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Austria-Hungary, the Balkans & Turkey, 1871-1914
 

Austria-Hungary, the Balkans & Turkey, 1871-1914

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Central and South Eastern Europe on the eve of World War I.

Central and South Eastern Europe on the eve of World War I.

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    Austria-Hungary, the Balkans & Turkey, 1871-1914 Austria-Hungary, the Balkans & Turkey, 1871-1914 Presentation Transcript

    • Nineteenth Century Europe part 2 1871-1914 session 6 AUSTRIA-HUNGARY, THE BALKANS & TURKEY Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Dual Monarchy KAKANIA POLITICS AND ECONOMICS IN AUSTRIA THE KINGDOM OF HUNGARY SPLENDOR AND DECLINE AUSTRIA AND THE BALKANS The States of Southeastern Europe RUMANIA, BULGARIA, SERBIA, GREECE TURKEY AND THE BALKANS Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Kakania Kakanien (from K.u.K and/or …) Robert Musil’s (1880-1942) ironic name for Austria-Hungary. His Man without Qualities (1930 ff), nominated for a Nobel, describes the twilight of the Habsburg Empire. When disastrous things happened, and they frequently did, people said: Es ist passiert, “It just sort of happened” … It was a peculiar phrase, not known in this sense to the Germans, and with no equivalent in other languages, the very breath of it transforming facts and the bludgeonings of fate into something light as eiderdown, as thought itself. Yes, Musil concludes, Kakania was a home for people with a genius for taking things lightly, “and that, probably, was the ruin of it.” Craig, p. 362 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • K.u.K had many serious problems chief among them was a ruling class, too many of whom, confronted them with: levity or lack of energy or failure of imagination examples: Austrian staff officer & Kriegspiel, 1854 Berchtold in August, 1914 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Kaiser Himself “an almost touching weakness for untalented people” Franz Josef 1830-1848-1916 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Kaiser Himself “an almost touching weakness for untalented people” “he lacked strong convictions and the resolution to see policy carried out” Franz Josef 1830-1848-1916 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Kaiser Himself “an almost touching weakness for untalented people” “he lacked strong convictions and the resolution to see policy carried out” “Never before in world history had a stronger Un-personality ever placed his stamp on all things and institutions… Our destiny was decided by a Daemon of mediocrity.” Franz Josef 1830-1848-1916 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Kaiser Himself “an almost touching weakness for untalented people” “he lacked strong convictions and the resolution to see policy carried out” “Never before in world history had a stronger Un-personality ever placed his stamp on all things and institutions… Our destiny was decided by a Daemon of mediocrity.” “It was easier to believe that he was dead [after 1916] than that he had ever really lived.” Franz Josef 1830-1848-1916 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Politics and Economics in Austria v. Taaffe, v Schörnerer, Lueger, Herzl, Hohenwart, Potocki, v. Auersberg, Badeni, v. Beust, Adler Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Politics and Economics in Austria v. Taaffe, v Schörnerer, Lueger, Herzl, Hohenwart, Potocki, v. Auersberg, Badeni, v. Beust, Adler Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Politics and Economics in Austria v. Taaffe, v Schörnerer, Lueger, Herzl, Hohenwart, Potocki, v. Auersberg, Badeni, v. Beust, Adler Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Politics and Economics in Austria v. Taaffe, v Schörnerer, Lueger, Herzl, Hohenwart, Potocki, v. Auersberg, Badeni, v. Beust, Adler Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Politics and Economics in Austria v. Taaffe, v Schörnerer, Lueger, Herzl, Hohenwart, Potocki, v. Auersberg, Badeni, v. Beust, Adler Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Politics and Economics in Austria v. Taaffe, v Schörnerer, Lueger, Herzl, Hohenwart, Potocki, v. Auersberg, Badeni, v. Beust, Adler Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Politics and Economics in Austria v. Taaffe, v Schörnerer, Lueger, Herzl, Hohenwart, Potocki, v. Auersberg, Badeni, v. Beust, Adler Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Politics and Economics in Austria v. Taaffe, v Schörnerer, Lueger, Herzl, Hohenwart, Potocki, v. Auersberg, Badeni, v. Beust, Adler Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Politics and Economics in Austria v. Taaffe, v Schörnerer, Lueger, Herzl, Hohenwart, Potocki, v. Auersberg, Badeni, v. Beust, Adler Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Politics and Economics in Austria v. Taaffe, v Schörnerer, Lueger, Herzl, Hohenwart, Potocki, v. Auersberg, Badeni, v. Beust, Adler Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Politics and Economics in Austria v. Taaffe, v Schörnerer, Lueger, Herzl, Hohenwart, Potocki, v. Auersberg, Badeni, v. Beust, Adler Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Politics and Economics in Austria v. Taaffe, v Schörnerer, Lueger, Herzl, Hohenwart, Potocki, v. Auersberg, Badeni, v. Beust, Adler Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Habsburg Constitution, post 