • When Alexander Radishchev published his Journey %om Saint Petersburg to Moscow in 1790 (one year after the start of the French Revolution) and warned of uprisings because of the deplorable social conditions of the peasants held as serfs, Catherine exiled him to Siberia.
    • 185. Vasily Perov. Pugachev's Judgement. 1875. Oil on canvas, 150x238 cm. The History Museum, Moscow, Russia
    • 186. Catherine’s personal life
    • 187. Catherine’s personal life
    • 188. Catherine’s personal life
    • 189. Concluding Observations
    • 190. Concluding Observations During her reign, Catherine II had successfully asserted Russia’s position as one of the five great powers of Europe. She had added to Russia a broad belt of rich territory, from the Baltic to the Black Sea, the western boundary of which lay in the heart of Central Europe. Together the newly acquired regions brought Russia much wealth, new centers of domestic and foreign commerce, and new taxpayers and soldiers. They brought also the disquieting promise of increased Russian involvement in European diplomatic complexities. Harcave, Russia, p. 160