1867 three levels: intergovernmental, Austrian, & Hungarian intergovernmental bodies for foreign affairs, defense, & imperial finance--supervision by Austrian & Hungarian delegates Austria: 17 provinces, each had individual Diets and sent delegates to an imperial parliament (Reichsrat) in Vienna Parliament: like Britain’s, two chambers (Herrenhaus) and (Abgeordnetenhaus) with “sort of” ministerial responsibility for the first decade, Liberals dominated the Parliament Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Austrian Provinces (1-15) Leitha River (160 km) CISLEITHANIA = Latin for on the near side of the Leitha River, i.e., the Austrian lands Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Liberals Fall from Power after many successful reforms they began to criticize the results of the Congress of Berlin (1878), specifically Austria’s administration of Bosnia & Herzegovina (technically, still Turkish) they believed it was an unwise extension of Austrian responsibility the emperor turned to the Conservatives and the Slavs specifically to a childhood friend, Eduard Franz Josef von Taaffe his family were Irish Catholic nobles, “Wild Geese,” who came to fight on the continent during the 17th century wars of religion Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Master of the Iron Ring this skillful politician of both Austrian and Irish nobility was the emperor’s chief minister, 1879-1893 he hid his great political gifts “behind a veil of cynicism and levity” his coalition consisted of clericals, German Conservatives, Slavs, Poles, and Czechs Eduard Taaffe, 1833-1895 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • NATIONALITIES language percent A quick review German 24 from last fall Magyar 20 Czech 13 Polish 10 Ruthenian 8 Romanian 6 Nationalities in RED are Slavs = 48% Croat 5 Croats are a special Slovak 4 case Serb 4 Slovenian 3 Italian 2 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The luogo di traffico (place for making deals) so an Italian delegate from South Tyrol described Taaffe’s Iron Ring the Irish-Austrian Taaffe supervised the crafting of laws containing favors for the numerous national minorities of Cisleithania: in Galicia, the Poles were given privileges over the Ruthenians in Carniola, the Slovenes could oppress other nationalities in Bohemia, the Czechs got: a new electoral law that made them masters of the Bohemian Diet, and more seats in the imperial parliament (Reichsrat) the University of Prague was divided into German and Czech universities Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Confusion after v. Taaffe (post 1893) the Liberals tried for a comeback, but the Long Depression weakened their appeal Conservative governments tried to weaken the nationalities parties by broadening the franchise (allowing more, that is, less wealthy men to vote) thus the “Social Question” was supposed to crowd out the “Nationalities Question” this culminated in 1907 with universal manhood suffrage in Austria result--the rise of two parties which dominated Austrian politics until 1938 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • “Handsome Karl” & Christian Socialism 1893-founded the Christian Social Party, same name and anti-Semitic base as Stoecker’s German party 1897-1910-popular and successful reform mayor of Vienna; services, public housing fought Victor Adler’s SD Party for mass support role model for two Viennese “pols,” greater than himself: Theodore Herzl--Zionism, 1895 Adolf Hitler--NSDAP, 1920 Karl Lueger 1844-1897-1910 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Kristlichsocial Partei The red Jewish SD Party is strangling the Habsburg eagle: VOTE CHRISTIAN SOCIAL and the GERMAN CHRISTIAN SAVES AUSTRIA Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Honored in Vienna to this Day K.K. HOFBURGTHEATER 1. Dr. Karl Lueger Ring Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Czechs, or “One Deal too Many” as the third most numerous (13%) (after Germans (24%) and Magyars (20%), Czechs were the leaders of the Pan-Slav (48%) movement as early as 1865 their leader, Franz Palacky, had warned that Dualism would provoke the demand for a three way deal for them Czech nationalists gained a major concession from Taaffe’s successor, Badeni: 5 April 1897--”Czech and German shall be the languages throughout the [civil] service throughout Bohemia” v. Schörnerer’s German National Party, discussed next, unleashed violent demonstrations on the streets and in the Reichsrat when Franz-Josef withdrew the ordinance and sacked Badeni that November, it was the Czechs’ turn to riot Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Georg Ritter von Schörnerer (1842-1921) 1873- originally a liberal, elected to the Reichsrat 1879- becomes more nationalist, founds the Pan-German Party 1882- with Jewish politician, Victor Adler & others, the Linz Program: “Not liberal, not clerical, but national” 1888-attacked a Jewish newspaper, jailed (see left) 1897- led the protest against Badeni, wildly popular 1900- Los von Rom Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Retreat from Parliamentary Government The introduction of universal manhood suffrage [1907] did not check the agitation of the nationality groups in parliament, which continued to be paralyzed periodically by their demonstrations and their tendency to indulge in orgies of fisticuffs and chair-breaking. Parliament’s persistent failure to take positive action on any issue forced the government…to resort to rule by emergency powers. Craig, p. 368 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Kingdom of Hungary Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Magyar Constitution, 1867-1918 Hungary possessed a two-chambered parliament like the Austrian Reichsrat the upper, the House of Magnates, and the lower, the House of Deputies, which controlled the ministers and held the initiative in legislation the Deputies was in no sense a popular body, only some 25% of males had the vote Magyars, less than a majority, were still the dominant group everywhere but Croatia other nationalities were the subject of relentless Magyarization Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Liberal Tisza Dynasty 1867-Kalman Tisza was elected to the Magyar lower house he was part of the negotiations that produced the Ausgleich 1875-founded the Liberal Party & began his long premiership he introduced many reforms: reduced Austrian influence in the upper house overhauled the bureaucracy and the tax system 1830-1875-1890-1902 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Son and Heir, Istvan (Steven) Tisza 1880s-during postgraduate study at Oxford he became fluent in English 1903-he became prime minister following his father’s death in 1902 when he inherited the Liberal machine 1905-Ferenc (Francis) Kossuth’s Independence Party won the election and the premiership Tisza renamed the Liberal Party the National Party of Work. they stood for Magyarization, continued union with Austria, & “the generous use of corruption and police intimidation” an aggressive man, he fought many duels. Bismarck was his role model, he was powerful “behind the scenes” during his last premiership, 1913-1917, Tisza opposed going to war with Serbia--too many Slavs already! 1861-1918 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • End of the Independence Movement 1905-after his electoral victory, Kossuth made several demands: Magyar control of tariff and foreign policies Hungarian regiments of the Imperial Army would be commanded in the Magyar language Franz Josef countered with an emergency government and the threat of universal suffrage in Hungary which would have allowed the subject nationalities to overturn Magyar power 1906-Kossuth’s coalition agreed to drop the army demand and the emperor dropped the threat of universal suffrage in Hungary (it was enacted in Austria, 1907) Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • 1906-a group of scholars around Archduke Franz Ferdinand propose Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Obsession with the Nationality Question, 1910 Color clarification: Rumanians Ruthenians (Ukrainians) Huzuls Jews Germans Poles Hungarians Lippovanians (Russian “Old Believers”) Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Woodrow Wilson’s Nationality Principle, 1920 GALICIA to Czechoslovakia SIEBENBÜRGEN & BUKOVINA to Romania CROATIA & SLAVONIA to Jugoslavia VOIVODINA to Jugoslavia Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Splendor and Decline Ceiling by Martino Altamonte, 1716 Lower Belvedere Palace, Vienna Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • “Handsome Karl” at a soirée, 1908 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Schloß Belvedere Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Schloß Belvedere Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Schloß Belvedere Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Schloß Belvedere Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Wiener Universität-- Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Wiener Universität-- Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Wiener Universität-- Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Wiener Staatsoper-1869-1944, 1955-present Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Wiener Staatsoper-1869-1944, 1955-present Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Wiener Staatsoper-1869-1944, 1955-present Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Famous Musicians MAHLER BARTOK R. STRAUSS BRUCKNER BRAHMS Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Famous Musicians MAHLER BARTOK R. STRAUSS BRUCKNER BRAHMS Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Famous Musicians MAHLER BARTOK R. STRAUSS BRUCKNER BRAHMS Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Famous Musicians MAHLER BARTOK R. STRAUSS BRUCKNER BRAHMS Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Famous Musicians MAHLER BARTOK R. STRAUSS BRUCKNER BRAHMS Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • die Sezession-1897 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • die Sezession-1897 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • die Sezession-1897 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • die Sezession-1897 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • die Sezession-1897 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • die Sezession-1897 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • die Sezession-1897 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • die Sezession-1897 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Gustav Klimt 1897-co-founder of the Vienna Secession, remained active there until 1908 his “Golden Period,” critical and financial success, 1898-1908 highly erotic, fathered at least 14 children not surprisingly, the object of a great revival in the 1960s 1862-1918 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Klimt Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Klimt Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Klimt Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Klimt Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Klimt Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Klimt Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Klimt Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Klimt Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Klimt Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Klimt Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Klimt Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Egon Schiele 1890-1918 Klimt’s protégé Photograph by Anton Josef Tr!ka Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Schiele Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Schiele Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Schiele Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Schiele Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Schiele Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Schiele Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Alfons Mucha Moravian commercial artist studied in Brünn (Brno), Munich & Paris 1894-produced a poster for Sarah Bernhardt which led to a six-year contract and international fame produced murals, advertising art for commercial products in the “Mucha style” key figure in Art Noveau 1860-1939 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Mucha Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Mucha Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Mucha Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Mucha Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Mucha Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Mucha Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Mucha Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Oskar Kokoshka enfant terrible of the Vienna art world in the first decade of the 20th century 1912-1914-tempestuous affair with Gustav Mahler’s widow, Alma. She dumped him December, 1914-drafted, sold “Bride of the Wind,” 1913, to buy his cavalry mount 1909 29 August 1915-seriously wounded on the Russian Front, not mentally fit for further service had a Munich dollmaker produce a 1915 life sized Anna puppet for consolation Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Kokoschka Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Kokoschka Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Kokoschka Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Kokoschka Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Kokoschka Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Kokoschka Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Kokoschka Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Kokoschka Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Kokoschka Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Kokoschka Gallery Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Sigmund Freud 1856-1939 Viennese Neurologist & Psychotherapist Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Freud was the first to emphasize the significance of unconscious processes in normal and neurotic behavior and was the founder of psychoanalysis as both a theory of personality and a therapeutic practice. He proposed the existence of an unconscious element in the mind that influences consciousness and of conflicts in it between various sets of forces. His theory of the sexual origin of neuroses aroused great controversy. Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • the Imperial Family Coronation FOR KING AND QUEEN of HUNGARY of Emperor Ferenc Joszef (Franz Joseph) and Empress Erzsebet (Elisabeth) of Austria, on June 8th, 1867, in Buda, Capital of Hungary Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Elizabeth of Bavaria (1837-1854-1898) promptly bore Franz Josef three children: Archduchess Sophie of Austria (1855-1857) Archduchess Giesela of Austria (1856-1932) Crown Prince Rudolph (1858-1889) 1860-left Vienna after developing a psychosomatic lung disease both discretely took lovers, she travelled restlessly throughout Europe Photograph, 1867 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Mayerling, 1889 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Mayerling, 1889 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Mayerling, 1889 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Mayerling, 1889 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Sorrows of Franz Josef Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Sorrows of Franz Josef Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Sorrows of Franz Josef 1898 -- Anarchist Luigi Lucheni stabs Elizabeth to death with a sharpened file by Lake Geneva Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria oldest son of Archduke Karl, younger brother of Franz Josef and Maximilian became heir presumptive after Mayerling, 1889 estimated that he shot more than 5,000 deer married “beneath his station”Countess Sophie Chotek, to the great distress of the kaiser conscientious, not competent 1863-1875-28 June 1914 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Oberst Redl born to a humble family in Lemberg, Galicia rose through brilliance, against odds, to head Austria’s military counter-intelligence introduced innovative techniques and advanced technology 1901-the Russians discovered his homosexuality and used it to “turn” him he gave away the plans for invading Serbia, which the Russians passed on to their client, perhaps costing the lives of half a million of Colonel Alfred Redl his countrymen 1864-1913 exposed, he committed suicide before he could be interrogated Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Austria and the Balkans “Principals” from one of the innumerable conferences on the “Eastern Question” Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • All the internal problems of Austria-Hungary were complicated by the relations of the empire with the lesser states of southeastern Europe, with the Turkish Empire, which still had nominal rights of suzerainty in some of those states, and with imperial Russia. Craig, p. 373 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Economic & Strategic Interests-1 absolute dependence on the Danube as a trade route therefore vital interest in the politics of Servia, Bulgaria, and Roumania Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Economic & Strategic Interests-2 ISTRIA Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Economic & Strategic Interests-2 ISTRIA ISTRIA the empire’s access to the sea depended on its hold on Istria with its three important ports: Trieste, Fiume, & Pola and the Dalmatian coast with its ancient port of Ragusa these would be the objectives of Serb expansionism they were strategically important if irredentist Italy tried to take South Tyrol DALMATIA Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Austro-Hungarian dreadnoughts at the Istrian harbor of Pola Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The “Trialist” Solution to the Slav Problem until 1903 relations with Serbia were good some suggested creating a “Yugoslavia” ( yugo = south) within the empire Serbia would join Bosnia, Herzegovina, Croatia, Slavonia, Istria & Dalmatia the Yugoslav Kingdom Yugoslavia would share equal status with Hungary and Austria Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Outcome of the “Trialist” proposal to no one’s surprise the Magyars strenuously opposed the plan even without that stumbling block, a change occurred in 1903 which set Austrian-Serb relations on a more ominous course now we will survey the developments in each of the states which composed the “powder keg”, the“tinderbox” (a watertight container filled with easily ignited material for starting fires) or “cockpit”(arena for cock fights, popular gamblers’ blood sport) of Europe--three popular journalistic tags for the Balkans Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The States of Southeastern Europe Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • RUMANIA Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Romania, 1859-1878 Bessarabia Dobruja Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Alexander Joan Cuza 1859-Moldavian politician who became Domnitor of both Wallachia and Moldavia after the Crimean War the Great Powers recognized Turkey, “the sick man,” as nominal suzerain 1862-union as Romania declared, series of reforms begun 1866-the army, in the name of the “Monstrous Coalition” expel him 1820-1859-1866-1873 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Cuza’s Reform Program, 1862-1866 first, land reform: “secularizing’ monastic holdings (>25% of Romania’s farmland), hitherto untaxed fought Conservatives over feudal dues (unpaid peasant labor for the local lord), with less success imposed, by plebiscite (682,621 to 1,307), a constitution with universal suffrage and emergency rule powers 1863-with these new powers, gave peasants title to the lands they worked with the lords retaining 1/3rd compulsory free primary education adopted civil and criminal laws based on the Code Napoleon Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • His Ouster he failed in his attempt to create an alliance of liberal landowners and prosperous peasants just as in Russia, after liberation of the serfs, there was not enough land to satisfy both parties as his support from the Liberals declined, peasant revolts spread economic distress and dissatisfaction with his government a scandal over his mistress, Marie Obrenovi!, triggered a military coup he spent the rest of his life traveling Europe with his family and mistress! Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Prince Karl Eitel Friedrich Zephyrinus Ludwig of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen originally Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmarinen, he fought in the 2nd Schleswig (Danish) War, 1864, at Düppel this was useful to him at the siege of Plevna in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 1866-invited to be Domnitor (prince) of Romania after the coup against Alexander Cuza 1881-crowned King Carol I began the dynasty which would rule until the Soviet-backed communist regime in 1945 1839-1866-1881-1914 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Carol I’s Reign 1866-a liberal constitution with ministerial responsibility and a three class voting system was adopted 1878-The Congress of Berlin recognized Romanian independence from Turkey the economy modernized and grew. Oil fields at Ploesti became Europe’s most important. Railroads: 1866-0 mi., 1914-2,500 mi. peasant unrest--> major uprisings in 1888 & 1907, the latter requiring 140,000 troops to put down much of Romania’s wealth went for a lavish military budget and Balkan wars. Irredentism. Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • BULGARIA THE UNION OF JUSTICE AND POWER Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Because its people had been compelled to free themselves from the rule of the Ottoman empire and, then, almost immediately, to resist being … a mere satellite of Russia, Bulgaria’s political history had been a stormy one. The critical events of the years 1885-1888 [the Bulgarian Crisis, jbp], which saw the rapid growth of anti-Russian feeling in Bulgaria, as well as Prince Alexander of Battenberg’s acquisition of Eastern Roumelia, his military victory over the Serbs, and his deposition by a Russian coup de main, came close to [provoking] a major European war…. Craig, p. 375 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Bulgarian Bismarck innkeeper’s son, educated in Russia 1879-member of the “Founding Assembly,” became president of the Sobranie (assembly) 1887-1894-prime minister, he arranged the replacement for Prince Alexander using authoritarian tactics, he dragged Bulgaria towards modernity he tried to steer a middle course between Russia and Austria 1895-attacked and mortally wounded by his political enemies in Sofia Stefan Stambulov Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Ferdinand I 1861-1887-1908-1918-1948 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Prince Ferdinand Maximilian Karl Leopold Maria of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha born in Vienna, his mother a daughter of Louis Philippe I of the French 1887-became knjaz (prince) later, 1908, tsar a bisexual, his first cousin Queen Victoria considered him “too delicate” for the position Prime Minister Stamboulov dominated the early years of his reign gravitated towards Austria & Germany Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • SERBIA Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • 1878 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Milan Obrenovi" IV his mother was the Marija Obrenovi! who became Cuza’s mistress (1864) born in exile while the rival Kara"or"evi! family ruled 1860-returned as crown prince 1868-his father’s assassination made him prince at age 14 1872-”of age,”began rule in his own right 1878-induced Turkey to recognize the full independence of Serbia 1882-assumed the higher dignity of king 1854-1868-1882-1889-1902 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Reign of King Milan I after an auspicious beginning as prince, his royal career was “characterized by domestic disaffection, administrative incompetence, and financial mismanagement” his personal life was marked by absence from the capital in pursuit of Viennese vice, notoriously, an affair with Jennie Jerome (the Paris Hilton of her day--later, who’s mom?) 1885-to distract from these issues, and after an attempt on his life, he launched the ill-advised war with Bulgaria 1889-despite the inglorious defeat, he put off abdication for another four years Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • #$%&'()*(+ ,-+%)./01 I at his father’s abdication, he became king under his mother’s regency 1893-aged 17, he staged his first coup, putting aside the regency factionalism increased as he became more autocratic 1900-he insisted on marrying one of his mother’s ladies in waiting this was highly unpopular as she was incapable of bearing children Alexander Obrenovi" 1876-1889-1903 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Things Turn Ugly March, 1903-in another coup Alexandr suspended the constitution for a half hour and packed the senate with loyalists this was believed to be a first step towards naming an unpopular successor the army, led by Col. “Apis,” organized the murder of the royal couple, mutilated their bodies, and threw them from the palace windows in Belgrade Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • 2%3(+ I 4(+(5.+5%/01 exiled during the Obrenovi! years, French education, fought against Germany, 1870-1871 married a Montenegrin princess, returned after the 1903 coup attempted to create a western liberal democracy devoted his attention to improving economic and social conditions retired due to ill health in favor of his son, Prince Alexander Peter I Kara6or6evi" 1844-1903-1918-1921 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Austria becomes the enemy As his eldest son, Prince George was King Peter's presumed successor. This changed in 1909, when he kicked a servant to death in a fit of rage, after which the Crown Prince was forced to renounce his claim to the throne in favour of his brother Alexander. Crown Prince George 1887-1972 Alexander Karageorgevich 1888-1921-1929-1934 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Austria becomes the enemy As his eldest son, Prince George was King Peter's presumed successor. This changed in 1909, when he kicked a servant to death in a fit of rage, after which the Crown Prince was forced to renounce his claim to the throne in favour of his brother Alexander. 1910-recalled from education in St Petersburg, Alexander became heir apparent in Belgrade an able and intelligent young man, he was an ardent nationalist 1912-1913-as commander of the First Serbian Army, won three battles in the First and Second Balkan Wars won the struggle with Col. Dragutin Dimitreivich, aka “Apis,” over the administration of Macedonia. As a result King Peter made him regent Alexanderʼs exact complicity in the Serb nationalist movements is unclear. He did see Serbia as the Piedmont-Sardinia of Yugoslav unity and emancipation from Austrian domination Alexander Karageorgevich 1888-1921-1929-1934 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • 7+)( +8&(, Crnaruka (The Black Hand) its official motto: "#$%&'$'$ &(& )*+, (unification or death) 10 June 1910-foundation in Serbia Col. “Apis,” leader of the 1903 coup, convinced fellow officers that the previous Pan Slav secret society, Narodna Obrana, was too tame, too political he preferred assassination, the “propaganda of the deed,” to achieve their objectives 1911-after an agent failed to get Franz Josef, the target was shifted to his heir, Franz Ferdinand Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Article 34. The Organization's official seal is thus composed: In the centre of the seal there is a powerful arm holding in its hand an unfurled flag on which - as a coat of arms - there is a skull with crossed bones; by the side of the flag, a knife, a bomb and a phial of poison. Around, in a circle, there is the following inscription, reading from left to right: "Unification or Death", and in the base: "The Supreme Central Directorate". Crnaruka Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • GREECE Painting of the Greek parliament, 1880s Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The southernmost of the Balkan countries...also presented a picture of internal confusion, discontent, and growing ambition for expansion….Politicians...failed utterly to deal with the serious problems of the country: economic backwardness, financial instability, domestic disorder and brigandage. Craig, pp. 377-378 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • George I (1845-1863-1913) 1863-Danish prince, only 17 when nominated by the Great Powers, to replace the deposed Otto 1864-strove to rationalize the Greek assembly, achieved the first universal male suffrage in Europe sought to direct the Nationalist Party in cautious but successful expansion 1913-two weeks short of the 50th anniversary of his reign, during the First Balkan War, he was assassinated Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Megali Idea (Greater Hellas) Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Greek Expansion (1863-1913) 1863-the Ionian Islands (off the west coast of Greece) had been British since 1815. They were a coronation present to George 1878 & 1881-Thessaly came to Greece in two stages 1913-Macedonia & Epirus- fruits of the Balkan Wars Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Begun: 1882 Completed: 1893 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Rebirth of the Olympics, 1896 Panathinikaio Stadium constructed in 1896 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Turks Humiliate Greece over Crete, 1897 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • TURKEY AND THE BALKANS Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The Siege of Vienna, 1683 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Turkey, the Ottoman Empire, had once been a great multinational Islamic state. During the nineteenth century internal problems of an even earlier origin forced it to continue giving up territories. First Serbia and Montenegro in the Napoleonic era, then Greece, 1821-30; then Romania during the Crimean War, 1856-58; and so on. Tsar Nicholas I had coined the sobriquet, “the sick man.” Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Greece in 1903--Note Turkey’s Possessions Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Greece in 1903--Note Turkey’s Possessions Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The only question--How will the partition take place? Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Abdülhamid II “the Damned” the last sultan to rule with absolute power 1876-77-bowing to western pressure, he attempted to rule with a constitution 1877-as war with Russia loomed, the constitution was suspended 1878-Cyprus was “rented” to Britain 1882-Egypt and Sudan came under British control 1889-invited Kaiser Wilhelm II to Istanbul, sought German ties 1908-the Young Turk revolt 1842-1876-1909-1921 Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Then--signs of recovery! Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Then--signs of recovery! Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Then--signs of recovery! Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Then--signs of recovery! Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Then--signs of recovery! Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • Ismail Enver (Enver Pasha)(1881-1922) 1903, graduated from military academy, from a good family in Istanbul joined the secret society the Committee for Union and Progress (CUP) 1908-revolution broke out in Salonika and Enver became its leader, this led to the “Second Constitutional Period” 1909-he put down a countercoup “the 31 March incident” thereafter he was sent by the CUP as military attache to Berlin. He was instrumental in bringing German advisers to Turkey to modernize the army Wednesday, November 11, 2009
    • The victory of the Young Turks had effects as revolutionary as the Serbian upheaval of 1903. But the events it precipitated will be discussed appropriately in the context of Great Power politics in the decade before World War I. Craig, p. 380 That is, in our final class. JBP Wednesday, November 11, 2009